# CSEDU 2014 Abstracts

## Area 1 - Information Technologies Supporting Learning

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 8
Title:

### Wiki-mediated Collaborative Writing in Teacher Education - Assessing Three Years of Experiences and Influencing Factors

Authors:

Abstract: Wikis have been reported as tools that promote collaborative writing in educational settings. Examples of wikis in teacher education are group projects, glossary creation, teacher evaluation, and document review. However, in spite of studies that report on successful stories, the claim that wikis support collaborative writing has not yet been firmly confirmed in real educational settings. Most studies are limited to participants’ subjective perceptions, and do not take into account influencing factors, or the relationships between wikis and the learning environment. In this paper, students’ collaborative writing activities over a period of three years are investigated using a taxonomy of action categories and the wiki data log that tracks all students’ actions. The paper analyses the level of contribution of each member of student groups, the types of actions that the groups carried out on the wikis, and the timing of contribution. The article also discusses personal and contextual factors that may influence collaborative writing activities in teacher education, and recommendations for students as well.

Paper Nr: 10
Title:

### Overcoming Cultural Distance in Social OER Environments

Authors:

#### Henri Pirkkalainen, Jussi P. P. Jokinen, Jan M. Pawlowski and Thomas Richter

Abstract: Open educational resources (OERs) provide opportunities as enablers of societal development, but they also create new challenges. From the perspective of content providers and educational institutions, particularly, cultural and context-related challenges emerge. Even though barriers regarding large-scale adoption of OERs are widely discussed, empirical evidence for determining challenges in relation to particular contexts is still rare. Such context-specific barriers generally can jeopardize the acceptance of OERs and, in particular, social OER environments. We conducted a large-scale (N = 855) cross-European investigation in the school context to determine how teachers and learners perceive cultural distance as a barrier against the use of social OER environments. The findings indicate how nationality and age of the respondents are strong predictors of cultural distance barrier. The study concludes with identification of context-sensitive interventions for overcoming the related barriers. These consequences are vital for OER initiatives and educational institutions for aligning their efforts on OER.

Paper Nr: 18
Title:

### Adaptive Content Sequencing without Domain Information

Authors:

#### Carlotta Schatten and Lars Schmidt-Thieme

Abstract: In Intelligent Tutoring Systems, adaptive sequencers can take past student performances into account to select the next task which best fits the student’s learning needs. In order to do so, the system has to assess student skills and match them to the required skills and difficulties of available tasks. In this scenario two problems arise: (i) Tagging tasks with required skills and difficulties necessitate experts and thus is time-consuming, costly, and, especially for fine-grained skill levels, also potentially subjective. (ii) Learning adaptive sequenc- ing models requires online experiments with real students, that have to be diligently ethically monitored. In this paper we address these two problems. First, we show that Matrix Factorization, as performance predic- tion model, can be employed to uncover unknown skill requirements and difficulties of tasks. It thus enables sequencing without explicit domain knowledge, exploiting the Vygotski concept of Zone of Proximal Devel- opment. In simulation experiments, this approach compares favorably to common domain informed sequenc- ing strategies, making tagging tasks obsolete. Second, we propose a simulation model for synthetic learning processes, discuss its plausibility and show how it can be used to facilitate preliminary testing of sequencers before real students are involved.

Paper Nr: 40
Title:

### The Effect of Music on the Level of Mental Concentration and its Temporal Change

Authors:

#### Fumiya Mori, Fatemeh Azadi Naghsh and Taro Tezuka

Abstract: Concentration is one of the most important factor in determining the efficiency of learning. There has not been, however, much systematic research on controlling the level of concentration. We therefore examined the effect of an external factor, namely playing music, on the performance on a task that requires much attention. We compared three conditions: music that the subject likes, music that the subject is not familiar with, and silence. The result showed that listening to music that the subject likes do increase the performance level. Also, we discovered that there exist different temporal patterns in the change of performance. The result also indicated a relationship between the temporal pattern in concentration and the external factor.

Paper Nr: 60
Title:

### A Web-based System to Support Inquiry Learning - Towards Determining How Much Assistance Students Need

Authors:

#### Bruce M. McLaren, Michael Timms, Doug Weihnacht, Daniel Brenner, Kim Luttgen, Andrew Grillo-Hill and David H. Brown

Abstract: How much assistance should be provided to students as they learn with educational technology? Providing help allows students to proceed when struggling, yet can depress their motivation to learn independently. Assistance withholding encourages students to learn for themselves, yet can also lead to frustration. The web-based inquiry-learning program, \emph{Voyage to Galapagos (VTG)}, helps students follow’’ the steps of Darwin through a simulation of the Galapagos Island and his discovery of evolution. Students explore the islands, take pictures of animals, evaluate their characteristics and behavior, and use scientific methodology to discover evolution. A preliminary study with 48 middle school students examined three levels of assistance: (1) no support, (2) error flagging, text feedback on errors, and hints, and (3) pre-emptive hints with error flagging, error feedback, and hints. The results indicate that higher performing students gainfully use the program’s support more frequently than lower performing students, those who arguably have a greater need for it. We conjecture that this could be a product of the current \emph{VTG} program only supporting an early phase of the learning process and also that higher performers have better metacognition, particularly in knowing when (and when not) to ask for help. Lower performers may benefit at later phases of the program, which we will test in a future study.

Paper Nr: 64
Title:

### The Time Factor in MOOCS - Time-on-Task, Interaction Temporal Patterns, and Time Perspectives in a MOOC

Authors:

#### M. Romero and M. Usart

Abstract: MOOCs are a current trend in Higher Education; universities around the world offer open courses for lifelong and geographically distributed learners. Nevertheless, there is a high drop-out rate on these courses. The temporal aspects related to learner Temporal Perspectives (TP), self-regulation of learning, and temporal patterns could be related to drop-out rates and motivations for following a MOOC. This study aims to analyse student objective and subjective times in order to better understand their relationships with MOOC participation. The paper describes the case study methodology proposed to explore this relation: a pilot MOOC course on entrepreneurship (IE MOOC) with a total of 30 Catalan students who were active during the two-week course. The study examines the motivation and active participation of students in these learning methodologies, and practical issues on the schedule and temporal pace of MOOCs. Results show how student actions decrease as the MOOC progresses. Students connect more during weekdays and early and late evenings. They are mostly future-oriented, which is classically related to higher performance and self-regulation. This exploratory study shows how research on learners’ temporal patterns could help to advance in the understanding of MOOC students’ profile, in order to increase the currently low completion ratios.

Paper Nr: 88
Title:

### Efficiency of LSA and K-means in Predicting Students’ Academic Performance Based on Their Comments Data

Authors:

#### Shaymaa E. Sorour, Tsunenori Mine, Kazumasa Goda and Sachio Hirokawa

Abstract: Predicting students’ academic performance has long been an important research topic in many academic disciplines. The prediction will help the tutors identify the weak students and help them score better marks; these steps were taken to improve the performance of the students. The present study uses free style comments written by students after each lesson. These comments reflect their learning attitudes to the lesson, understanding of subjects, difficulties to learn, and learning activities in the classroom. (Goda and Mine, 2011) proposed PCN method to estimate students’ learning situations from their comments freely written by themselves. This paper uses C (Current) method from the PCN method. The C method only uses comments with C item that focuses on students’ understanding and achievements during the class period. The aims of this study are, by applying the method to the students’ comments, to clarify relationships between student’s behaviour and their success, and to develop a model of students’ performance predictors. To this end, we use Latent Semantic Analyses (LSA) and K-means clustering techniques. The results of this study reported a model of students’ academic performance predictors by analysing their comment data as variables of predictors.

Paper Nr: 96
Title:

### Evaluation of Concept Importance in Concept Maps Mined from Lecture Notes - Computer Vs Human

Authors:

#### Thushari Atapattu, Katrina Falkner and Nickolas Falkner

Abstract: Concept maps are commonly used tools for organising and representing knowledge in order to assist meaningful learning. Although the process of constructing concept maps improves learners’ cognitive structures, novice students typically need substantial assistance from experts. Alternatively, expert-constructed maps may be given to students, which increase the workload of academics. To overcome this issue, automated concept map extraction has been introduced. One of the key limitations is the lack of an evaluation framework to measure the quality of machine-extracted concept maps. At present, researchers in this area utilise human experts’ judgement or expert-constructed maps as the gold standard to measure the relevancy of extracted knowledge components. However, in the educational context, particularly in course materials, the majority of knowledge presented is relevant to the learner, resulting in a large amount of information that has to be organised. Therefore, this paper introduces a machine-based approach which studies the relative importance of knowledge components and organises them hierarchically. We compare machine-extracted maps with human judgment, based on expert knowledge and perception. This paper describes three ranking models to organise domain concepts. The results show that the auto-generated map positively correlates with human judgment (rs~1) for well-structured courses with rich grammar (well-fitted contents).

Paper Nr: 98
Title:

### Using iTextbook as an Alternate Frontend to Learning Management Systems

Authors:

#### Mahan Bagheri, Kok-Leong Ong and Jamie Mustard

Abstract: Learning management systems (LMS) have been a popular tool for delivery of learning content as well as the management of learners and courses. In recent years, the ubiquity of mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets has seen the increased popularity of using them to consume eBooks. While the LMS is popular among administrators, accessing content on mobile devices appear to be the preference of our learners. Furthermore, there are reports on a number of shortcomings with learners using the LMS, e.g., the experience of using LMSes on mobile devices falling short and learners are less engaged interacting with the LMS than with their mobile devices, etc. In this paper, we investigate the idea of using eBooks as an alternative frontend for learners to interact with the LMS. A proof of concept eBook was developed for a data management course to showcase how content on the LMS can be deployed via the eBook interface while connecting our learners to the LMS for learning management. We find that this approach delivers a rich and immersive experience to our learners, as they would expect from their devices. The outcomes also gave us food for thought regarding how LMSes may evolve in the future.

Paper Nr: 100
Title:

### An Exercise Assistant for Practical Networking Courses

Authors:

#### Jens Haag, Christian Witte, Stefan Karsch, Harald Vranken and Marko van Eekelen

Abstract: Supporting students with feedback and guidance while they work on networking exercises can be provided in on-campus universities by human course advisors. A shortcoming however is that these advisors are not continuously available for the students, especially when students are working on exercises independently from the university, e.g. at home using a virtual environment. In order to improve this learning situation we present our concept of an exercise assistant, which is able to provide feedback and guidance to the student while they are working on exercises. This exercise assistant is also able to verify solutions based on expert knowledge modelled using description logic.

Paper Nr: 103
Title:

### MOOCs for Universities and Learners - An Analysis of Motivating Factors

Authors:

#### Hugh Davis, Kate Dickens, Manuel Leon, María del Mar Sánchez-Vera and Su White

Abstract: Massively Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are a recent introduction to the palette of educational offerings yet in a short time they have become the subject of massive interest and hype. There are those that predict that these free courses are the first ripple in the coming wave of disruption that the web and on-line education will cause to traditional universities. However University investments in producing MOOCs are increasing exponentially and at the same time learners are enthusiastically registering in their tens of thousands for these courses. This paper describes some research into the motivations for universities to create MOOCs and the motivations of learners in registering and completing them. Our results show a spectrum of motivations for universities, and suggest a need for individual universities to be clear of where they sit in that spectrum. For students we see that motivations can vary significantly across cultures.

Paper Nr: 124
Title:

### Motivation for Learning - Adaptive Gamification for Web-based Learning Environments

Authors:

#### Baptiste Monterrat, Élise Lavoué and Sébastien George

Abstract: Many learning environments are deserted by the learners, even if they are effective in supporting learning. Gamification is becoming a popular way to motivate users and enhance their participation on web-based activities, by adding game elements to the learning environment. But it still pays little attention to the individual differences among learners’ preferences as players. This paper presents a generic and adaptive gamification system that can be plugged on various learning environments. This system can be automatically personalised, based on an analysis of the interaction traces. We first present the architecture of the proposed system to support the genericity of the game elements. Then, we describe the user model supporting the adaptivity of the game elements.

Paper Nr: 126
Title:

### Comparing Electronic Examination Methods for Assessing Engineering Students - The Case of Multiple-Choice Questions and Constructed Response Questions

Authors:

#### Dimos Triantis, Errikos Ventouras, Ioanna Leraki, Charalampos Stergiopoulos, Ilias Stavrakas and George Hloupis

Abstract: The aim of this work is the comparison of two well-known examination methods, the first consisted of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) and the second based on constructed-response questions (CRQs). During this research MCQ and CRQ tests were created for examining the undergraduate engineering module of “project management” and were given to a group of students. Computers and a special software package were used to support the process. During the first part the examinees had to answer a set of CRQs. Afterwards, they had to answer a set of MCQs. Both sets covered the same topics and had the same level of difficulty. The second method (MCQs) is more objective in terms of grading, though it may conceal an error in the final formulation of the score when a student gives an answer based on an instinctive feeling. To eliminate this problem a set of MCQs pairs was composed taking care that each question of the pair addressed the same topic in a way that the similarity would not be evident to a student who did not possess adequate knowledge. By applying a suitable scoring rule to the MCQs, very similar results are obtained when comparing these two examination methods.

Paper Nr: 144
Title:

### Synthesis of a Framework of Design Guidelines for m-Learning Environments - A Study in a Tertiary Education Context in South Africa

Authors:

#### Patricia Harpur and Ruth de Villiers

Abstract: Smartphones and tablets are ubiquitous in educational contexts, where students on-the-move expect access to learning material via a range of digital devices in a mobile and transparent manner, whether on or off campus. A successful m-learning experience can be facilitated by a mobile learning environment which is efficient and effective, and that satisfies the users’ versatile needs. An ad hoc design and development strategy that ignores design principles and guidelines, restricts the likelihood of successful m-learning experiences. This study was implemented in a tertiary education context and aimed to establish – from dual perspectives – a framework of design and development guidelines for m-learning environments. An initial set of themes and guidelines was synthesized from a comprehensive literature study. Secondly, the outcomes of a series of iterative evaluations of an m-learning application, Mobile Learning Research (m-LR) were used to generate new themes and guidelines. The quantitative and qualitative findings of heuristic evaluations by experts and questionnaire surveys administered to students, provided positive and negative feedback that was converted to a set of practical guidelines. Jointly, the initial theoretical guidelines and the subsequent empirical findings contributed to the synthesis of a comprehensive and cohesive set of design guidelines for m-learning environments.

Paper Nr: 146
Title:

### Looking for Usage Patterns in e-Learning Platforms - A Step Towards Adaptive Environments

Authors:

#### Kay Berkling and Christoph Thomas

Abstract: This paper studies the student view of functionality offered by a research-based design of a blended learning environment. The course in question is a Software Engineering course at the Cooperative State University students alternate between study and work in a quarter-based system and complete their study in three years. Based on findings over the last year, the course is currently using an e-learning platform (Coursesites by Blackboard) to enhance the on-site classroom experience. For this paper, students were asked to rate the usefulness of various functionalities offered by the platform. The results of the survey (77 students) are then used to explore patterns of usage. We use Grasha’s theoretical definition of six learner-stereotypes to derive an exaggerated usage pattern for each. While students do not match stereotypes, usage patterns become evident in the degree to which they match a combination of these pure definitions. According to groupings of common manifestations, the student body is highly fragmented in their preferred use of the platform. Maintaining Grasha’s nomenclature according to the most pronounced stereotype in a pattern, these students consisted of 38% “avoidant” user type, 27% “collaborative/participant”, and 10% “competitive” usage pattern. A single platform will not cover any mixed group of students and configurable views need to be considered in future.

Paper Nr: 230
Title:

### Making Classroom Response Systems More Social

Authors:

#### Jonas Vetterick, Bastian Schwennigcke, Andreas Langfeld, Clemens H. Cap and Wolfgang Sucharowski

Abstract: Classroom Response Systems (CRS) have been used in the last years to support teachers getting feedback from their students, especially in lessons with large audiences. Whereas CRS become more and more popular it is less known how students really use CRS for providing feedback and if social communication on CRS - and as a consequence in the classroom itself - can increase the benefit of CRS. Our research aims to open the discussion for more social communication on courses and lessons on CRS-usage by providing grounding of social communication with CRS. Moreover we outline conceptual and technical insights on an Social CRS implementation.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 23
Title:

### Mastery Profiling Through Entity Linking - To Support Project Team Formation in Higher Education

Authors:

#### Alexander M. Olieman and Frank Nack

Abstract: Computer-supported group formation enables educators to assign students to project teams. The focus in this paper is placed on gathering data about student attributes that are relevant in the context of specific course projects. We developed a method that automatically produces learner models from existing documents, by linking students to topics and estimating the levels of skill, knowledge, and interest that students have in these topics. The method is evaluated in an experiment with student participants, wherein its performance is measured on two levels. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to link students to topics with high precision, but suggest that estimating mastery levels is a more challenging task.

Paper Nr: 46
Title:

### Benefits and Barriers of Older Adults’ Digital Gameplay

Authors:

#### David Kaufman, Louise Sauvé, Lise Renaud and Emmanuel Duplàa

Abstract: Gerontology researchers have demonstrated that cognitive and social factors are keys that may sometimes outweigh physical conditions in determining life satisfaction. Social interaction and cognitive challenge are consistently identified as key elements to enhance older adults’ quality of life. Digital games can offer many potential benefits to older adults in a motivating and playful way, such as increased social interaction and maintenance of cognitive functioning. This paper describes some key results regarding socio-emotional and cognitive benefits as well as barriers reported from an early survey of 463 Canadian older adults who play digital games. The results demonstrate that a diverse group of older adults are actively playing digital games on a regular basis and that players report numerous socio-emotional and cognitive benefits and few difficulties. These results are promising and will be followed up with a variety of experimental studies.

Paper Nr: 47
Title:

### Through the Lens of Third Space Theory - Possibilities for Research Methodologies in Educational Technologies

Authors:

#### Kathy Jordan and Jennifer Elsden-Clifton

Abstract: Recently, there has been a call to reconceptualise the ways in which the field of education technology is researched and theorised (Graham, 2011). This article responds to this call, through discussing the potential of utilising Third Space theory as a research methodology in relation to the use, adoption and resistance to educational technologies. We begin by discussing the under-theorised and technocentric narrative that is dominant in current research approaches. We then outline the premise of Third Space theory and signal some of the possibilities this paradigm may offer to study the complexity of educational technology use in schools, professional learning and university contexts. The article then discusses findings from two different research projects which utilised Third Space to examine the ways in which beginning teachers and pre-service teachers navigated first and second space binaries and took up third spaces in order to destabilise and construct alternative knowledges and practices in relation to educational technology.

Paper Nr: 50
Title:

### Perceived Quality of Service and Content-based Bandwidth Management in e/m-Learning Smart Environments for the Cultural Heritage

Authors:

#### Cristina De Castro

Abstract: Smart Applications for the Cultural Heritage are playing an increasingly fundamental role in several fields, ranging from tourism to home entertainment. E/m-Learning systems are also involved, since advanced contents from the Cultural Heritage can be used in History of Art lessons. For instance, teachers can decide to make students enjoy HQ images or videos of masterpieces, accessed from the Internet. In this context, several problems must be considered, among which an appropriate fruition of such data. In this paper, two specific issues are taken into account: firstly, the so called Perceived Quality of Service (PQoS) in case of visual information; secondly, the case is discussed of high-bandwidth demanding contents accessed in real-time, such as HQ streaming videos. An early architecture is finally proposed for the dynamic management of bandwidth release on the basis of content size and duration.

Paper Nr: 58
Title:

### POMDP Framework for Building an Intelligent Tutoring System

Authors:

#### Fangju Wang

Abstract: When an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) teaches its human student on a turn-by-turn base, the teaching can be modeled by a Markov decision process (MDP), in which the agent chooses an action, for example, an answer to a student question, depending on the state it is in. Since states may not be completely observable in a teaching process, partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP) may offer a better technique for building ITSs. In our research, we create a POMDP framework for ITSs. In the framework, the agent chooses answers to student questions based on belief states when it is uncertain about the states. In this paper, we present the definition of physical states, reduction of a possibly exponential state space into a manageable size, modeling of a teaching strategy by agent policy, and application of the policy tree method for solving a POMDP. We also describe an experimental system, some initial experimental results, and result analysis.

Paper Nr: 83
Title:

### Course Recommendation from Social Data

Authors:

#### Hana Bydžovská and Lubomír Popelínský

Abstract: This paper focuses on recommendations of suitable courses for students. For a successful graduation, a student needs to obtain a minimum number of credits that depends on the field of study. Mandatory and selective courses are usually defined. Additionally, students can enrol in any optional course. Searching for interesting and achievable courses is time-consuming because it depends on individual specializations and interests. The aim of this research is to inspect different techniques how to recommend students such courses. This paper brings results of experiments with three approaches of predicting student success. The first one is based on mining study-related data and social network analysis. The second one explores only average grades of students. The last one aims at subgroup discovery for which prediction may be more reliable. Based on these findings we can recommend courses that students will pass with a high accuracy.

Paper Nr: 105
Title:

### Unlocking Serendipitous Learning by Means of Social Semantic Web

Authors:

#### Matteo Gaeta, Vincenzo Loia, Giuseppina Rita Mangione, Sergio Miranda and Francesco Orciuoli

Abstract: Serendipitous Learning is the learning process occurring when hidden connections or analogies are unexpectedly discovered, mostly during searching processes (for instance on the Web) which are typical for informal learning activities, especially accomplished in the workplace context. Moreover, serendipitous processes have high probability to occur in the contexts where learners have high autonomy, more chances to intervene in different activities and to interact with resources and people. This paper proposes an approach, based on the Social Semantic Web, to sustain and foster Serendipitous Learning. The proposed approach considers two connected ontology layers to model knowledge by using several Semantic Web vocabularies like SIOC, Dublin Core, SKOS, and so on. The SKOS role is particularly relevant because it allows connections among heterogeneous resources, also across multiple communities. The proposed approach models the above-mentioned connections at the conceptual level in order to facilitate learners to discover relevant links, concepts and to follow unexpected useful paths.

Paper Nr: 109
Title:

### Assistance for Learning Design Community - A Context-awareness and Pattern-based Approach

Authors:

#### Jean-Pierre Clayer, Claudine Piau-Toffolon and Christophe Choquet

Abstract: Designing learning is a complex task. Researchers and teachers have proposed many methodological issues to deal with it. Despite valuable technological advantages of machine-readable outcomes, most of the time these proposals are too complex to use, limiting the expressiveness, the sharing and reuse of learning scenario by the teachers’ community. Learning design processes support and guidance are often missing or insufficiently adaptable to the design context. Based on the needs of an association dealing with professional integration in charge with back-to-work programs named PARTAGE, we defined a design approach based on patterns and an editing tool to support the learning design activities to help the sharing of pedagogical scenarios inside the teachers’ community of PARTAGE. In this work, we focus our attention on the assistance abilities of the editing tool, depending of its design context awareness. We realize a pilot study on this approach according to a participatory design approach with trainers of the association and the research team in charge with the study.

Paper Nr: 114
Title:

### Information System Support for Quality Management Applying European Standards and Guidelines for Higher Education

Authors:

#### Ulf Schreier, Marius Reusch, Marc Hüffmeyer and David Belzer

Abstract: Higher education institutions strive for high quality of study courses and programs. One important tool is the introduction of a well-defined quality management system (QMS) supported by information systems. Editing service and review documents with office tools is not sufficient; a consistent and coherent management of all data is needed in an environment for authors. Data analysis, especially target-performance comparisons, and flexible generation of a variety of web and PDF documents are required tasks. This paper investigates the problems of simple file solutions in more detail and derives general requirements for better software support. Based on the requirements we propose an object-oriented framework that is able to handle core tasks around structured documents associated with organizational networks on top of a relational database. Document and organizational structures can be adapted to serve special needs of institutions. The system follows the European standards and guidelines for quality assurance.

Paper Nr: 127
Title:

### Piloting the eBig3 - A Triple-screen e-Learning Approach

Authors:

#### Atis Kapenieks, Bruno Zuga, Ieva Vitolina, Janis Kapenieks jr., Aleksandrs Gorbunovs, Merija Jirgensons, Janis Kapenieks sr., Ieva Kudina, Kristaps Kapenieks, Rudolfs Gulbis and Antra Balode

Abstract: In this report / study we present our recent progress on multi-screen e-learning development entitled eBig3. It is a new approach to technology supported education encouraging involvement in lifelong learning education. The approach effectively integrates the popular technologies of television, Internet, and mobile phones Here we present the results of ten course pilots offered in 2013 with the eBig3 media formats. The target group for the courses was the general public. And the three-pronged approach worked; the response showed a radical increase of registration for eBig3 courses compared to traditional registration for online courses. The course delivery formats were also more successful than blended learning formats. Our results showed that the new approach significantly increased the availability of eCourses and that users felt encouraged to stay the duration of the course. Moreover, the results indicated that the approach helped to close the gap between expectations and actual achievements for life-long-learning in general

Paper Nr: 150
Title:

### A Web-based Recommendation System for Engineering Education e-Learning Systems

Authors:

#### Thorsten Sommer, Ursula Bach, Anja Richert and Sabina Jeschke

Abstract: Today there is a flood of e-learning and e-learning related solutions for engineering education. It is at least a time consuming task for a teacher to find an e-learning system, which matches their requirements. To assist teachers with this information overload, a web-based recommendation system for related e-learning solutions is under development to support teachers in the field of engineering education to find a matching e-learning system within minutes. Because the e-learning market is subject of very fast changes, an agile engineering process is used to ensure the capability to react on these changes. To solve the challenges of this project, an own user-flow visual programming language and an algorithm are under development. A special software stack is chosen to accelerate the development. Instead of classical back-office software to administer and maintain the project, a web-based approach is used – even for a complex editor. The determining of the necessary catalog of related solutions within real-time'' is based on big data technologies, data mining methods and statistically text analysis.

Paper Nr: 152
Title:

### Learning Analytics as a Metacognitive Tool

Authors:

#### Eva Durall and Begoña Gros

Abstract: The use of learning analytics is entering in the field of research in education as a promising way to support learning. However, in many cases data are not transparent for the learner. In this regard, Educational institutions shouldn’t escape the need of making transparent for the learners how their personal data is being tracked and used in order to build inferences, as well as how its use is going to affect in their learning. In this contribution, we sustain that learning analytics offers opportunities to the students to reflect about learning and develop metacognitive skills. Student-centered analytics are highlighted as a useful approach for reframing learning analytics as a tool for supporting self-directed and self-regulated learning. The article also provides insights about the design of learning analytics and examples of experiences that challenge traditional implementations of learning analytics.

Paper Nr: 156
Title:

### A Study of the Acceptance of Facial Authentication in Distance Education in Different Spanish Speaking Countries

Authors:

#### Francisco D. Guillén-Gámez and Iván García-Magariño

Abstract: Accurate student identification has usually been considered important in the field of e-learning. Nowadays, there are several technologies to identify students and one of them is facial authentication (by means of biometrics), which allows user identities to be authenticated and verified based on their physiological features of their faces. There is actually a high demand of students wanting to gain admission to e-learning programs. Therefore, it is crucial for this kind of education to be as adequate and recognized as any other. For this purpose, it is necessary to verify the students’ identity when they are doing their homework using the Learning Management Systems (LMSs) such as Moodle platform. The main objective of this research is to analyze student perceptions about the development and implementation of facial authentication for e-learning within the Moodle platform in different Hispanic speaking countries (Spain, Dominican Republic and Colombia).

Paper Nr: 157
Title:

### Can an Electronic Health Record be Also an Achievable and Sustainable Vehicle for Clinical Staff Training? - The Importance of e-Learning in Medical Education Accomplished in a Real Operational Hospital Context

Authors:

#### Giorgio Lissoni, Giovanna Orlando, Stefania Merli, Andrea Mascheroni, Sergio Orlando, Paolo Vanelli, Claudio Savi, Carlo Antona, Giorgio Orsi and Giuliano Rizzardini

Abstract: Is it possible to manage severe health care associated infections in high risk departments based on online infectious diseases specialists consultations? And in which way can we take advantage of a clinical portal for the exchange of consultations on infectious patients as a real productive tool for e-learning and distance education? Let’s analyze how a major hospital in Milan responded to these questions by creating a portal that allows to manage the requests for infectious diseases consultations coming from different internal Departments, also giving the opportunity to young specializing doctors and experienced colleagues pertaining to other disciplines to evaluate for continuing medical education purposes the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches taken in the treatment of high-risk patients.

Paper Nr: 160
Title:

### An IEEE 1599 Framework to Play Music Intuitively - The Metapiano Case Study

Authors:

#### Luca Andrea Ludovico and Mario Malcangi

Abstract: This work aims at proposing an innovative way to approach music education. The idea is coupling the power of IEEE 1599, an XML-based international standard for music description, to the concept of music meta-instruments, namely new interfaces conceived for a simplified interaction with music contents. The proposed framework will provide a tool for music practice, powered by the multiple and heterogeneous contents contained in an IEEE 1599 document. A case study based on Jean Haury’s metapiano will be presented.

Paper Nr: 173
Title:

### Improving the Usability of Manga-on-a-Tablet for Collaborative Learning

Authors:

#### Ryouhei Egusa, Hideo Funaoi, Takafumi Daikoku, Ryosuke Inai, Fusako Kusunoki, Makiko Takenaka, Takao Terano and Shigenori Inagaki

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to develop a tablet PC version of a system that promotes the learning of knowledge and skills related to science teaching, and to investigate its effectiveness. The characteristic feature of this system is that it supports collaborative learning through discussions based on case method materials by a manga (comic strip). The system makes students read scenes of a children’s experiment displayed on the screen in the form of a manga. Touch operations on parts of interest enable students to point pins. Pins are color-coded in four colors. Students use the share functions to share awareness with each other and hold discussions to solve problems. We conducted an experimental evaluation with university students who intended to become elementary school teachers. The evaluation showed that the proposed system is effective in promoting discussion through the sharing of awareness.

Paper Nr: 181
Title:

Authors:

Abstract: Design education aims to develop in students the confidence to apply engineering fundamentals to the design of products and systems. This can only be achieved through intensive education and exposure to real-life engineering problems. One of the pressing issues in teaching engineering design is the resources- and labour-intensive nature of the subject. In practice, when developing a design, engineers are dependent on the situation at hand, so goals, problems and constraints are often ill defined and may change as the problem continues to unfold, providing no single ideal solution. Assumptions and estimations are required before each analysis step, and the results need to be evaluated against the desired functional output. Often, many analysis iterations are needed before a suitable solution is found. When teaching, providing the same scenario requires that tutorial guidance must adapt to the particular solution of each individual student. Conventional online tutorials help to combat some issues, but they are not able to track student progress in detail, nor are they able to provide customisable feedback for individual students. The aim of the research is to develop software tools that can address key problems in engineering design education and provide students with a more effective and enriching educational experience. This paper discusses a response to the issues in design education in engineering, in the form of adaptive tutorials, and puts forward the preliminary analysis of their success in helping students overcome the limitations of current design education.

Paper Nr: 189
Title:

### A Usability Evaluation of Graphical Modelling Languages for Authoring Adaptive 3D Virtual Learning Environments

Authors:

#### Ahmad Ewais and Olga De Troyer

Abstract: Adaptive three-dimensional (3D) Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) offer many advantages for learning, but developing them is still far from easy and is usually only done by specialized people. However, involving teachers in the development of learning material is essential. One way to support teachers in authoring adaptive 3D VLEs is the use of domain specific modelling languages as such languages provide a high level of abstraction. In addition, graphical languages are recommended for non-technical users. Although such an approach, i.e. graphical domain specific modelling languages, seems to be promising there is a need for evaluating this in practice. Usability and acceptance could become a problem because the authoring process could become relatively complex. This paper reports on a pilot evaluation performed to evaluate the use of graphical modelling languages for designing (i.e. authoring) adaptive 3D VLEs.

Paper Nr: 191
Title:

### Automated Generation of High School Geometric Questions Involving Implicit Construction

Authors:

#### Rahul Singhal, Martin Henz and Kevin McGee

Abstract: We describe a framework that combines a combinatorial approach and automated deduction to generate geometry problems which require implicit constructions for their solution. This is an extension of our framework developed for generating geometric questions without construction. Such a system would help teachers to quickly generate large numbers of questions involving implicit construction on a geometry topic. Students can explore, revise and master specific topics covered in classes and textbooks based on construction-based generated questions. This system may also help standardize tests such as GMAT and SAT. Our novel methodology uses (i) a combinatorial approach for generating geometric figures and objects for construction (ii) automated deduction to generate new questions and solutions. By combining these methods, we are able to generate questions involving finding or proving relationships between geometric objects based on a specification of the geometry objects, concepts, theorems and construction object to be covered by the questions. Experimental results show that a large number of questions can be generated in a short time.

Paper Nr: 195
Title:

### Leveraging Video Annotations in Video-based e-Learning

Authors:

#### Olivier Aubert, Yannick Prié and Camila Canellas

Abstract: The e-learning community has been producing and using video content for a long time, and in the last years, the advent of MOOCs greatly relied on video recordings of teacher courses. Video annotations are information pieces that can be anchored in the temporality of the video so as to sustain various processes ranging from active reading to rich media editing. In this position paper we study how video annotations can be used in an e-learning context - especially MOOCs - from the triple point of view of pedagogical processes, current technical platforms functionalities, and current challenges. Our analysis is that there is still plenty of room for leveraging video annotations in MOOCs beyond simple active reading, namely live annotation, performance annotation and annotation for assignment; and that new developments are needed to accompany this evolution.

Paper Nr: 196
Title:

### Writing Aid Dutch - Supporting Students’ Writing Skills by Means of a String and Pattern Matching based Web Application

Authors:

#### Margot D'Hertefelt, Lieve De Wachter and Serge Verlinde

Abstract: Students at universities and colleges in Belgium and abroad often experience difficulties with writing (academic) texts in their native language (De Wachter and Heeren, 2011; Dugan and Polanski, 2006; Gray et al., 2005; Napolitano and Stent, 2009). This is reflected in many initiatives that are being developed specifically to support students’ writing skills, among other the development of electronic writing assistance systems. Many of these systems are based on Natural Language Processing techniques, such as parsing. In this paper, we will argue that writing aids do not always have to make use of NLP techniques in order to analyze texts in a detailed and accurate way. We present an online writing aid, Writing Aid Dutch, which marks possible areas of concern in students’ texts on three levels: (1) text structure and cohesion, (2) style and (3) spelling and provides users with individualized feedback. Writing Aid Dutch uses a lot of data and analyzes texts using complex queries and string matching techniques. Initial user experiences have been very positive so far. From February 2014 onwards, the effectiveness of the writing aid will be investigated in a one-group pre-post test design.

Paper Nr: 201
Title:

### A New Method for the Creation of MOOC-ready Database of Test Questions

Authors:

#### Azam Beg

Abstract: Recently, there has been a wide interest in the massive open online courses (MOOCs) that are freely available to the students from all over the world. Due to the large scale of MOOCs, the instructors (even with their teams of graders) cannot assess all the examinations and quizzes themselves. Peer grading eases the assessment burden but has its shortcomings. Ideally, the assessments should be fully automated and should also allow partial grading. Additionally, a sizeable database of questions is needed so that an individual student or a group of students are not able to see all the questions by repeatedly attempting the quizzes. In this paper, we present a Matlab-based method for automatically generating a large number of questions and their (intermediate and final) answers for a MOOC or a traditional classroom-based course on digital circuit design. The method that enables formative assessment is also applicable to other courses in engineering and sciences.

Paper Nr: 209
Title:

### Development of an Online Research Ethics Training Resource Specific to South African Health Law and Guidance - A Ukzn-Mepi Funded Project

Authors:

#### Nivedhna Singh and Douglas Wassenaar

Abstract: This paper describes the development of an online learning course aimed at building capacity in the field of research ethics. E-Learning is a popular tool to train large numbers of students and professionals across the world. This learning tool has been adapted to different fields and disciplines. In developing countries, there is a need to improve research ethics capacity. Generic and specific research ethics modules are being used to build capacity in Africa through various online websites. This paper describes the development of a South African online module for the Training and Resources in Research Ethics Evaluation (TRREE) website.

Paper Nr: 212
Title:

### Towards a New Generation of Learning Management Systems

Authors:

#### Hubert Vogten and Rob Koper

Abstract: In this paper we argue that a centrally governed Learning Management System (LMS) still has ample legitimacy in an information society that is ever more adopting cloud computing services in daily life. We argued that control over services and produced data is essential from the perspective of an educational institute for reasons of accountability, quality control, legislation, privacy and reliability. However, the current generation learning management systems are primarily geared to provide ‘additional’ online learning. In ‘real’ online learning teachers and students almost never need to meet face-to-face. All instruction, tests, communication and collaboration is organised using internet and mobile technologies. We propose a paradigm shift for the next generation LMS, discarding the course as key concept in favour of the social learning network concept. We argue that a generic social collaborative portal platform is a good foundation for the development of this next generation LMS. We support our arguments by presenting a real world case and we conclude that we can reuse 80% of the standard code.

Paper Nr: 216
Title:

### Nanoscale Education for Semiconductor Design

Authors:

#### Walid Ibrahim and Yacine Atif

Abstract: Over the last decades, nanotechnology had established itself as the upcoming revolution in science and technology. The ability of manipulating material at the atomic and molecular levels allowed nanotechnology to open an entirely new paradigm of devices and products. In the semiconductor industry several new nanodevices have been proposed to replace the classical CMOS devices that have been used over the last four decades. These new nanodevices have shown significant potential to overcome the fundamental limits of current CMOS devices. However, limited educational resources and processes are available to prepare future nanotechnology engineers and scientists to integrate these promising nanodevices into the main semiconductor manufacturing streams. This paper proposes new learning structures and processes to propagate nanotechnology learning resources over the pervasive Web. The proposed approach is illustrated by a case study centered around the manufacturing of future nanodevices. We adopt standard structures and processes to organize and navigate through digital instructional contents, such as IEEE LOM and IMS LD. In doing so, we aim at streamlining the propagation of reusable repositories across the open Web to facilitate the integration of nanotechnology learning resources into the rising social trend of massively open online courses (or MOOCs).

Paper Nr: 229
Title:

### The Educational Potential of Technologies for Older People - Reflections on the Well-being

Authors:

#### Anelise Jantsch, Simone C. O. Conceição and José Valdeni de Lima

Abstract: Worldwide life expectancy has increased over the last century. In Brazil the population over 60 years was approximately 10% in 2009, and it is expected to increase to 29% in 2050. This increase in life expectancy leads us to consider strategies that can assist in maintaining the quality of life during the ageing process. One strategy that must be considered is the health education to the elderly, so we construct a web application – Active Ageing TV – that is based on the reports of World Health Organization, and on the use of gerontology education to facilitate the learning process, and on the use of techniques to design according to specific characteristics of older audience. To validate our application, a survey was conducted with seniors who participated in a course of digital inclusion in Brazil, during 2009 to 2013. We used “Profile of Individual Life Style" instrument to evaluate the lifestyle perceived by the participants. Our findings indicate that seniors are looking for a preventive behavior, but information is necessary to assist them to make right decisions for a healthy lifestyle.

Paper Nr: 233
Title:

### Educational Application Design Process Experiences - Case Perioperative Nursing

Authors:

#### Minna Silvennoinen and Antti Pirhonen

Abstract: From an educational point of view, the only relevant basis for the design of an educational application is the learning objectives of the content area. In the development process of an educational application, there are also other people involved besides educational experts. This paper describes a project which primarily aims at developing an application for the needs of enhancing perioperative nursing skills’. Besides application development, the project included research about the process. The research task was to discover how the real – not only the formal – objectives could work as the starting point for the construction of an educational game-like application. This paper presents the study process based on the panel discussions of nursing teachers. In the panels, the teachers elaborated the objectives. The transcribed discussions were analysed in terms of conceptions of learning and teaching of perioperative nursing. The outcomes, the elaborated objectives, were aimed to be used as a basis for the implementation of an educational game. In addition, the discussions were analysed from the perspective of the learning paradigm they reflected. It is argued that views of learning are necessary to be understood in order to make appropriate choices of educational strategy throughout the development process. Finally, this paper presents initial observations of a user study of the game. They are discussed from the point of view of project success and the potential of the chosen approach. It is concluded that the construction of this kind of game is a much more effective means of learning than the playing of it, thus suggesting that students themselves should be used as authors.

Paper Nr: 243
Title:

### Developing Open Source Dataloggers for Inquiry Learning

Authors:

#### George Hloupis, Vassilis Bimpikas, Ilias Stavrakas, Konstantinos Moutzouris, Charalampos Stergiopoulos and Dimos Triantis

Abstract: There exists a continuous need to promote better Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education at the younger students. To satisfy this need hands-on laboratory assignments and inquiry learning projects are widely accepted as appropriate approaches. One key issue for both approaches is the effective and adaptive data logging. This article describes the development of educational datalogger devices, using open source software and hardware which can be used to collect, present and save data for both offline and online analysis. The novelty of the proposed devices lies on the fact the presented implementations are not dedicated devices bind to specific features but they can be seen as educational datalogger platforms which are expandable and adaptive to students’ needs in a minimum cost since they are based in open source solutions.

Paper Nr: 246
Title:

### Graph Mining for Automatic Classification of Logical Proofs

Authors:

#### Karel Vaculík and Luboš Popelínský

Abstract: We introduce graph mining for evaluation of logical proofs constructed by undergraduate students in the introductory course of logic. We start with description of the source data and their transformation into GraphML. As particular tasks may differ—students solve different tasks—we introduce a method for unification of resolution steps that enables to generate generalized frequent subgraphs. We then introduce a new system for graph mining that uses generalized frequent patterns as new attributes. We show that both overall accuracy and precision for incorrect resolution proofs overcome 97%. We also discuss a use of emergent patterns and three-class classification (correct/incorrect/unrecognised).

Paper Nr: 247
Title:

### e-Teaching Assistant - A Social Intelligent Platform Supporting Teachers in the Collaborative Creation of Courses

Authors:

#### Marco Mesiti, Stefano Valtolina, Simone Bassis, Francesco Epifania and Bruno Apolloni

Abstract: With the ambition of providing teachers with a concrete tool for worldwide exploiting didactic contents to feature their courses, we face the problem of creating a social platform with adequate functionalities to satisfy the teacher expectations. Starting with a well designed architecture we endow it with three key functionalities that become the stakeholders of the emerging social network: 1) a quality system ensuring the value of the materials the users put in the platform repository as their contribution to the social business, 2) a recommender system based on computational intelligence techniques constituting the principal tool to guide teachers along the assembling of materials into courses, and 3) a gamification system, root of the no-profit business plan of the platform, to involve teachers in the social network. As a result we delineate an ecosystem where teachers exploit contents of a repository to which contribute by themselves. They are encouraged in exploiting and contributing because the contents are of high quality; they are wisely assisted in the exploration of the repository by platform services yet under their full control; and they are variously reworded by this involvement.

Paper Nr: 249
Title:

### Collaborative Annotation of Recorded Teaching Video Sessions

Authors:

#### Florian Matthes and Klym Shumaiev

Abstract: Driven by technology advances the availability of digital video recordings of live training sessions increases at a fast pace. The goal of our research is to better understand the impact of these digital artifacts on the individual (and possibly collaborative) note-taking process of learners. In this paper, we develop a conceptual framework describing the augmentation of teaching sessions by computer-supported tools. We use the framework to describe related work and to outline our research design that involves the development of a minimum viable collaborative annotation tool and the study of the effects of variations in tool functionality (like visibility of annotations, kinds of annotations, or form of annotations) on the learning process. The scientific contribution of the conceptual framework and tool are to serve as a starting point for empirical research by us and others who analyses the effect of variations in collaborative annotation tool design.

Paper Nr: 255
Title:

### Scaling Software Experiments to the Thousands

Authors:

#### Christian Neuhaus, Frank Feinbube, Andreas Polze and Arkady Retik

Abstract: InstantLab is our online experimentation platform that is used for hosting exercises and experiments for operating systems and software engineering courses at HPI. In this paper, we discuss challenges and solutions for scaling InstantLab to provide experiment infrastructure for thousands of users in MOOC scenarios. We present InstantLabs XCloud architecture - a combination of a privat cloud resources at HPI combined with public cloud infrastructures via cloudbursting''. This way, we can provide specialized experiments using VM co-location and heterogeneous compute devices (such as GPGPU) that are not possible on public cloud infrastructures. Additionally, we discuss challenges and solutions dealing with embedding of special hardware, providing experiment feedback and managing access control. We propose trust-based access control as a way to handle resource management in MOOC settings.

Posters
Paper Nr: 14
Title:

### The Granularity of Collaborative Work for Creating Adaptive Learning Resources

Authors:

Abstract: Recent developments in the field of learning systems have led to adaptive learning which considers learner models when performing pedagogical decisions. Problems emerge in providing knowledge spaces of adaptive learning systems. As a knowledge space consists of pedagogical model, learner model, and adaptation model, teachers need much effort to create it. This paper focuses on the authoring of the knowledge spaces of adaptive learning systems and proposes a collaborative authoring approach for creating pedagogical, learner, and adaptation models. The proposed approach combines asynchronous collaborative work with Notes and History to support implicit coordination and workspace awareness. It applies IMS Learning Design to represent the aforementioned models. To validate it, qualitative and quantitative experiments were conducted. The experiment results indicated the high granularity of authoring, which means that learning designers can efficiently and effectively work in an asynchronous collaborative environment with Notes and History.

Paper Nr: 22
Title:

### An Interactive Textbook for Introductory Engineering Design

Authors:

#### Jeffrey Donnell, William Singhose and Arto Kivila

Abstract: Touchscreen computers hold great promise as educational tools. Many universities, high schools and elementary schools are working to create curricula that exploit these devices. An important part of this work is the development of textbooks that move away from the static display of words and figures to include interactive components such as videos and interactive simulations. We present such an interactive textbook, developed for an undergraduate course in mechanical engineering. We describe the course for which it was developed and the interactive components of the book. Student evaluations of the textbook are presented and discussed. Finally, we offer suggestions for additional steps that can improve interactive textbooks for use on tablet computers.

Paper Nr: 31
Title:

### Analysis of Behaviors by Audience in Lectures by Using Time-series Models

Authors:

#### Eiji Watanabe, Takashi Ozeki and Takeshi Kohama

Abstract: In this paper, the dominant behaviors defined by the face direction of the speaker and audience in lectures are analyzed by using the time-series models. First, we detect the face region of the speaker and audience by the image processing and we adopt the number of skin-colored pixels in face region as features for behaviors by them. Next, we construct piecewise time series models for behaviors by the speaker and audience. Finally, we analyze the synchronization phenomena in speaker and audience by comparing time series models. Concretely, we show that the parameters in the time series models denote the dominant section in lectures. Moreover, we discuss the relationships among notes, test and behaviors by audience.

Paper Nr: 38
Title:

### Learn and Evolve the Domain Model in Intelligent Tutoring Systems - Approach Based on Interaction Traces

Authors:

#### Aarij Hussaan and Karim Sehaba

Abstract: Majority of the systems developed in the field of education aim to tailor information presented to their users according to them as efficiently as possible. Often these systems use a User Model, a Domain Model and an Interaction Model to provide the adaptation/personalization effect. However, any deficiencies in these models directly influence the quality of adaptation the system provides. In order to address this issue, we propose to use modeled user’s interaction traces to detect these deficiencies in the domain model. Furthermore, the use of these interaction traces will help us in proposing a more correct domain model according to the user’s competence. We had tested our approach by creating an educational system. The overlay modeling approach is used with Bayesian Networks to model our domain model. The results of the conducted experiments are also presented in this article.

Paper Nr: 43
Title:

### A Learning System Based on Learner Profile

Authors:

#### Smain Nasr-Eddine Bouzenada, Olivier Boissier, Philippe Beaune and Nacer Eddine Zarour

Abstract: The main purpose of e-learning systems is to provide learning materials through Internet to let learners upgrade their knowledge. To be more efficient, these systems must be able to present their learning materials based on learners’ acquired knowledge as well as their learning capabilities (learning styles). Therefore, their development should be based on pedagogical models that make them able to adapt their learning materials on the bases of learners’ competences (acquired knowledge and learning capabilities). This paper proposes a model and architecture of a learning system able to support pedagogical concepts such as learning styles and pre-requisite competences to adapt learning materials to learners based on their profiles.

Paper Nr: 75
Title:

### Learning Design for Software Engineering Courses

Authors:

#### Itana M. S. Gimenes, Leonor Barroca, Ellen F. Barbosa and Edson A. Oliveira Júnior

Abstract: This paper presents a customization of a learning design approach, OULDI, to designing and implementing Software Engineering courses. We propose an iterative process for the application of the OULDI views. This process starts with a course map view and follows a series of steps that ends with the evaluation of the design reflecting on the balance of the proposed activities. A case study is presented in which two institutions were involved in the design and implementation of an experimental software engineering course. Feedback from students, designers and lecturers was collected to support the validation of the design and implementation of the course. This showed that learning design, with the process proposed here, is a feasible approach for the design of software engineering courses.

Paper Nr: 76
Title:

### Software Systems Versus Intellectual Property Rights - A Moral and Ethical Challenge for Higher Education in Developing Nations

Authors:

#### Guy Toko

Abstract: Higher Education (HE) institutions in most countries represent one of the most important users of computer systems. HE institutions need access to fast and reliable computing devices, not only to teach, but also for their day-to-day operations. These systems are not just hardware, but also software systems which are protected by national and international laws. HE institutions may be able to control their employees and their software needs, but it is far more difficult to control students. Their software needs to enforce the respect of intellectual property rights. Students need numerous software packages in order to successfully comply with the academic requirements, whether deliberate or not, some students rely on illegally acquired software systems for their academic projects. This type of behaviours has moral, ethical, legal and societal replications. HE institutions are seen as law-abiding entities, highly respected by their respective communities, applauded by industries, recommended by their governments, and yet their students may be jeopardising that status whether deliberately or by pure ignorance. This study aims at investigating why students engage in using illegal software systems, and why it is difficult to enforce the rule of law when it comes to software licences within HE institutions.

Paper Nr: 80
Title:

### A Faculty/Staff/Student Team for Collaboration in Developing Mobile Applications in the Software Engineering Course

Authors:

#### Arturo I Concepcion, Sunny Lin, Tiffany Chiang, Patrick O'Connor, Michael Korcha and Darnell Shumpert

Abstract: A faculty/staff/student team was used as a collaboration model to develop, maintain, and improve mobile applications built for use by students on the campus of California State University, San Bernardino. The team was developed in the software engineering class where the projects are mobile applications requested by real clients in the campus. After the class is over, the students continue the development through independent studies and senior projects. During this time, the students work with a team of student interns and staff from the Administrative Computing Services, Information Technology Division of the campus until the mobile applications are published in both Google Play and Apple App Store. Using the CSUSB Student Opinion of Teaching Effectiveness (SOTE) surveys of the software engineering classes of 2009 – 2013, we found that students learn tremendously through hands-on experience and actual interactions with real clients, and also found that the principles and concepts of software engineering are learned better.

Paper Nr: 90
Title:

### STSIM: Semantic-web Based Tool to Student Instruction Monitoring

Authors:

#### Héctor Yago Corral and Julia Clemente Párraga

Abstract: In this article, a tool so-called STSIM is presented. It is able to monitor the student’s progress along learning experiences. This tool, based on semantic web, allows students and teachers to monitor the knowledge student state including, among others, the learning objective state -achieved and not achieved- in different types of activities with psychomotors, cognitives or affective competences, and the efficiency accomplished in activity execution to facilitate the tutor or student the supervision of learning in a more adaptive way according to the individual characteristics and student knowledge state in each moment. To achieve this goal, STSIM uses a flexible student model supported by an ontology network, the Student Ontology. The tool has been developed to be multiplatform, multilingual, based on current and open-source web technology and characterized by its usability. STSIM is built on the UML-based web engineering (UWE) methodology and the Model-View-Controller (MVC) pattern.

Paper Nr: 110
Title:

### A Pedagogical Scenario Language for Virtual Learning Environment based on UML Meta-model - Application to Blood Analysis Instrument

Authors:

#### Frédéric Le Corre, Charlotte Hoareau, Franck Ganier, Cédric Buche and Ronan Querrec

Abstract: Training to learn the use and maintenance of biomedical devices have various constraints. In order to complete these trainings, we proposed to use virtual reality based on pedagogical scenarios and Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS). In this paper, we first established the existing pedagogical scenario models and ITS. Subsequently we presented our proposal of a formal model based on the concept of learning organization by extension of UML in order to describre some pedagogical scenario and ITS. The use of this model is illustrated by an application of a virtual biomedical analyzer with the aim of learning the technical procedures of the device. Finally, we performed two experiments in order to verify the efficiency of virtual reality training.

Paper Nr: 121
Title:

### The Strategic Organization of the Observation in a TEL System - Studies and First Formalizations

Authors:

#### Mohand Akli Ouali, Sébastien Iksal and Pierre Laforcade

Abstract: The instructional designers may design learning sessions with tools offered by the Technology Enhanced Learning systems. Any learning situation is designed to follow specific learning objectives. Instructional designers examine the progress of these situations and evaluate the correlation between their deployment and the objectives through an observation activity. We present in this article theoretical and practical studies in order to understand the real needs of instructional designers in organizing their activity of observation. We also present the concept of Observation Strategy to answer the needs of instructional designers for organizing the observation of learning sessions deployed in the TEL systems.

Paper Nr: 132
Title:

### Designing Physics Game to Support Inquiry Learning and to Promote Retrieval Practice

Authors:

#### Danu Pranantha, Wei Chen, Francesco Bellotti, Erik Van Der Spek, Alessandro DeGloria and Matthias Rauterberg

Abstract: Instruction in physics aims at achieving two goals: the acquisition of body of knowledge and problem solving skills in physics. This requires students to connect physical phenomena, physics principles, and physics symbols. Computer simulation provides students with graphical model that unites phenomenon and principles in physics. However, such minimally guided approach may harm learning since it overburdens the working memory. Also, simulation is inadequate in promoting problem solving skills since students need to exercise with a variety of physics problems. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), in contrast, train students in solving physics problems. In this paper, we designed an online puzzle game in physics that combines simulation and pseudo tutor (namely QTut). We addressed three challenges: extensibility, scalability, and reusability in designing our game. We conducted usability tests with 10 participants on the game prototype to study the user performances and perceptions for improvement. The results indicate the game as educative and moderately entertaining. The use of scaffolding in the game positively contributed to the game learning experience. Moreover, the game GUI expressed information well that made the game understandable, even with little instructions.

Paper Nr: 133
Title:

### Automatic Updating of Computer Games Data Warehouse for Cognition Identification

Authors:

#### C. I. Ezeife, Rob Whent, Dragana Martinovic, Richard Frost, Yanal Alahmad and Tamanna Mumu

Abstract: This paper describes the algorithms (called OTEP_ DW_ auto) for automatically updating the integrated games data warehouse and cognitive profile data sources for purposes of identifying child’s cognitive skill level. The techniques described in this paper represent an extension to the data integration engine adopted by an online product called “Thriver” developed by OTEP Inc. (Online Training & Evaluation Portal). OTEP focuses on using the Internet, natural playing environment for online computer games to give parents and care-givers automated opportunity to screen and follow their children’s cognitive development. Current data integration efforts of the system when new games (such as speech games) are added or new cognitive skills matrix are added would require manual re-coding of the system which is a costly and time-consuming process. The cognitive skills matrix maps cognitive skills level of games player such as “basic reading level is good” to their games performance in comparison to the norms of other players. The proposed OTEP_DW_auto is capable of building the OTEP data warehouse schema automatically, thus seamlessly extracting, cleaning and propagating data from various data sources. It also provides a dynamic GUI-based interface for answering tens of frequently asked cognition-related questions.

Paper Nr: 136
Title:

### e-Competence - The Elderly and Competence in e-Learning

Authors:

#### Leticia Rocha Machado and Patricia Alejandra Behar

Abstract: The increase in population age is undeniable today. At the same time, technologies are increasingly present in daily tasks. In this scenario, the role of continuing education courses to enable showing the full development of the subject. E-learning can be one of these possibilities, since it covers a wide range of older people. Thus, it is necessary to discuss the necessary skills DL in the elderly. This research was developed in a virtual course of workshops with different themes for the elderly at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil. From the results obtained in this study it was possible to map the skills of older students in a virtual environment. We list as interaction skills , autonomy , digital literacy , virtual literacy ; digital information ; virtual resilience , organization and cooperation. Therefore, we see the need for greater depth in relation to e-learning for seniors and what is required to allow for constructive action on this issue in this kind of education skills. Currently the increase of elderly led to questions and social change. Thus the results show the need to rethink new educational practices that may include older people in today's society.

Paper Nr: 147
Title:

### Second Language Learning in the Context of MOOCs

Authors:

#### Shaoqun Wu, Alannah Fitzgerald and Ian H. Witten

Abstract: Massive Open Online Courses are becoming popular educational vehicles through which universities reach out to non-traditional audiences. Many enrolees hail from other countries and cultures, and struggle to cope with the English language in which these courses are invariably offered. Moreover, most such learners have a strong desire and motivation to extend their knowledge of academic English, particularly in the specific area addressed by the course. Online courses provide a compelling opportunity for domain-specific language learning. They supply a large corpus of interesting linguistic material relevant to a particular area, including supplementary images (slides), audio and video. We contend that this corpus can be automatically analysed, enriched, and transformed into a resource that learners can browse and query in order to extend their ability to understand the language used, and help them express themselves more fluently and eloquently in that domain. To illustrate this idea, an existing online corpus-based language learning tool (FLAX) is applied to a Coursera MOOC entitled Virology 1: How Viruses Work, offered by Columbia University.

Paper Nr: 148
Title:

### A Curriculum for Future Information Technology

Authors:

#### Patrick Appiah-Kubi, Ramesh K. Karne and Bharat Rawal

Abstract: Computer science, information systems, information technology and other related programs have been evolving over the years to prepare students for the ever changing work force or to become research scientists. These program structures and curriculum gets updated rapidly even before a student had a chance to complete a four year cycle. When a student graduates, there may be a daunting challenge to find a right fit for a right job in today’s global market. This paper proposes a curriculum paradigm that is based on sound engineering principles and need for applied education. The curriculum proposed here is based on student needs and industry outlook. It reduces educational cost for students, administrative cost for teaching institutions and training cost for industry. It also provides a first cut of curriculum that integrates a variety of disciplines under the information technology umbrella. The curriculum taxonomies are shown to illustrate the proposed concept. An initial road map and time schedules are shown to demonstrate the feasibility of this concept. The roles of students, faculty and industry supervisors are discussed. The approach proposed here will have a broader positive impact in information technology when adopted. Further research is needed to fully exploit the proposed concept.

Paper Nr: 151
Title:

### Sensor Monitoring in an Industrial Network - Experimental Tests for Computer Supported Education

Authors:

#### Bruna Salles Moreira, Jaidilson Jó da Silva, Angelo Perkusich and José Sérgio da Rocha Neto

Abstract: The integration of field level and higher communication is expanding and ensuring ideal conditions for open networks in process automation at industry. For a better knowledge on the referred networks, some experiments were developed to ensure a better comprehension on how they work and application possibilities. The experimental tests with industrial network using a PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) based computer education, allows the electrical engineering students perform experiments on-line by a remote laboratory for the study of industrial automation process.

Paper Nr: 154
Title:

### Reflective ePortfolio System - Development and Assessment in Living Lab

Authors:

#### Aleksandrs Gorbunovs

Abstract: Modern technologies, information systems, tools, methods and approaches give us new potentialities to ensure better learning outcomes. One of such systems, which are kept high on the agenda, is ePortfolios. ePortfolio systems are considered as an excellent tool to improve learners’ competence levels, critical thinking and reflection. This paper shows an approbation of reflection stimulating ePortfolio system developed by the Distance Education Study Centre, Riga Technical University. Introduced system merges a scope of technological and educational aspects to facilitate system users’ better achievements. The author underpins Living Lab research method which was used to approbate new system implementation. Experimental part of the work is proved by verification of the ePortfolio system including necessary statistical data analysis. Approbation results show that the developed algorithmic model ensures the formation and functioning of the reflection stimulating ePortfolio system which has direct positive impact on students’ competence development, achievements and learning outcomes.

Paper Nr: 158
Title:

### CALL for Open Experiments

Authors:

#### Roman Efimov, Maxim Mozgovoy and John Brine

Abstract: In this paper, we briefly describe the limitations of present CALL systems, caused both by technological factors and by the limited agenda of CALL developers, whose design goals tend not to result in software tools for practical everyday language learning activities. We also note the lack of creative new ways of using computers in language education and a gradual shift towards traditional teaching and learning practices, enhanced with common computer technologies such as multimedia content delivery systems and social media. However, computers can provide more options for interactive learning, as shown by the emergence of virtual labs or virtual sandboxes that support and encourage open experimentation. Such systems are well known in natural sciences, but still have had little impact on the world of CALL software. We believe that the same “free experimentation” approach used in natural sciences can be applied in CALL, and should have a positive impact on the quality of learning, being consistent with constructivist perspectives on language education. In the present paper, we briefly introduce our work-in-progress to develop a system that supports open experiments with words and phrases.

Paper Nr: 162
Title:

### Teaching Mathematics in Online Courses - An Interactive Feedback and Assessment Tool

Authors:

#### Edgar Seemann

Abstract: Online courses often require students to work self-dependently using books or video material. For abstract subjects such as mathematics this is particularly challenging. To improve student motivation and learning results, we propose an interactive feedback and assessment tool tailored to math exercises. Our system is able to process and analyze mathematical expressions using an underlying computer algebra system. It allows teachers to create exercises with a much wider range of question types as it is possible with today’s learning management systems, which are mostly restricted to multiple choice questions. We can provide automatic individual feedback to students for almost any kind of mathematical exercise. Thus, making it easier for students to practice and study math in a self-dependent manner.

Paper Nr: 163
Title:

### Teaching Computer Programming in Online Courses - How Unit Tests Allow for Automated Feedback and Grading

Authors:

#### Edgar Seemann

Abstract: Online courses raise many new challenges. It is particularly difficult to teach subjects, which focus on technical principles and require students to practice. In order to motivate and support students we need to provide assistance and feedback. When the number of students in online courses increases to several thousand participants this assistance and feedback cannot be handled by the teaching staff alone. In this paper we propose a system, which allows to automatically validate programming exercises at a fine-grained level using unit tests. Thus, students get immediate feedback, which helps them understanding the encountered problems. The proposed system offers a wide range of possible exercise types for programming exercises. These range from exercises where students need to provide only code snippets to exercises including complex algorithms. Moreover, the system allows teachers to grade student exercises automatically. Unlike common grading tools for programming exercises, it can deal with partial solutions and avoids an all-or-nothing style grading.

Paper Nr: 164
Title:

### Security Aspects for e-Learning Portals

Authors:

#### Natalia Miloslavskaya, Vladislav Petrov and Alexander Tolstoy

Abstract: Many safety problems are facing e-Learning portals (EP) developers to make it a trusted tool for e-Learning. The paper gives motivation of security implementation expedience for EP including a brief overview of typical attacks against EP. Further a generalised EP structure as a protection object is created and the key security requirements and functional security subsystem components of a secure EP are developed. In conclusion a real example of the secure EP on the basis of "DOCENT" distance learning system (DLS) by the Russian company UNIAR being used in the National Research Nuclear University «MEPhI» is shown.

Paper Nr: 167
Title:

### Teaching the Arabic Alphabet to Kindergarteners - Writing Activities on Paper and Surface Computers

Authors:

#### Pantelis M. Papadopoulos, Zeinab Ibrahim and Andreas Karatsolis

Abstract: This paper presents initial results regarding writing activities in the context of the ALADDIN project. The goal of the project is to teach Modern Standard Arabic in 5-year-old kindergarten students in Qatar. A total of 18 students, enrolled in the ‘Arabic Class’, participated for 9 weeks in the activities of the project. All students were native speakers of the Qatari dialect. Learning activities involved both typical instructional methods, and the use of specifically designed tools for tabletop surface computers. The paper focuses on writing activities and on how the affordances of surface computers affected students’ performance and attitude towards the Arabic class and, consequently, the Arabic language.

Paper Nr: 169
Title:

### A Cyber Laboratory for Device Dependent Hardware Experiments in a Hybrid Cloud

Authors:

#### Nobuhiko Koike

Abstract: The paper proposes a cyber laboratory in the form of a hybrid cloud, where the actual laboratory and the remote laboratory are combined. At the existing physical experiment laboratory, the limitation of the number of experimental devices for FPGA hardware design course resulted in platform usage congestions and extended laboratory hours. Migration to the cloud should be the natural solution. However, existing devices such as FPGA evaluation devices and Logic analyzers became obstacles to migrate to public clouds. The proposed system combines an On-Premise private cloud organized by laboratory platforms to perform device dependent services, and a public cloud where remaining design, development and evaluation stages, are carried out in the form of a PaaS (Platform as a Service). The design and experiment tasks should be modified accordingly to accommodate CAD tools in the set of the Web Services. Existing faculty database server and educational support system combine the private cloud, the public cloud and the faculty servers, in a seamless way. Students can migrate to and from laboratories at any design stages. As the device dependent tasks have been implemented in the Web Services, efficient sharing of platforms can be achieved in space and time sharing fashions. The public cloud ensures a scalable increase and decrease in server machines according to the student usages and seasonal load changes. The laboratory managing software takes care of the allocation and migration of student Virtual-Machines between the On-Premise private cloud and the public cloud. It can also accommodate the BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) style student usage, by preparing three different access methods: student side BYOD applications, the Web accesses and remote desktop connections. The hybrid cloud approach achieves a scalable realization of the cyber laboratory suitable for the BYOD style experiments, where efficient sharing of On-Premise laboratory platforms can be realized in the mixed use of actual and remote laboratories.

Paper Nr: 192
Title:

### A Framework for Curriculum Management - The Use of Outcome-based Approach in Practice

Authors:

#### Martin Komenda, Daniel Schwarz, Jiří Hřebíček, Jiří Holčík and Ladislav Dušek

Abstract: The need for guaranteed and high-quality education involving predefined curricula covering a corresponding scope of input knowledge and skills required in subsequent practice has been gaining momentum. Universities compile their curricula so as to ensure that they cover all steps essential for the students to obtain employment later on. In the paper a brand new and original curriculum harmonization approach within tertiary education is described by adopting an outcome-based approach and applying modern information and communication technologies. We propose a model for curriculum management and show how the model was implemented into practice in a particular field of study by using complex web-oriented platform. Its primary objective is to make all efforts expended by users more efficient, as regards to the creation, editing and control mechanisms in the form of deep content inspection.

Paper Nr: 208
Title:

### Methods and Technologies for Wrapping - Educational Theory into Serious Games

Authors:

#### Jacqueline Krebs and Klaus P. Jantke

Abstract: Although play does undoubtedly take a significant place in the development of human individuals and animals allowing for a manifold of risk-free exploration and experiment, contemporary serious games largely fail in meeting the high expectations of game-based learning. Educators know how to teach. Moreover, they know how to set up conditions, including approaches to playful education, in which learners can actively engage. In particular, experienced educators know how to adapt to a particular learner's needs, wishes and desires. But digital games including those named serious are computer programs. They do not know about didactics. There is a need for methods and technologies suitable to bring educational principles and pedagogical patterns into digital systems intended to enhance learning. The authors advocate the method of storyboarding and the technology of storyboard interpretation to wrap educational theory into e-learning systems, in general, and into serious games, in particular. Some comprehensive case study demonstrates the feasibility of this approach.

Paper Nr: 210
Title:

### Defining and Exemplifying Semantic Widgets for Learning

Authors:

#### Lars Johnsen and Rocio Chongtay

Abstract: In this article, we make the case for widgets as an appropriate vehicle for interacting with the Web of Data in learning applications and materials. In the article, an attempt is made to define and exemplify the concept of semantic widgets for learning (SW4L) and to suggest how such educational software may be exposed and utilized in the Web of Data. As an example of SW4L, we mention widgets operating on semantic learning content marked up using the web vocabulary of schema.org and illustrate how they may be designed to support instructional guidelines advocating the use of visual aids in learning materials.

Paper Nr: 219
Title:

### Cloud-based Mash-up Authoring Tools for e-Learning

Authors:

Abstract: The objective of an e-Learning authoring tool is the creation of an accessible and reusable pedagogical content that is conforms to the existing e-Learning standards. We argue that this objective can be extended when the learning content is created on a multimodal SaaS authoring and publishing platform with an XML-based language for content and metadata description to satisfy instructional designers for a responsive interactivity coupled with rich and informative substance. This position paper presents a Cloud-services based solution for building a virtual and personal learning environment that combines a wide range of technology and tools for learning-content mash-up authoring and diffusion. The proposed service-based framework is intended to support lifelong learning content creation and to enable mash-up of various learning services and applications by adapting learning objects on desktop and small handheld devices.

Paper Nr: 227
Title:

### Here’s Looking at You, Player - The Potential of Eye Tracking Analysis for Player-centered Learning Game Design

Authors:

#### Susanne Friedemann, Katharina Meier and Klaus P. Jantke

Abstract: There is no doubt that technology enhanced learning, in general, and game-based learning, in particular, needs thoughtful preparation, a careful design and a reliable implementation to meet the expectations of impact. But e-learning systems and serious games are digital media which usually are perceived very differently by different human learners with individually varying background and experience and within varying contexts. Perception and impact of media are a very delicate issue to be investigated carefully on a firm scientific basis. Digital games designed and implemented for special purposes of learning are particularly difficult to evaluate. Eye tracking is a technology suitable for the analysis of essential features of media perception which are relevant to learning. Eye tracking human learners’ interactions with a serious game allows for the detection of substantial phenomena crucial for the design of game playing experiences likely to foster learning processes.

Paper Nr: 236
Title:

### The Impact of Proper Use of Learning System on Students’ Performance - Case Study of Using MyMathLab

Authors:

#### Mohamed Chabi and Sharmeen Ibrahim

Abstract: In Summer 2012, the Foundation Program Unit of Qatar University has started implementing new ways of teaching Math by introducing MML (MyMathLab) as an innovative interactive tool to support standard teaching. MML is used to enhance learning and motivate students to be engaged outside the classroom in the learning process. In this paper, we focused on the effect of proper use of one of the component of MML the Study Plan on students performance. Authors investigated the results of students in Pre-calculus course during Fall 2012 in Foundation Program and in Business Mathematics during Spring 2013 at Qatar University. The results showed that there was a strong correlation between students’ results in study plan and final course grade results in Pre-Calculus course and how Business Math students benefited in using Study plan in MML to improve their Math skills. Also in this paper, we included the survey’s results on the use of MML.

Paper Nr: 250
Title:

### Identification of Behavior Patterns Within Graduated Students and Undergraduate Modules at the Technical University of Cartagena, Spain

Authors:

#### A. Molina-García, M. Kessler and A. Botía

Abstract: As a consequence of the governmental decision to adapt the Spanish graduate and post-graduate studies to converge to the 'European Higher Education Area', the goal of the so-called Bologna Process, committees of experts were set up at the Technical University of Cartagena, located south of Spain, to design the new curricula that would build up the restructured offer of courses. It was decided to provide as supporting material to these committees statistical information about the academic behaviour and results of the students in modules of the existing courses. In this paper the main aspects of this study are presented, discussing the set of variables selected to characterize modules and students. Information about the structure of variability between students on one hand and between modules on the other hand is presented, based on a principal component analysis. Finally patterns were identified among modules and among students using a cluster procedure. The influence of relevant factors like gender, course and marks obtained at the School Leaving certificate on the resulting groups composition was explored as well.

Paper Nr: 253
Title:

### Using ICT to Support e-Learning in Higher Education

Authors:

#### Isabel Brito, Miguel Tavares and Elsa Rodrigues

Abstract: As e-learning has an established presence in higher education we need to ask the question: How effective is an information and communication technology (ICT), including Learning Management System (LMS) and OpenMeettings synchronous tool, for student learning in high education? This paper collects teacher and student opinions on teaching and learning using ICT, and addresses the following key elements: (i) technological aspects and (ii) methodological aspects. These opinions are compared and analysed to provide also the resources needed for high quality learning using ICT.

## Area 2 - Learning/Teaching Methodologies and Assessment

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 48
Title:

### Learning on Electrical Circuits While Playing ‘E&E Electrical Endeavours’ - Design Research on a Serious Game Optimizing for Conceptual Understanding

Authors:

#### Ruurd Taconis, Mariette Dubois, Lesley de Putter and Henry van Bergen

Abstract: A serious game was developed in a two year design research project by educational researchers, game-designers and secondary school teachers in close collaboration. In a first round, students played the game in class using an open-inquiry strategy. Although the game had a strong impact on the students’ conceptual development, it provoked the construction of misconceptions. The game was adapted and partially redesigned on the basis of the evaluation outcomes and an additional expert-review. Also the instructions to the game were redesigned and written down in a teachers’ guide. In a second round, a pedagogical approach of alternating open-inquiry type gaming-episodes with guided reflection and internalisation episodes was used in class. Again a strong impact on students’ conceptual understanding of electrical circuits was found. Significantly fewer misconceptions occurred. The results indicate that the close collaboration of school teachers, educational experts and game designers was fruitful for improving the serious game and its use in school practice. Moreover it became clear that serious games have the potential to contribute to students’ conceptual understanding, in particular when a suitable mental model is coherently represented in the game´s layout and structure.

Paper Nr: 52
Title:

### Automated Generation of Geometry Questions for High School Mathematics

Authors:

#### Rahul Singhal, Martin Henz and Kevin McGee

Abstract: We describe a framework that combines a combinatorial approach, pattern matching and automated deduction to generate and solve geometry problems for high school mathematics. Such a system would help teachers to quickly generate large numbers of questions on a geometry topic. Students can explore and revise specific topics covered in classes and textbooks based on generated questions. The system can act as a personalized instructor - it can generate problems that meet users specific weaknesses. This system may also help standardize tests such as GMAT and SAT. Our novel methodology uses (i) a combinatorial approach for generating geometric figures (ii) a pattern matching approach for generating questions and (iii) automated deduction to generate new questions and solutions. By combining these methods, we are able to generate questions involving finding or proving relationships between geometric objects based on a specification of the geometry objects, concepts and theorems to be covered by the questions. Experimental results show that a large number of questions can be generated in a short time. We have tested our generated questions on an existing geometry question solving software JGEX, verifying the validity of the generated questions.

Paper Nr: 53
Title:

### Finding Regularities in Courses Evaluation with K-means Clustering

Authors:

#### R. Campagni, D. Merlini and M. C. Verri

Abstract: This paper presents an analysis about the courses evaluation made by university students together with their results in the corresponding exams. The analysis concerns students and courses of a Computer Science program of an Italian University from 2001/2002 to 2007/2008 academic years. Before the end of each course, students evaluate different aspects of the course, such as the organization and the teaching. Evaluation data and the results obtained by students in terms of grades and delays with which they take their exams can be collected and reorganized in an appropriate way. Then we can use clustering techniques to analyze these data thus show possible correlation between the evaluation of a course and the corresponding average results as well as regularities among groups of courses over the years. The results of this type of analysis can possibly suggest improvements in the teaching organization.

Paper Nr: 120
Title:

### Cross-analysis of Transversal Competences in Project Management

Authors:

#### Ana González-Marcos, Fernando Alba-Elías, Joaquín Ordieres-Meré and Fermín Navaridas-Nalda

Abstract: This paper presents a framework for project management competence assessment based on participant’s performance and contribution in a simulated environment. The proposed framework considers competence assessment through evidences and the participation of different roles. The system enforces the assessment of individual competences by means of a set of performance indicators. A specific case study is presented and the relationship between exhibited transversal competences and project quality is analysed.

Paper Nr: 125
Title:

### Getting it Fast - An Information Systems Oriented Semantic Web Curriculum

Authors:

#### Daniela Giordano and Francesco Maiorana

Abstract: The fast growing importance of the semantic web and semantic web applications is demonstrated by the exponentially growing amount of semantic data produced on the web and by the rise of the linked open data movement. Besides this strong interest there is a request both from academia and industry for well-prepared students in order to minimize the training effort needed to prepare them for productive work. This paper describes the teaching experience of a Master's course entitled “Laboratory in software design and development – semantic technologies”. A detailed description of the curriculum, the rationale underlying the choice of content and the software tools used, as well as the main lessons learnt from the experience, are presented.

Paper Nr: 134
Title:

### Teaching Web Programming - An Approach Rooted in Database Principles

Authors:

#### Francesco Maiorana

Abstract: The World Wide Web has become a medium not only for delivering information but also for providing applications that can be used by a variety of instruments, including mobile devices. For these reasons the importance of teaching these skills as well as the difficulties of organizing a vast amount of concepts and technologies in a fast-paced environment driven by strong industrial interest and competition are widely recognized. This work discusses a case study on teaching web programming, presenting an approach suitable for both high school and university courses. The main innovation of the curriculum is the content presentation, which focuses on small incremental steps, spanning the majority of term lab sessions, as well as a teaching a case study which centres on user login management. The case study covers all the major topics in web programming and teaches students to develop, as well as apply and integrate, major database concepts such as transactions, stored procedures and security issues. This lays the foundation for developing a larger project, which is suggested as the final step of the curriculum.

Paper Nr: 138
Title:

### The Elevate Framework for Assessment and Certification Design for Vocational Training in European ICT SMEs

Authors:

#### Iraklis Paraskakis and Thanos Hatziapostolou

Abstract: This paper discusses vocational training and e-Training within the context of IT SMEs, focusing on the process of assessment and certification. More specifically, current trends in the assessment and certification of IT skills are discussed, as revealed in the study of related work. In addition, issues in traditional and e-Assessment are presented, and a new approach: “Assessment 2.0”, which exploits the characteristics of contemporary trainees, is proposed. Finally, after examining relevant research projects, and current European certification programs, the ELEVATE project approach to certification and assessment is introduced with an example. More precisely, the proposed methodology for defining competence-based learning is put forward.

Paper Nr: 199
Title:

### Integrated STEM in Elementary Grades Using Distributed Agent-based Computation

Authors:

#### Pratim Sengupta, Gokul Krishnan and Mason Wright

Abstract: We investigate how the integration of visual agent-based programming and computationally augmented physical structures can support curricular integration across STEM domains for elementary grade students. We introduce ViMAP-Tangible, a socio-technically distributed computational learning environment, which integrates ultrasonic sensors with the ViMAP visual programming language using a distributed computation infrastructure. In this paper, we report a study in which 3rd and 4th grade students used ViMAP-Tangible to engage in collaborative design-based activities in order to invent "drawing machines'' for generating geometric shapes. The curricular activities integrate engineering practices such as user-centered design, mathematical reasoning about multiplication, rates and fractions, and physical science concepts central to learning Newtonian mechanics. We identify the key affordances of the learning environment and our pedagogical approach in terms of the relationship between the structural elements of students’ physical constructions and computational models, and their learning outcomes, both in terms of computational thinking, and the domain-specific, mathematical and scientific knowledge that they began developing.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 27
Title:

### Adopting Commercially Inspired Practices Within an Academic Teaching Course - A Case Study of a Computer Games Engineering Degree

Authors:

#### G. Ushaw, W. Blewitt and G. Morgan

Abstract: A case study of a computer games engineering course is presented. The course has been designed with close input from industry and is achieving a high rate of success in the number of graduates being recruited by the target industry. The organisers of the course have extensive experience in both the software engineering industry, and in delivering academic teaching. These experiences are combined so that commercial software development practices, technologies and philosophies are adopted throughout the delivery of the academic course. The paper discusses the specifics of how and why this was achieved, and uses the Game Engineering course as an exemplar for encouraging the adoption of commercially inspired techniques within the teaching of software engineering and computer science more generally.

Paper Nr: 63
Title:

### Bringing Real-life Practice in Software Project Management Training Through a Simulation-based Serious Game

Authors:

#### Alejandro Calderón and Mercedes Ruiz

Abstract: Nowadays, we can observe a lack of tools that allow teaching and assessing in Software Project Management in a more real-life way. In this paper, we discuss the need of developing tools to teach in the scope of Software Project Management, and how we can achieve that learners test their knowledge and cover the needed educational objectives, in a risk-free environment through a serious game. Hence, we propose ProDec, a simulation-based serious game to teach and assess in software project management. This tool is an attempt to surpass the limitations found in similar proposals. The paper also maps the stages of the game lifecycle to the levels of Bloom’s taxonomy to show how the game helps to achieve different levels of educational objectives.

Paper Nr: 73
Title:

### Data Model and Smartphone App in an Observational Research Social Network

Authors:

#### Cristina Mesquita and Rui Pedro Lopes

Abstract: Children observation is a time consuming and complex process that involves time and knowledge. However, when performed adequately, it is fundamental for both child and professionals development, allowing a sound basis for reflection and action around learning experiences and teaching environments. Following specific guidelines and programs can help the teachers reduce inherent subjectivity. The EEL/DQP was developed to evaluate and improve quality in preschool education. This program is enhanced by using a rigorous observation process of children and adults. In this paper we propose an unified data model to structure the information from the thirteen steps of the EEL/DQP. Moreover, we also describe a smartphone application to assist the observer, recording notes, sound, photos and video.

Paper Nr: 81
Title:

### Automatic Objective Assessments of Japanese Reading Difficulty with the Operation Records on Japanese Text Presentation System - Design and Implementation

Authors:

#### Kyota Aoki, Shinjiro Murayama and Kohji Harada

Abstract: There are many pupils with reading difficulty in Japanese schools. The dyslexia is the disability about reading and writing texts. We use Kanji, Hiragana, Katakana characters in Japanese sentences. Based on the experiments, we show the differences between the reading activities with and without reading difficulties. This enables to make objective assessments of reading difficulty. This paper proposes the objective assessment method of reading difficulties and the design of automatic utterance detection with face images that decrease the contributions of teachers.

Paper Nr: 85
Title:

### Review of Learner Modeling Using Educational Games

Authors:

#### Mohamed Ali Khenissi, Fathi Essalmi, Mohamed Jemni and . Kinshuk

Abstract: The learner model is a key component of any adaptive E-Learning system, including educational games, as it stores the information about the learner, which can then be used to provide personalized experience. Recently, there has been growing interest in creating learner models using educational games. This is due to the limitations of traditional E-Learning systems, since the learner interaction with the computer is rather restricted in such systems. Educational games, on the other hand, not only stimulate learners by increasing their motivation and engagement, but also facilitate a lot of learner interaction that could be observed to create learner models. This paper presents a survey of the field of learner modelling using educational games. In particular, it describes the main methods of learner modelling. This paper also lists several educational games that are suitable for experimentation. Compiling this information can be important to the researchers and developers working in this field, especially to new researchers.

Paper Nr: 89
Title:

### The Life Cycle of a Cutting-edge Technology Course - A Coaching Experience on Android

Authors:

#### Maria J. Blesa, Amalia Duch, Joaquim Gabarró and María J. Serna

Abstract: What is the role that a university should play in the spreading of cutting-edge technologies? It is argued here that one possibility is to bring focused cutting-edge technology courses in the standard curriculum. It is contended that such courses have shorter life-spans than conventional subjects and, consequently, their implementation needs to be more dynamic. These claims are backed by discussing the life-cycle of an Android course running biannually from Spring 2010 to Spring 2013 at Universitat Politécnica de Catalunya. The rise phase of this course (which lasted two semesters) was a challenging experience that motivated students and lecturers to play a cooperative and active role in the creation of true working Android applications. The course held stable for two semesters while student motivation began to fall as smart phones increasingly became everyday objects. During these two phases the course was offered as extra curricular in the undergraduate phase. Two added factors were instrumental in the decline (or fall) phase: the availability of on-line information and the fact that the course became a requirement of a master’s curriculum.

Paper Nr: 95
Title:

### Developed and Taught Course Modules to Enhance Cloud Computing Education

Authors:

#### Huiming Yu, Nakia Powell, Dexter Stembridge and Jonathan Rann

Abstract: Cloud computing (CC) is emerging as a promising solution to businesses and individual users. In order to effectively teach knowledge of CC we have developed three course modules, one education tool, and one real world project. These modules have been successfully taught in COMP 621 Web Security course in Spring 2011, Spring 2012 and Spring 2013 in the Department of Computer Science at XXXX. Our experience exhibits that teaching these modules helped students not only understand the need of CC, but also gained significant knowledge of CC and security architecture. Through a laboratory exercise and a real world project students gained hands-on experience. Students’ survey and feedback reflected that these modules and the laboratory exercise are very valuable in their educational experience. These modules and hands-on laboratory exercise could be used in software engineering, networking, Web security and other first year graduate level courses.

Paper Nr: 108
Title:

### A Technology Enhanced Assessment System for Skill and Knowledge Learning

Authors:

#### Enosha Hettiarachchi, Enric Mor, Maria Antonia Huertas and M. Elena Rodríguez

Abstract: This paper presents a technology-enhanced assessment system that can be used for both skill and knowledge learning. For this purpose, a general technology-enhanced assessment system is designed and developed for an online logic course at a fully online university, taking into account e-learning standards and specifications, which can be easily adapted to any institute and subject requiring a high level of skill learning. Through this system, both learning and formative assessment facilities are provided to students. To evaluate its effects on student learning process, the system is applied in a real logic course at the Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC). Based on the evaluation, it shows that students’ are more engaged with the system and, as a result, their performance in the subject had improved. Also, based on the feedback obtained through the evaluation, it shows that students are satisfied with the facilities and assessments provided by the system. Overall, the introduction of the technology-enhanced assessment system for skill and knowledge learning has yielded some interesting results.

Paper Nr: 123
Title:

### Developing Web-based Tutorial Modules to Support Training for Group-based Mentoring

Authors:

#### Sharon Locke, Georgia Bracey and Stephen Marlette

Abstract: This paper describes the development and implementation of a series of interactive online modules that serve as the core component of a mentor training program for middle school teachers in the Botball® Educational Robotics Program. Botball is an international team-based robotics competition for secondary students. Over the course of a season, students work together to design, build, and program a robot that will meet a particular challenge. Teachers play a critical role in this process as team mentors, but there is currently no mentor training available that is easily accessible to teachers in a variety of geographic locations. To meet this need, and as part of a larger research study, three STEM educators at a US Midwestern university created five Web-based modules designed to introduce users to the fundamentals of group mentoring. These research-based tutorials provide on-demand distance training that is engaging and reflective. We will discuss formative evaluation of the training gleaned from responses to open-ended survey questions given to the initial group of 33 teachers who piloted the modules as well as from interactive webinars offered throughout the training.

Paper Nr: 140
Title:

### Student Course Evaluation - Class Size, Class Level, Discipline and Gender Bias

Authors:

#### Jacob Kogan

Abstract: Based on approximately 25,000 Student Course Evaluation Questionnaires (SCEQ) covering 16 semesters from Spring 2005 through Fall 2012 and publicly available at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County’s website http://www.umbc.edu/oir/sceq/index.html, we analyze the effect of class level and discipline on student responses. We compare the results obtained and conclusions drown with those already reported in the literature.

Paper Nr: 142
Title:

### KASS: Korean Automatic Scoring System for Short-answer Questions

Authors:

#### Eun-Seo Jang, Seung-Shik Kang, Eun-Hee Noh, Myung-Hwa Kim, Kyung-Hee Sung and Tae-Je Seong

Abstract: The scoring of short-answer questions in a national-wide achievement test to public school students needs a lot of human efforts and financial expenses. Since we know that natural language processing technology can be applied to replace the manual scoring process by automatic scoring software, many researchers tried to build an automatic scoring system like c-rater and e-rater in English. In this paper, we explored a Korean automatic scoring system for short and free-text responses. NLP techniques like morphological analysis are used to build a token-based scoring template for increasing the coverage of the automatic scoring process. We performed an experiment to measure the efficiency of the automatic scoring system and it covered about 90 to 95% of the student responses with an agreement rate 95% to the manual scoring.

Paper Nr: 153
Title:

### A Blended Health Science Education Graduate Program - Integrating Technology Assignments into Coursework

Authors:

#### Sharla King, Kim Peacock and Lili Liu

Abstract: The Master of Education in Health Sciences Education (MEdHSE) program at the University of Alberta, Canada was created to address the need and desire of health professionals and clinical faculty to enhance their teaching, leadership, and educational research skills. A blended learning format was adopted to meet the needs of the learners, all full-time clinical/community educators. A technology integration strategy was developed that included a course focused on technology integration across the curriculum and technology-based assignments for each course. Support for instructors was ‘just-in-time’ with an educational technology consultant providing individual assistance for each instructor. The educational technologist and graduate students in an educational technology program supported students, with the majority of the assistance occurring early in the program. Students expressed mixed reviews with the technology-based assignments, but overall enjoy the blended learning experience.

Paper Nr: 168
Title:

### Integrating Computers, Science, and Mathematics - A Course for Future Mathematics Teachers

Authors:

#### Alfinio Flores

Abstract: A course for prospective secondary mathematics teachers was developed at the University of Delaware, based on professional recommendations to integrate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics in the preparation of teachers of mathematics. Students used GeoGebra, Cabri3D, and Mathematica to model phenomena in the physical, natural and social sciences. They used motion sensors and graphing calculators to study motion. They wrote Python programs to simulate random phenomena. They built a robot and controlled it with a computer program, and made explicit the mathematical and scientific concepts involved in the functioning of the robot. Several forms of formative and summative assessment were conducted during the course. Teachers learned alternative ways of looking at mathematical concepts, and established connections in mathematics and with other areas.

Paper Nr: 176
Title:

### The Virtual Classroom - A Pilot Case in Inquiry Based Learning

Authors:

#### Pavel Boytchev, Eliza Stefanova, Nikolina Nikolova and Krassen Stefanov

Abstract: This paper discusses a pilot case held in First Private Mathematical School, Sofia, Bulgaria that explores the Inquiry Based Learning through a specially developed virtual classroom. The paper describes the motivation for using Inquiry Based Learning and how it will be gradually implemented through several pilot experiments. It reveals the design and the educational concepts embedded in the software tool used in the pilots: virtual classroom. The paper concludes with a discussion about the results of the pilot and plans for the next round of experiments.

Paper Nr: 185
Title:

### How do Student Evaluations of Courses and of Instructors Relate?

Authors:

#### Tamara Sliusarenko, Line H. Clemmensen and Bjarne Kjær Ersbøll

Abstract: Course evaluations are widely used by educational institutions to assess the quality of teaching. At the course evaluations, students are usually asked to rate different aspects of the course and of the teaching. We propose to apply canonical correlation analysis (CCA) in order to investigate the degree of association between how students evaluate the course and how students evaluate the teacher. Additionally it is possible to reveal the structure of this association. Student evaluations data is characterized by high correlations between the variables within each set of variables, therefore two modifications of the CCA method; regularized CCA and sparse CCA, together with classical CCA were applied to find the most interpretable model. Both methods give results with increased interpretability over traditional CCA on the present student evaluation data. The method shows robustness when evaluations over several years are examined.

Paper Nr: 215
Title:

### Academic Frontier-based Approach Based on Constructivism

Authors:

#### Nuo Liu, Shengli Yang, Bing Feng and Liangyin Chen

Abstract: For the purpose of combination of the basic and academic frontier knowledge by the application of the theory of constructivist learning in order to trace the rapid development of microelectronics, Academic frontier-based approach (AFA) is presented. The learner-centered instructional approach is valuable for promoting active learning by involving learners in learning academic frontier topics in an open-ended and collaborative environment. The design and implementation enrich the teaching modes and the content of the key curriculums in depth. It is effective in achieving positive and higher cognitive goals.

Paper Nr: 220
Title:

### Using Technology to Accelerate the Construction of Concept Inventories - Latent Semantic Analysis and the Biology Concept Inventory

Authors:

#### Kathy Garvin-Doxas, Michael Klymkowsky, Isidoros Doxas and Walter Kintsch

Abstract: Concept Inventories are multiple choice instruments that map students’ conceptual understanding in a given subject area. They underpin some of the most effective teaching methods in science education, but they are labour intensive and expensive to construct, which limits their wide use in instruction. We describe how we use Latent Semantic Analysis to accelerate the construction of Concept Inventories in general, and the Biology Concept Inventory in particular.

Paper Nr: 248
Title:

### Transforming Experience of Computer Science Software Development Through Developing a Usable Multiplayer Online Game in One Semester

Authors:

#### Ilmi Yoon and Eun-young Elaine Kang

Abstract: We present an instructional design of computer science project-based course to transform students’ experiences of acquiring software development skills. In a collaborative classroom emulating a typical industry work setting, students will collectively create and build a Multiplayer Online Game using a variety of complex software components. A course was taught to design and develop a working Multiplayer Online Game within one semester: building a ready-to-usable game in one semester with whole classmates presents significant challenges to cope with and stimulate students to realize the important aspects of teamwork and software engineering principles. Students present their progress, discuss future milestones and trouble shoots, update documents for clearer communication and utilize source control tool throughout the semester. Unlike usual class setting, all students worked collaboratively together like one company to achieve the goal. In the class, students started from concept design and developed specific components of working Multiplayer Online Game, while broadly learning game design, 3D graphics, Game Engine, Server-client architecture, Game Protocol, network programming, database, Software Engineering principles, and large application development as a team project. The course was successfully transferred to CSULA in Fall Quarter, 2013.

Posters
Paper Nr: 19
Title:

### Layered Evaluation Based on Timed Automata for Educational Scenarios - Case Study on Blended Learning

Authors:

#### Manel Bensassi and Mona Laroussi

Abstract: The evaluation of educational scenario is important to educators. It is one of the most challenging tasks that the pedagogical designer is faced with. In fact, the high cost of the implementation of learning scenarios in distance learning and the complexity of their context and their functionalities emphasize the need to evaluate and to simulate them in order to detect inconsistencies and incompleteness and to later provide valuable feedback and recommendations to designers. In this paper, we propose a formal and layered evaluation based on Timed Automata theory. We believe that this approach allows designers to evaluate scenarios at an early stage to avoid costly and time-consuming scenarios implementation or deployment. The proposed approach aims to simulate scenario’s execution on real time in order to detect deficiencies (such as deadlocks and livelocks) and then to regulate scenario with contextual constraints. We outline how this evaluation could be applied at different levels of learning scenarios’ granularity.

Paper Nr: 20
Title:

### Hints for Organizing a Successful Doctoral Symposium - An Experience Report

Authors:

#### Claudia Raibulet and Eila Ovaska

Abstract: This paper describes our joint experience in organizing a Doctoral Symposium co-located with one of the main software engineering conferences. It presents the issues we addressed during the organization of the symposium, as well as during the symposium. This paper is addressed (1) to the organizers of Doctoral Symposiums aiming to provide a recipe with the main ingredients and preparation steps and their related significance in the entire organization process, as well as (2) to the PhD students providing our feedback on the expectations, evaluation, and presentation of their contributions.

Paper Nr: 57
Title:

### Continuous Assessment in Civil Engineering Education - Yes, but with Some Conditions

Authors:

#### F. J. Martín-Carrasco, A. Granados, D. Santillan and L. Mediero

Abstract: Adapting Spanish curricula to the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) implies the introduction of continuous assessment. Continuous assessment is generally considered to enhance students' learning. The new methodology contrasts with the traditional Spanish method of assessment, based only on exams. This paper compares the student’s learning under these assessment methods in Civil Engineering (Civ.Eng.). The results of 16 consecutive years of assessment of a technological subject (Hydraulic Engineering) have been analysed. Assessment during the first 8 years was performed only by final exams; and onwards by classroom exercises, computer tests in a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) and final exams. Rates of students that passed are clearly higher in this latter period, what seems to support that a better learning is achieved under continuous assessment. However, when analyzed in detail, it is found that exams scores are significantly lower during the continuous evaluation period. Sometimes the appearance of a higher grade may mask a lower level of learning. The reasons lie in the psychology of the students, since they reduce their effort once a satisfactory score is achieved in the periodical training. The paper examines what elements should be incorporated to continuous assessment to improve student's learning.

Paper Nr: 62
Title:

### Game-based Learning in IT Service Transition - The Case of a Mobile Sales Service by a Small Team in Brazil

Authors:

#### Thiago Paiva Brito, Josias Paes and J. Antão B. Moura

Abstract: IT Service Transition (ITST) is naturally challenging because it usually involves changes that run counter customer and provider staffs’ preconceptions, habits and established practices. Changes that affect implicit or explicit business processes (BP) adopted by the provider’s Service Transition team are particularly daunting since they may impact the team’s morale negatively and contaminate customer’s personnel who might be anxious to start with. Inability to properly implement and manage changes due to Service Transition process adjustments and retooling may lengthen deployment time, lower quality and even cause the provider to fail. In order to efficiently handle such changes, the provider’s ITST team must be motivated towards, trained in and quickly made proficient with new work tools, routines and practices. This paper provides preliminary evidence that blending Business Process Management (BPM) to gamification concepts and tools can accelerate learning in an IT Service Transition context. For that, we consider the case of a small IT Service provider in Brazil when transitioning a sales support IT service from Palm OS to Android devices.

Paper Nr: 72
Title:

### Blended Learning as a Strategic Method Against the Illegal Use of Internet

Authors:

#### Julija Lapuh Bele, Andreja Sladoje Jemec, David Rozman and Maja Dimc

Abstract: The article addresses the issue of strategic prevention and fight against cybercrime related to children and teenagers with the use of blended learning in order to establish greater awareness and increase the knowledge of children, teenagers as, parents and educators regarding illegal internet content and related activities. Based on the theoretical background, practical experience and the analysis of questionnaires, we have prepared blended learning courses for each target group, which aim to raise the awareness of stakeholders (i.e. children, teenagers, teachers, parents) and contribute to cybercrime prevention and victim assistance.

Paper Nr: 86
Title:

### Detecting Math-and-ICT Competence

Authors:

#### Maria Shabanova and Borislav Lazarov

Abstract: Theoretically DGS (dynamic geometry software) environment allows developing students’ critical thinking via discovering some properties of the figures by exploring DGS applets. Our goal is to examine how this theory works in teaching a new non-trivial geometry concept. We study which van Hiele’s level of geometrical reasoning is covered by the students in two cases. The first testing group worked in Socratic style of teaching without any time limit. The second one was restricted to the regular classroom parameters and the teacher applied instructional mode of teaching. The topic is the introduction of a new locus not included in the standard curriculum but in the students’ zone of proximal development. We are interested in the transition of knowledge and skills developed in paper-and-pencil context to the DGS environment. The transition we consider as an indicator of competence of synthetic type. As the outcomes of the study, some important details of incorporating DGS in teaching-learning process in secondary school were clarified.

Paper Nr: 99
Title:

### Better Feedback for Educational Online Judges

Authors:

#### Anaga Mani, Divya Venkataramani, Jordi Petit and Salvador Roura

Abstract: The verdicts of most online programming judges are, essentially, binary: the submitted codes are either “good enough” or not. Whilst this policy is appropriate for competitive or recruitment platforms, it can hinder the adoption of online judges on educative settings, where it could be adequate to provide better feedback to a student (or instructor) that has submitted a wrong code. An obvious option would be to just show him or her an instance where the code fails. However, that particular instance could be not very significant, and so could induce unreflectively patching the code. The approach considered in this paper is to data mine all the past incorrect submissions by all the users of the judge, so to extract a small subset of private test cases that may be relevant to most future users. Our solution is based on parsing the test files, building a bipartite graph, and solving a Set Cover problem by means of Integer Linear Programming. We have tested our solution with a hundred problems in Jutge.org. Those experiments suggest that our approach is general, efficient, and provides high quality results.

Paper Nr: 128
Title:

### A Problem-based Learning Case Study for Teaching Voice over Internet Protocol - VoIP - Using Asterisk as a Tool for Teaching VoIP for Information Technology Classes

Authors:

#### M. C. Dias, C. F. Gabi, E. P. Rodrigues, V. R. Souza and A. Perkusich

Abstract: This paper shows the use of PBL (Problem-Based Learning) technique as a key to learning VoIP in courses like Electrical Engineering and Computer Networks in conjunction with open source and the public domain software called Asterisk which was used to create the scenario of the experiment and the problems presented to the students. In order to make the validation, the experiment was applied to students of Bachelor in Electrical Engineering and in Communication Technology System, undergraduate courses at the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Paraíba – IFPB, in the Telephony subject, with promising results. The Asterisk software was presented as a useful and flexible tool for constructing scenarios and problems for the teaching of VoIP technologies and the used approach resulted as effective for improving the attainment of the defined learning objectives.

Paper Nr: 129
Title:

### Partial Correctness and Continuous Integration in Computer Supported Education

Authors:

#### Daniela Fonte, Ismael Vilas Boas, Nuno Oliveira, Daniela da Cruz, Alda Lopes Gançarski and Pedro Rangel Henriques

Abstract: In this paper we support the idea that students and teachers will benefit from a computer-based system that assesses programming exercises and provide immediate and detailed feedback: students would be able to evolve in the right direction and teachers would follow and assess more fairly their students. This assessment should outperform the typical right/wrong evaluation returned by existing tools, allowing for a flexible partial evaluation. Moreover, we adopt a concept from Agile Development, the Continuous Integration (CI), to improve students’ effectiveness. The applicability of CI reflects a better monitoring by the teams and their individual members, also providing the ability to improve the speed of the development. Besides the description of the capabilities that we require from an Automatic Grading System (AGS), we discuss iQuimera, an improved AGS that we are working on, that implements our teaching/learning principles.

Paper Nr: 137
Title:

### The HumanoidLab - Involving Students in a Research Centre Through an Educational Initiative

Authors:

#### Guillem Alenyà, José Luis Rivero, Aleix Rull, Patrick Grosch and Sergi Hernández

Abstract: The HumanoidLab is a more than 5 year old activity aimed to use educational robots to approach students to our Research Centre. Different commercial educative humanoid platforms have been used to introduce students to different aspects of robotics using projects and offering guidance and assistance. About 40 students have performed small mechanics, electronics or programming projects that are used to improve the robots by adding features. Robotics competitions are used as a motivation tool. A two weeks course was started that has received 80 undergraduate students, and more than 100 secondary school students in a short version. The experience has been very positive for students and for the institution: some of these students have performed their scholar projects and research in robotics and continue enrolled in the robotics field, and some of them are currently in research groups at IRI.

Paper Nr: 165
Title:

### Using Self-service Business Intelligence for Learning Decision Making with Business Simulation Games

Authors:

#### Waranya Poonnawat and Peter Lehmann

Abstract: This position paper presents, firstly, the evolution of decision support systems (DSS) and the challenges in teaching in the field of DSS. Secondly, the concepts of management process, decision support technology, self-service business intelligence (SSBI), business simulation games and literature search results on business games associated with DSS are presented. Lastly, we suggest a conceptual framework of using DSS/SSBI on top of business simulation games to support better decision making.

Paper Nr: 166
Title:

Authors:

#### Christian Queinnec

Abstract: As many others, we too are developping a Massive Online Open Course or MOOC. This MOOC will teach recursive programming to beginners and will heavily use an already existing infrastructure for mechanical grading (Queinnec, 2010). This position paper discusses how these two components are combined in order to increase students’ involvement.

Paper Nr: 170
Title:

### Learning Support System for Paleontological Environment Based on Body Experience and Sense of Immersion - Extinct Animals Move in Synchronization with Human Actions

Authors:

#### Tomohiro Nakayama, Kaori Izuishi, Fusako Kusunoki, Ryuichi Yoshida, Takayuki Adachi, Takeki Ogitsu, Hiroshi Takemura, Hiroshi Mizoguchi and Shigenori Inagaki

Abstract: This paper proposes a simulation-based learning support system that animates extinct animals in synchronization with a human’s location and actions. The system provides learners with a near-real body experience, and the sense that they have entered the paleontological environment. The aim of the proposed system is for this experience to improve the learning effect. Obviously, it is impossible for learners to experience the actual paleontological environment, and it is therefore difficult for them to understand the link between this environment and its actuality. This difficulty can be decreased by the proposed system, which provides learners with a real body experience and sense of immersion. At this point in time, the authors are implementing a system based on the proposed concept. As a preliminary evaluation, we conduct an experiment using the system, and interview the participants about the improvement in the learning effect. The experimental results confirm that most learners feel a tangible improvement in the learning effect due to the enjoyment of moving their body during the learning process.

Paper Nr: 172
Title:

### Multiple Line System for Visualizing and Sharing Students’ Commitment on the Tablet PC

Authors:

#### Keita Muratsu, Hideo Funaoi, Etsuji Yamaguchi and Shigenori Inagaki

Abstract: We enhanced and evaluated a system for visualizing and sharing the students’ commitment to multiple ideas that runs on the iPad/iPad mini. This system has the following two functions: a) the function for the student to represent his/her commitment to multiple ideas, and b) the function to count the distribution of the students’ commitment. We conducted a science lesson using this system targeting Japanese sixth grade elementary school students. Students were asked to input their commitment to the ideas each time they conducted an experiment. Subsequent to drawing the line the second time, the whole class discussed the commitment situations using the counting function. After the lesson, we investigated students’ impression about the usability of the system and class discussion using the counting function. The results showed that this system was quite easy to use and effective in supporting learning that focuses on tracking the process of commitment change.

Paper Nr: 177
Title:

### STEM Education - Students Touch Space Through Free Robotics Programming Competition

Authors:

#### Jenny Liu, Wendy Feenstra, Alvar Saenz Otero and Kathleen Magrane

Abstract: This position paper discusses the use of the Zero Robotics Summer Program competition as a tool to teach programing to students in middle school (ages 11-14). The benefits of teaching programing at that age are discussed, including grasping the student attention early on and providing a useful skill. Zero Robotics is a free programming competition where students program microsatellites to compete with other student-programmed satellites in a virtual game using an online simulation. The finalists see their code compete on the SPHERES satellites aboard the International Space Station, during a final competition transmitted live. The game and curriculum teaches students physics, mathematics, and programming concepts. This position paper argues that it is possible to engage students in programing by providing the right incentive (space) through a competitive environment where teachers have a curriculum to back them up, without becoming a standard classroom exercise.

Paper Nr: 179
Title:

### An Alternate Learning Approach for Destructive Testing in Civil Engineering - Benefits from Remote Laboratory Experimentation

Authors:

#### Xuemei Liu, Nannan Zong and Manicka Dhanasekar

Abstract: An alternative learning approach for destructive testing of structural specimens in civil engineering is explored by using a remote laboratory experimentation method. The remote laboratory approach focuses on overcoming the constraints in the hands-on experimentation without compromising the understanding of the students on the concepts and mechanics of reinforced concrete structures. The goal of this study is to evaluate whether or not the remote laboratory experimentation approach can become a standard in civil engineering teaching. The teaching activity using remote-laboratory experimentation is presented here and the outcomes of this activity are outlined. The experience and feedback gathered from this study are used to improve the remote-laboratory experimentation approach in future years to other aspects of civil engineering where destructive testing is essential.

Paper Nr: 186
Title:

### Reflections on the Use of a Personal Response System (PRS) for Summative Assessment in an Undergraduate Taught Module

Authors:

#### Alan Hilliard

Abstract: This paper outlines the author’s experience of using a Personal Response System (PRS) for summative assessment in a 3rd year undergraduate taught module, over a 2 year period. The rationale for implementation of this method of assessment was a relatively high failure rate in the previous written examination (37%), and to reduce the marking burden for the teaching team. Key challenges identified with the implementation of the assessment process were reliability of the hardware/software, and student and staff confidence with the PRS and assessment process. Following the introduction of the new assessment method, the assessment failure rate was reduced to 9%. The PRS was seen as a good tool for summative assessment and received very positive student feedback comments. The PRS proved to be reliable, and with support and guidance, both students and staff felt confident with the process.

Paper Nr: 193
Title:

### Two New Concepts in Video Podcasts - Minimalist Slides and Modular Teaching Mini-videos

Authors:

#### Emilio Letón and Elisa M. Molanes-López

Abstract: Nowadays the main learning resources are traditional board, slides and video podcasts. Each of them with their own strengths and weaknesses. Analysing the advantages and disadvantages of the traditional board and slides we have created, with the advantages of both resources, a new concept that we have named “minimalist slides”. Using the minimalist slides we have introduced a new type of video podcast that we have named “modular teaching mini-video”.

Paper Nr: 232
Title:

### The Image of Images as an Aid to Improve Learning - An Eye-tracking Experiment Studying the Effect of Contrasts in Computer-based Learning Material

Authors:

#### Mona Holmqvist Olander, Eva Wennås Brante and Marcus Nyström

Abstract: This study addresses differences in the design of computer-based learning materials—text with or without pictures—and the aim is to show in what way these differences affect learning outcomes. In total, 46 young adults participated: 19 with dyslexia and 27 controls. Approximately half of each group received the condition text only, and half received the text and an integrated picture. The learning material was presented on computer screens, and the participants’ viewing patterns were registered by eye-tracking. The respondents answered text-based and picture-based questions, as well as oral questions, during the experiment. The assumptions about learning are based on variation theory and on the importance of contrasts in discerning important aspects of the learning material. The results show that whether material of the same content (surrealism) is presented in text only (without explicit contrasts embedded in the text) or in text and picture form (which offers a contrast) affects learning outcomes, particularly for the participants with dyslexia, who showed a fourfold increase from pre-test to post-test (from .10 to .40).

Paper Nr: 235
Title:

### Mediator-learner Dyad - Cooperative Relationships

Authors:

#### Gilda Helena Bernardino de Campos and Gianna Oliveira Bogossian Roque

Abstract: This study presents results from a quali-quantitative research looking for evidence on the pedagogical mediation influence on the academic performance of distance learning students. For the systematization of the responses to the research question, a content analysis was performed using the Alceste method. An explanation for the evidence of the mediation relevance to the student professional performance, following from the dyad for cooperation concept, based on social psychology theoretical underpinnings, founded on the philosophy of the Hegelian logic. These concepts paved the ground on which the analysis was deployed.

Paper Nr: 244
Title:

### Using Activity Theory in Developing Instructial Tools for Project Management Studies

Authors:

#### Maritta Pirhonen

Abstract: Competence and skills of the project manager are significant to project success. The skills needed in project managers’ work cannot be learned only by reading the books or a lecture hall; one learns them by practice. Therefore, an important challenge for educational institutions is to develop pedagogical practices that allow students to participate in working life projects and to confront real-life problems. Project-based learning (PBL) offers a model that enables students to practice the skills and competences needed in working life projects by utilizing real-world work assignments in time-limited projects. Using PBL method alone does not necessarily guarantee learning result. In order to be successful, PBL method requires effective and competent supervision and guidance of students as well as appropriate tools for instruction. In this study the concepts from activity theory (AT) are applied to development tools for supervising project-based learning.

Paper Nr: 252
Title:

### r(e)flect - The Reflective Teaching Material about Energy, Behaviour and Product Development

Authors:

#### Magdalena Boork, Susanne Engström, Rebekah Olsen and Therese Balksjö

Abstract: r(e)flect is a tangible curriculum kit for students age 10-15 to reflect on energy behaviour and make better informed choices about energy use. Along with web-based material, the kit includes a minicomputer, smart plugs (sensors), and an electricity visualization tool especially designed to be used in the classroom to conduct experiments and measurements, perform project work in product development, and increase the understanding of the kWh concept. The curriculum is closely connected to the new Swedish National curriculum and supplies the teachers with appropriate support for assessment of different skills. The project was initiated in 2011 and a first version of the curriculum was tested and evaluated with students and teachers. The feedback from this trial influenced the second iteration of the kit. The new version will be tested in at least 20 schools during the spring of 2014 and this second phase will continue until 2015. The physical r(e)flect material can be borrowed by teachers free of charge, and the web-based platform is open and accessible to anyone.

Paper Nr: 256
Title:

### Supporting Creative Design Processes for the Support of Creative Mathematical Thinking - Capitalising on Cultivating Synergies between Math Education and Environmental Education

Authors:

#### Chronis Kynigos and Maria Daskolia

Abstract: Mathematical creativity is acknowledged as a backbone lifelong competence necessary to be fostered in all students. However, this is not an easy task to accomplish, due not only to a lack of appropriate technologies enabling the creative design of digital educational resources for creative mathematical thinking (CMT), but also to the absence of insightful methodologies to support creative design processes of this kind among professionals. The Mathematical Creativity Squared (MC2) project aims to address this twofold problem in the following ways: (a) by designing and developing a new genre of technological environment for the design of CMT resources, 'the c-book' environment, and (b) by adopting and further developing a methodology based on the generation of Communities of Interest (CoI) as a social milieu which will facilitate the creative design of CMT resources in collectives of educational designers stemming from diverse professional and educational domains. Especially with regards to the latter, the rationale is that CoIs will support synergies among designers with a math education background with others carrying a more socially-relevant educational orientation, such as environmental educators and educators for sustainable development, both on epistemological and pedagogical level, with the aim that their 'boundary crossing' interactions will positively effect social creativity in the design process for digital resources for CMT.

## Area 3 - Social Context and Learning Environments

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 1
Title:

### Structuring Collaboration Scripts - Optimizing Online Group Work on Classroom Dilemmas in Teacher Education

Authors:

#### Hans Hummel, Walter Geerts, Aad Slootmaker, Derek Kuipers and Wim Westera

Abstract: The optimal structure in collaboration scripts for serious games has appeared to be a key success factor. In this study we compare a ‘high- structured’ and ‘low-structured’ version of a mastership game where teachers-in-training discuss solutions on classroom dilemmas. We collected data on the differences in learning effects and student appreciation. The most interesting result shows that reports delivered by students that played the low-structured version received significantly higher teacher grades when compared to the high-structured version. [A shortened version of the paper has been included for copyright reasons.]

Paper Nr: 41
Title:

### MOOCs - A Review of the State-of-the-Art

Authors:

#### Ahmed Mohamed Fahmy Yousef, Mohamed Amine Chatti, Ulrik Schroeder, Marold Wosnitza and Harald Jakobs

Abstract: Massive open online courses (MOOCs) have drastically changed the way we learn as well as how we teach. The main aim of MOOCs is to provide new opportunities to a massive number of learners to attend free online courses from anywhere all over the world. MOOCs have unique features that make it an effective technology-enhanced learning (TEL) model in higher education and beyond. The number of academic publications around MOOCs has grown rapidly in the last few years. The purpose of this paper is to compile and analyze the state-of-the-art in MOOC research that has been conducted in the past five years. A template analysis was used to map the conducted research on MOOCs into seven dimensions, namely concept, design, learning theories, case studies, business model, targets groups, and assessment. This classification schema aims at providing a comprehensive overview for readers who are interested in MOOCs to foster a common understanding of key concepts in this emerging field. The paper further suggests new challenges and opportunities for future work in the area of MOOCs that will support communication between researchers as they seek to address these challenges.

Paper Nr: 65
Title:

### Introducing Accessibility for Blind Users to Sighted Computer Science Students - The Aesthetics of Tools, Pursuits, and Characters

Authors:

#### Răzvan Rughiniș and Cosima Rughiniș

Abstract: We analyze current approaches in motivating students to pursue accessibility, with a focus on blind users, by examining scientific reports of courses in the computer science and engineering curriculum. We identify three main motivational resorts: a ‘web of arguments’, referring to issues of morality, legality, and interest; the practice of mainstreaming, which normalizes accessibility, and empathy. We argue that an aesthetic frame could contribute to a forceful, persistent motivation, and we propose an aesthetic motivational repertoire, on three dimensions: aesthetic value of technological tools, of engineers’ own work, and of their direct and indirect relationships with blind persons. We present arguments, practices, and online resources to support teachers that introduce accessibility for blind users to sighted students.

Paper Nr: 135
Title:

### Using a Participatory Design Approach to Create and Sustain an Innovative Technology-rich STEM Classroom - One School's Story

Authors:

#### Mary L. Stephen, Sharon M. Locke and Georgia L. Bracey

Abstract: This paper describes the design and implementation of a technology-rich STEM classroom in a secondary school associated with a comprehensive U.S. Midwestern university. Built to address a waning interest in STEM and STEM careers, this classroom offers multiple technologies and an engaging, flexible physical space that together create an innovative learning environment. A participatory design approach was utilized in order to maximize the use and sustainability of the classroom. Students, teachers, and administrators from the secondary school worked in collaboration with university faculty and staff and with Herman Miller®, an international design company that conducts learning-space research. In addition to the design process, this paper outlines successes and challenges encountered in implementation, as well as strategies used in addressing the challenges, providing guidance for other educational organizations seeking to infuse advanced technologies into classroom design and instruction.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 5
Title:

### International eLearning - Innovation in Practice

Authors:

Abstract: The global demand for higher education cannot be met through traditional structures and delivery methods or by adhering to elitist and cost-prohibitive paradigms. Tertiary education through distance delivery provides opportunity for individuals to recognize their potential and improve their life conditions. Innovative approaches to distance learning can remove barriers and support access for a range of learners. This study reports on findings from an intrinsic case study of two institutions. These institutions have developed eLearning models that provide global access and address the needs of diverse learners. An understanding of these models can contribute to innovative practices at other institutions.

Paper Nr: 71
Title:

### Instructor Support in Collaborative Multiplayer Serious Games for Learning - Game Mastering in the Serious Game ’Woodment’

Authors:

#### Viktor Wendel, Michael Gutjahr, Stefan Göbel and Ralf Steinmetz

Abstract: In collaborative digital learning scenarios with small groups (3-6 users), the role of the instructor is vital as he/she is responsible for preparation of the setting, observation, coaching, moderation and adaptation. Currently, in multiplayer Serious Games, the role of the instructor is only insufficiently considered. Only very few approaches for integrating or supporting instructors in collaborative multiplayer Serious Games exist today, to the best of our knowledge. In this paper, we propose a concept for integration and support of instructors in team-based collaborative 3D multiplayer Serious Games. Our approach is based on Game Mastering principles known from roleplay games. It combines those principles with concepts for collaborative learning scenarios. We applied our concept to the existing 3D multiplayer Serious Game Woodment and tested it in a vocational school with 26 players in four groups (age: m= 19.12; sd= 2.03). Results indicate that an instructor using our Game Master framework to moderate and adapt the game at runtime can have a positive effect on both the players’ learning success and perceived user experience. Moreover, a positive effect on players’ gaming behavior can be observed.

Paper Nr: 74
Title:

### Observational Research Social Network - Interaction and Security

Authors:

#### Rui Pedro Lopes and Cristina Mesquita

Abstract: Quality in education depend heavily on the teachers’ professional development, as a mean for pedagogical methodologies and practice improvement. In this sense, learning is enhanced by sharing and working in a community of practice, a learning organization that generate knowledge and allow members to innovate. In this context, children observation is fundamental, allowing a sound basis for reflection and action around learning experiences and teaching environments. Specific guidelines and programs, such as the EEL/DQP, can help reducing the inherent subjectivity, providing a common base for teachers and the preschool education community. In this paper we propose an online, web based community to improve the observation process as well as the communication between researchers. The social relations are identified and the security issues are discussed.

Paper Nr: 115
Title:

### Educating the Future with Disruptive e-Learning Solutions

Authors:

#### Merija Jirgensons

Abstract: e-Learning is having a strong impact on Higher Education. It is reinventing approaches to education and is causing sharp debates among its practitioners about the future direction of learning. Advocates argue that e-learning is a viable option to combat the high cost of higher education; that it extends educational opportunities to a greater number of students; that it trains students for the emerging Knowledge Economy. In fact, the e-learning education market has seen a continuous influx of new players; not only are traditional universities going online, but for-profit universities are emerging, some having a global reach, and most recently MOOCs (massive online open courses) that are offered as online education for free—many from elite universities that were the last to go online. These developments have created debates over assessment and accreditation. Educator Clayton Christensen calls e-learning “the great disrupted” that is transforming the higher education landscape. Yet even with the steady increase of e-learning options, e-learning is still regarded as inferior to traditional forms of learning. Critics regard is as too business and vocationally orientated, unmindful of questions of quality. This paper looks at some of the issues surrounding the controversy of e-learning options and makes some recommendations as to its improvement.

Paper Nr: 122
Title:

### Revamping the Classroom - Teaching Mobile App Software Development Using Creative Inquiry

Authors:

#### Roy P. Pargas and Barbara J. Speziale

Abstract: Teaching mobile device software development is challenging. Almost everything about it is different from teaching a traditional software development class in which the target computer (on which the software developed by the students is to run) is a laptop or desktop computer. In a mobile device software development course, the target computer is a device (smartphone or tablet) that has a large number of features (Internet access, camera, GPS, gyroscope, media display, etc.) accessible by software. The material that must be covered in such as course is so broad that new approaches to delivering course content must be used. This paper describes the overall method by which we teach such a course. We describe four challenges and explain how we address each. We describe the structure of the course in detail, explain how a class policy of open collaboration and a university program called Creative Inquiry complement the proposed approach. We conclude with student evaluations and examples of apps we have produced over the past several years.

Paper Nr: 204
Title:

### How Youth Construct Learning Trajectories in the Digital Age?

Authors:

#### Pasqueline Dantas Scaico and Ruy José Guerra Barretto de Queiroz

Abstract: People living with decentralization of knowledge and high connectivity. Digital media has changed how we learn and the settings in which learning occurs. Nowadays, we have the opportunity to experience many different experiences through the media and social networks, especially youngers. Although formal spaces are still the main reference for the learning process, the relevance of non-formal and informal spaces cannot be ignored, as well as the amount of learning that is being learned and the nature of this learning. This paper presents an ongoing research which will seek to understand how young people recognize and construct their learning trajectories through digital spaces and what metrics are valid to outline how knowledge moves between these spaces. The research method is qualitative in nature and will be supported in longitudinal studies, which will be the basis for interpreting models capable of representing such paths.

Paper Nr: 206
Title:

### A Computer-based Educational Adventure Challenging Children to Interact with the Natural Environment Through Physical Exploration and Experimentation

Authors:

#### Uwe Terton and Ian White

Abstract: The researchers’ paper discusses the development of a computer-based educational game which challenges children to interact with the natural environment through physical exploration and experimentation. The researchers’ project seeks to counteract the negative behaviours associated with excessive computer game play amongst children 8 to 12 years old. By leveraging the positive learning outcomes that can be achieved through computer gaming and combining these with outdoor learning strategies, Jumping the Fence encourages children to take responsibility for surveying and caring for a local ecosystem. The game requires children to reflect critically on their computer use, become more physically active, gain social skills and develop an affinity towards nature. Educators are able to adapt the game to their school's own curriculum and thereby provide an alternative learning strategy that encourages physical and social engagement.

Paper Nr: 211
Title:

### Learning with Strangers - The Value of Sets in Online Learning

Authors:

#### Jon Dron and Terry Anderson

Abstract: Most research and practice relating to online and distance learning to date has focused on the social form of the intentional group, a named collection of people, typically hierarchically organized, with norms and/or explicit rules of conduct as well as inclusion or exclusion, membership, pacing and shared goals. The group provides a backdrop and infrastructure support for formal or informal learning activities. Since the last decade of the 20th century a different social form, the network, has been the subject of much research in informal and non-formal learning. Increasingly, however, we teach and we learn with and from countless anonymous others that are not formed into either identifiable networks or groups. We describe a collection of people who share little apart from interests or attributes but that none-the-less affect one another’s learning as the Set. Under the right conditions, collective intelligence (or collectives) can emerge from such sets that can actively guide learning. In this paper we explore the nature of set-based learning and the role that collectives can play in helping or hindering learning.

Paper Nr: 213
Title:

### Higher Education Academic Staff: Professional Identity and Sense of Community as the Key to Enhancing Teaching Quality - The Culture of Sharing Educational Resources in the Catalan University System

Authors:

#### Teresa Sancho Vinuesa, M. Rosa Estela Carbonell, Clàudia Sànchez Bonvehí and Joana Villalonga Pons

Abstract: This study presents an analysis of the main features of teaching community of the Catalan university system, from both the individual activity of professors and the sense of belonging to a community. The basis of the present study is the meaning and the sense of community: a required factor for collaboration between professors, sharing and reusing teaching resources and, for ultimately, the success of a teaching and learning resources repository. Common goals that determine a community of practice can encourage collaboration through the network. The discussion presented here is based on the analysis of the pilot program “Col•laboratori Interuniversitari de Recursos d’Aprenentatge en Xarxa” (CIRAX), developed in 2013 in the field of teaching and learning introductory mathematics in the Catalan university system.

Paper Nr: 222
Title:

### Guided Participatory Research on Parallel Computer Architectures for K-12 Students Through a Narrative Approach

Authors:

#### Valentina Mazzoni, Luigina Mortari, Federico Corni and Davide Bertozzi

Abstract: The approach to computer science (CS) education is typically geared towards the knowledge of the principles behind information technology, but there are social indicators that it overlooks some important educative aspects such as thinking competences and social attitudes. Such aspects play a fundamental role when bringing CS education to the K-12 level. In order to enable a truly educational experience, we propose to bring specific CS research problems within reach of K-12 students, because the active knowledge construction process that takes place during research requires children to be engaged with all of their knowledge, skills and attitudes. This poses the challenge of overcoming the knowledge gap of students, which we address by means of a synergistic cooperation of CS experts and educators. More specifically, we propose the narrative approach as the key enabler for CS participatory research with K-12 students.

Paper Nr: 224
Title:

### The Impact of High Dropout Rates in a Large Public Brazilian University - A Quantitative Approach Using Educational Data Mining

Authors:

#### Laci Mary Barbosa Manhães, Sérgio Manuel Serra da Cruz and Geraldo Zimbrão

Abstract: This paper uses educational data mining techniques to identify the variables that can help educational managers to detect students that present low performance or are in risk to dropout their undergraduate education. We investigated real world academic data of students of the largest Public Federal Brazilian University. We established three categories of students with different academic trajectory in order to investigate their performance and the dropout rates. This study shows that even analyzing three different classes of 14.000 students it was possible to have a global precision above 80% for several classification algorithms. The results of Naïve Bayes model were used to support the quantitative analysis. In this work, we stress that even few differences between the three classes of students that can be perceived on the basis of qualitative information.

Posters
Paper Nr: 197
Title:

### Strategies for Harnessing the Collective Intelligence of Cultural Institutions’ Communities - Considerations on Supporting Heterogeneous Groups in Content Production Taking the Quality Factor into Consideration

Authors:

#### Leonardo Moura de Araújo

Abstract: This support paper builds a theoretical model upon which computer platforms for cultural institutions can be based upon. It analyses three landmark models in the Computer Science history that were capable of harnessing the Collective Intelligence present on gravitating communities. Afterwards, conclusions are drawn regarding their effectiveness in leveraging communities. Instructional Scaffolding and Design Thinking are indicated as important strategies to provide the necessary support to heterogeneous groups.

Paper Nr: 223
Title:

### Investing in Ephemeral Virtual Worlds - An Educational Perspective

Authors:

#### Athanasios Christopoulos and Marc Conrad

Abstract: The increased demand for the use of virtual worlds in higher education has led many educators and researchers in in-depth analysis and evaluation of a number of different virtual environments, aiming to highlight their potentials. Until recently, Second Life was one of the most widely used virtual worlds for educational purposes. However, the decision of Linden Lab to stop offering the educational discount, the rumours around its future and the emergence of a novel technology called OpenSim challenged institutions’ decisions to keep using Second Life. In a try to identify the way institutions make their decision to use a virtual world, 34 interviews have been conducted with university educators. The results of this study reveal that both the cost and the persistence of a virtual world play an important role on this decision. However, there are still some unique benefits offered by each world affecting to a great extent the educators’ decision. We conclude the paper by advocating the use of a cross-institutional hypergrid.

Paper Nr: 238
Title:

### Meeting the Demands of the 21st Learner - Delivering Elementary Science and Math Methods Courses Online an Auto-ethnographic Approach

Authors:

#### Cleveland Hayes, Andy K. Steck and David R. Perry

Abstract: In the last two decades, online enrollment in higher education has increased substantially. As more students enroll in courses, Universities may find that the demand within the institution will grow beyond current offerings. Within the field of teacher education, hundreds of online course offerings in teacher preparation programs worldwide are offered. The advantages to online versus face-to-face courses are numerous. Despite the marked increase in online course offerings and enrollment, however, some obstacles do exist in online classes. A review of recent literature indicated a need to study the challenges faced by faculty who teach hybrid courses and the need to better understand what constitutes quality online education. So, the importance of this research is how do teacher preparation programs meet the demands and charges of institutions while maintaining quality of instruction. Using autoethographic methods, two professors who teach elementary science methods and elementary math methods chronicle how they begin to address the challenges in online teaching and how they overcame those challenges to meet the needs of the 21st century learner. The participants in this study describe how they apply constructivist concepts solely online. These outcomes are what we call the call the good, the bad and the ugly.

Paper Nr: 258
Title:

### The Values on Academic Frontier-based Approach’ Implementation

Authors:

#### Nuo Liu, Shengli Yang and Ziyong Liu

Abstract: Academic Frontier-based Approach (AFA) is a student-centred instructional approach used to promote active and deep learning by involving students in investigating academic frontier issues in a collaborative environment. In this paper, we discuss the student surveys conducted at the end of the study period to solicit feedback from students on their learning experience. It is suggested that AFA takes the students as the center, consolidates the academic knowledge of the students. Through the teamwork and autonomous learning, students know more about the frontiers of science and technology and open their horizon. In addition, the ability of language organization, speech, compressive resistance, communication and cooperation are all increased. Furthermore, students’ interest in studying is increased because of the autonomous learning. It is expected the popularization of the consecutive courses will certainly improve these important abilities further more. And it is hopeful that students will take advantage from the sustainable ability of autonomous learning in their future career life.

## Area 4 - Domain Applications and Case Studies

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 51
Title:

### Fostering Information Literacy in German Psychology Students Using a Blended Learning Approach

Authors:

#### Nikolas Leichner, Johannes Peter, Anne-Kathrin Mayer and Günter Krampen

Abstract: This paper reports about the experimental evaluation of a blended learning course for information literacy tailored to the needs of undergraduate Psychology students. The course consists of three modules delivered online and two classroom seminars; the syllabus includes scholarly information resources, ways to obtain literature, and criteria to evaluate publications. For evaluation purposes, a multimethod approach was used: The students completed an information literacy knowledge test and three standardized information search tasks (ordered by ascending difficulty) before and after taking the course. A sample of N = 67 undergraduate Psychology students (n = 37 experimental group, n = 30 waiting control group) participated in the course. As it was expected, students’ knowledge test scores as well as performance in the search tasks improved markedly during the course. Results are discussed with regard to the soundness of the evaluation criteria used and to further development of the course.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 21
Title:

### A Study on the Permeation and Scope of ICT Intervention at the Indian Rural Primary School Level

Authors:

#### Shrabastee Banerjee, Kalyan Sankar Mandal and Priyadarshini Dey

Abstract: The provision of education for all in India remains a distant dream, despite substantial amounts of government and state investment going into it. The objective of this study is to highlight an alternative learning model that makes use of the e-revolution that has proliferated into every aspect of our lives. Although there have been attempts to incorporate ICT into rural classrooms, most of the focus has been on video-based digitized learning and has not efficiently addressed the best ways in which learning can be achieved. Our aim is thus to design a model that not only makes e-learning effective, but replaces the under-qualified teachers in remote areas and allows for the free permeation of education in ways that might bridge the digital divide amongst students of various socio economic backgrounds. In this context our intervention focuses on a class of 16 students, 10 to 11 years of age (class 5) at Ma Sarada Shishu Tirtha, a school for tribal girls, located in Krishnanagar, West Bengal, India. The intervention involved a remote teacher delivering Math and English lessons in a class-room setting, (via the video conferencing software Skype, and PowerPoint Presentations) while also making the session interactive.

Paper Nr: 79
Title:

### 3D Online Virtual Museum as e-Learning Tool - A Mixed Reality Experience

Authors:

#### Dragoş Gheorghiu and Livia Ştefan

Abstract: The paper discusses the use of 3D online virtual museums as educational instruments for children in economically disadvantaged communities. It discusses the advantages of simulation and immersion as learning enhancements, compared to traditional learning methods, using a case study based on the currently on-going work of development of a virtual museum (www.timemaps.net/timemap/?page_id=6). Presenting chronologically layered information, the museum offers a series of e-learning modules teaching traditional crafts technologies. The current audience is represented by children from a Romanian village community. The paper covers a description of the methodology used, as well as an evaluation of the usefulness of the solution by the target audience. In conclusion, the paper outlines a strategy for further development of the proposed e-learning solution.

Paper Nr: 149
Title:

### Envisioning an Advanced ICT-supported Build-up of Manufacturing Skills for the Factories of the Future

Authors:

#### Joao Costa, Dimitris Kiritsis, Poul Kyvsgaard Hansen, Manuel Oliveira, Loukas Rentzos, Hadrien Szigeti and Marco Taisch

Abstract: In this paper, we present the main concepts and the aim of the ManuSkills FoF project which is to study the use of enhanced ICT-based technologies and training methodologies to facilitate an increase of young talent interest in manufacturing and to support their training of new manufacturing skills. The project will experiment with a wide range of innovative delivery mechanisms such as serious games and teaching factory, supported by the use of social media augmented by gamification and leveraging the distribution channels preferred by young talent. In addition, the project will explore the pedagogical frameworks best suited to the personalization of individual learning needs taking into account the industrial demand. ManuSkills will address all three stages of the young talent pipeline (i.e. children, teenagers, young people), where in the early stages the focus will be to make manufacturing education more attractive to young talent, whilst in the later stages the focus will be to facilitate transformative deep learning of individuals, with reduced time-to-competence.

Paper Nr: 178
Title:

### Development and Practical Application of a Relationship Diagram-creation Tool Centering on Automatic Creation Functionality

Authors:

#### Norio Ishii, Yuri Suzuki and Saori Sakuma

Abstract: In nursing education, learning the effects of relationship diagrams drawn by students is useful in understanding patients and the entire nursing process. However, drawing these diagrams is time consuming, and the diagram creation process is strenuous for students. In this study, we have developed a relationship-diagram creation tool that further reduces the difficulty of node organization. In particular, we have developed a tool that implements an automatic drawing function in which the tool, rather than the student, organizes information in the diagram. We conducted lectures on methods to use the tool at a nursing college as well as a questionnaire survey to evaluate its efficacy. On the basis of these results, we confirmed the improvements in the tool’s usability and efficacy.

Posters
Paper Nr: 69
Title:

### “Smoking Does Not Make You Happy” - Unlearning Smoking Habits Through Mobile Applications on Android OS

Authors:

#### Răzvan Rughinis, Stefania Matei and Cosima Rughinis

Abstract: We analyze in-depth five smoking cessation apps on Android OS, examining how they teach users to quit smoking and what they learn from users. Apps advise would-be ex-smokers how to perceive the world, how to deal with their emotions, and how to act on their bodies and environment. Still, they learn little from their users, and even less from the scientific literature on smoking cessation. We discuss the potential for improved customization of advice to users’ profiles and we propose a simple inventory of online scientific resources as a starting point for developers looking to create better apps.

## Area 5 - Ubiquitous Learning

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 66
Title:

### How to Design a Mobile Learning Environment - Recommendations Based on Student Perceptions

Authors:

#### Pablo Rebaque-Rivas, Eva Patricia Gil-Rodríguez and Irene Manresa-Mallol

Abstract: The rise in sales of smartphones, the importance of anywhere connectivity, the general adoption of mobile apps, and the opportunities brought by mobile devices in educational settings underline the delay with which universities have moved to adapt their virtual learning environments for mobile devices. Providing students with a means to access the learning environment from a mobile device is therefore a pressing need. In this paper we present a series of recommendations designed to guide universities in the development of mobile learning environments, based on a case study of the Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (Open University of Catalonia, UOC), an online university. A focus group was organized to gather students’ views on the three mobile developments for the UOC’s Virtual Campus: a native app, an adapted version for mobile browsers, and an e-mail client app.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 26
Title:

Authors:

Paper Nr: 159
Title:

### Metacognitive Support in University Lectures Provided via Mobile Devices - How to Help Students to Regulate Their Learning Process during a 90-minute Class

Authors:

#### Felix Kapp, Iris Braun, Hermann Körndle and Alexander Schill

Abstract: Even though classical lectures at universities are criticized for lacking interactivity and treating students like passive receptors of information they are still very popular. Due to the big amount of students, interaction between teacher and students is difficult to realize. Several projects address this problem by offering technical solutions which aim at increasing the interactivity during classes or lectures – classic clicker-systems as well as solutions in which students use their own smartphones, netbooks or tablet-PCs. Based on research on self-regulated learning (SRL) processes we developed the already existing tools one step further: instead of only providing questions we designed Auditorium Mobile Classroom Service (AMCS) – a program which offers several possibilities to interact during a lecture. AMCS supports students to regulate their own learning process during the lecture. Learning questions are one core element to support them. On the basis of the results of the learning questions specific advices and hints are sent to the students’ smartphones or notebooks. The features increase the interactivity between the content and students and the interaction in the lecture hall. In the present article the program AMCS is described. Furthermore we report first experiences from a field test in a university lecture.

Paper Nr: 174
Title:

### Stamp-On: A Mobile Game for Museum Visitors

Authors:

#### Ayako Ishiyama, Fusako Kusunoki, Ryohei Egusa, Keita Muratsu, Shigenori Inagaki and Takao Terano

Abstract: This paper proposes Stamp-On, a mobile guidance aid for museum visitors. Stamp-On equips a tangible interface in the form of a stamp, which is used as an input-device for visitors to show explanations on a mobile device such as an iPad. The explanations will give the corresponding information about exhibiting items with additional questions. By touching the screen of the mobile device with the Stamp-On near the corresponding item, she or he will get visual information. We have conducted a preliminary experiment with participants of school teachers in order to evaluate the effectiveness as an exhibition guidance system. The results have suggested that Stamp-On system is an attractive and effective learning aid for elementary school children visitors of a museum.

Paper Nr: 184
Title:

### Barbie Bungee Jumping, Technology and Contextualised Learning of Mathematics

Authors:

#### Aibhin Bray and Brendan Tangney

Abstract: There is ongoing debate about the quality of mathematics education at post-primary level. Research suggests that, while the capacity to use mathematics constructively is fundamental to the economies of the future, many graduates of the secondary-school system have a fragmented and de-contextualised view of the subject, leading to issues with engagement and motivation. In an attempt to address some of the difficulties associated with mathematics teaching and learning, the authors have developed a set of design principles for the creation of contextualised, collaborative and technology-mediated mathematics learning activities. This paper describes the implementation of two such activities. The study involved 24 students aged between 15 and 16 who engaged in the activities for 2.5 hours each day over a week long period. Initial results indicate that the interventions were pragmatic to implement in a classroom setting and were successful in addressing some of the issues in mathematics education evident from the literature.

Posters
Paper Nr: 2
Title:

### Experimentation Comparison in Virtual and Practical Operation - Take Hydraulics Learning for Example

Authors:

#### Janus S. Liang

Abstract: The objective of this research is to examine if practical or virtual operating experimentation can discriminate hydraulics learning. There are several experimental situations, specifically virtual operating experimentation (VoE), practical operating experimentation (PoE), two successive conjunctions of VoE and PoE, and a control situation (i.e., conventional instructing with lack of VoE or PoE). College learners’ comprehension of hydraulics notions in the field of force and distance is examined in a pre-post test plan that included 57 members appointed to the control group and 195 members appointed to the four experimental groups. Conceptual exams are dominated to evaluate learners’ comprehension throughout instructing. Results revealed that the several experimental situations are similarly efficient in enhancing participants’ comprehension of notions in the field of force and distance and better than the control situation; therefore, operation, virtual or practical operation, and not substantiality, at lowest in a condition as the one of the proposed research, is essential in hydraulics learning.

Paper Nr: 28
Title:

### The Nature Tour Mobile Learning Application - Implementing the Mobile Application in Finnish Early Childhood Education Settings

Authors:

#### Jenni Rikala and Marja Kankaanranta

Abstract: This paper explores the implementation of the Nature Tour mobile learning application in Finnish early childhood education settings. The interest is to explore whether the concept of Nature Tour mobile application meets the needs of early childhood education in field trips. The idea of the mobile application is to help recording and comparing nature observations as well as to arouse children’s interest in nature. The feasibility of the mobile application was evaluated through a theoretical framework, which includes the core aspects of mobile learning. The evaluation framework consists of two levels titled core level and medium level. Three of the core level aspects were realized well. These aspects were the aspect of context, time and space. The medium level aspects that were realized well were social aspect and learner aspect. While the device aspect was a slightly more challenging as the Nature Tour mobile application required literacy skills and therefore it required adult guidance. The study indicated that the technology use in the early childhood settings evidently requires balance between the curriculum, children’s needs, human interactions, as well as technological and pedagogical support for the effective use of technology.

Paper Nr: 29
Title:

### Teachers Can Be Involved in the Design of Location-based Learning Games - The Use of the Puzzle Board Metaphor

Authors:

#### Javier Melero, Davinia Hernández-Leo and Josep Blat

Abstract: Recent research in the Game-Based Learning domain shows that location-based games can lead to positive effects in students’ motivation and engagement. However, the potential effectiveness of these approaches depends on to what extent their design is aligned with the requirements of specific educational situations. For this reason, involving teachers in the design of their own location-based learning games becomes crucial to fulfil their teaching requirements. This paper presents a metaphor based on puzzle boards as a technique to involve teachers in the design of their own location-based games. A design-based research methodology has been followed to evaluate the proposed metaphor. Previous research experiments have shown the feasibility of the puzzle-based games approach to allow secondary education teachers the design of these types of learning experiences. However, some issues in terms of understanding specific elements of the proposed metaphor were detected. A second iteration of the research methodology is described in the paper to evaluate the changes made to the definitions of the metaphor’s elements and the dynamics of the game design task. The evaluation is carried out with 20 primary and secondary education teachers who completed a paper-based design task. The main findings show that teachers did not have problems using the proposed metaphor and they successfully designed their own location-based learning games.

Paper Nr: 113
Title:

### Adaptive M-learning Application for Driving Licencess Candidates Based on UCD for M-learning Framework

Authors:

#### Amir Dirin and Maurizio Casarini

Abstract: This paper reveals the adaptive mobile learning application that we have designed and developed for driving school in Helsinki, Finland. The application development is considered as a case study for User Centred Design (UCD) framework specific for mobile learning. The overall aim of this case study is to assess the UCD framework. The main goal of the proposed UCD method is to ensure that the stakeholders, especially students, recognize the mobile learning application as a learning medium that meets their essential educational demands. The UCD for m-learning application development framework mandates users’ involvement in all stages of product concept development phases. The result of applying UCD for m-learning application framework is an adaptive mobile learning application specific for driving license candidates. This application helps students to study, learn and asses the compulsory driving school theory lessons on their smart devices. Additionally, the application provides mandatory self-evaluation report to instructors after each practical driving session. The application prototype evaluation results indicate that test users are able to carry out the predefined tasks independently. Test users find the application useful and fun to use.

Paper Nr: 198
Title:

### Braille Vision Using Braille Display and Bio-inspired Camera

Authors:

#### Roman Graf, Ross King and Ahmed Nabil Belbachir

Abstract: This paper presents a system for Braille learning support using real-time panoramic views generated from the novel smart panorama camera 360SCAN. The system makes use of the modern image processing libraries and state-of-the-art features extraction and clustering methods. We compare the real-time frames recorded by the bio-inspired camera to the reference images in order to determine particular figures. One contribution of the proposed method is that image edges can be transformed to the presentation on Braille display directly without any image processing. It is possible due to the bio-inspired construction of camera sensor. Another contribution is that our approach provides Braille users with images recorded from natural scenes. We conducted several experiments that verify the methods that demonstrate learning figures captured by the smart camera. Our goal is to process such images and present them on the Braille Display in a form appropriate for visually impaired people. All evaluations were performed in the natural environment with ambient illumination of 200 lux, which demonstrates high camera reliability in difficult light conditions. The system can be optimized by applying additional filters and features algorithms and by decreasing the rotational speed of the camera. The presented Braille learning support system is a building block for a rich and qualitative educational system for the efficient information transfer focused on visually impaired people.

Paper Nr: 234
Title:

### Handling Procrastination in Mobile Learning Environment - Proposal of Reminder Application for Mobile Devices

Authors:

#### Aneta Bartuskova and Ondrej Krejcar

Abstract: This paper deals with the issue of procrastination in e-learning. Suggested approach is based on compensating e-learning shortcomings and applying principles of forming a habit. Technical implementation is possible through use of mobile devices, incorporated in e-learning strategy. Respective habit loop would consist of immediate trigger (delivered by a reminder application), desired behavior (engagement in learning session) and immediate reward. Requirements on learning strategy, software and hardware are discussed, as well as a reminder mechanism and relevant system of rewards. Data processing in the reminder application is outlined for computing initial settings of the application.

Paper Nr: 237
Title:

### CG Teaching Material for the Electronic Laboratory Textbook - Esterification of Acetic Acid and Ethanol

Authors:

#### Akira Ikuo, Yusuke Yoshinaga and Haruo Ogawa

Abstract: CG animation of the esterification of acetic acid and ethyl alcohol was made based on quantum chemical calculations by use of MOPAC with PM5 Hamiltonian. The CG animation could simultaneously display realistic shapes and electrostatic potentials of the intermediates of the reactants on the way of the reaction profile besides the ball-and-stick model of the intermediates. A survey of five chemistry textbooks used in Japanese high school revealed that molecular models in chemistry were illustrated by popular molecular models such as ball-and-stick, space filling, and free-hand. There were only a few examples illustrated by the models with characteristics of molecules for chemical reaction mechanism. The CG animation could demonstrate these images of dynamical reaction mechanism for the esterification and can be loaded with tablet PC and smart phone. We are trying to produce an electronic laboratory textbook of the esterification in which the CG teaching material is combined with chemical experiments of student’s laboratory.

Paper Nr: 239
Title:

### Mobile Learning for COOL Informatics - Cooperative Open Learning in a Vocational High School

Authors:

#### Barbara Sabitzer and Stefan Pasterk

Abstract: COOL Informatics is a project that wants to foster informatics education in primary and secondary schools by integrating it in different subjects. The term “COOL” references to the following approaches: (1) to the Austrian teaching model COOL – COoperative Open Learning, (2) to COmputer-supported Open Learning as well as (3) to the adjective “cool” in the sense of motivating and useful. Mobile Learning with mobile phones and tablets is one parte of COOL Informatics as it covers all three approaches. From our experiences and the results of former discussions with students we can say, that technology-supported learning seems to be more motivating and “cool” than traditional learning methods. This is one reason why we introduced mobile learning in our vocational high school of commerce and tourism. The paper describes the steps of the implementation from workshops for the students over mobile learning in language lessons to app programming in Applied Informatics for cross-curricular learning. Finally it reports on the evaluation of the workshops and the project on app programming.

Paper Nr: 240
Title:

### Use of Mobile Collaborative Tools for the Assessment of Out-of-Classroom Courses in Higher Education - Cloud Technologies Applied to the Monitoring of the Practicum

Authors:

#### Xavier Perramon, Josepa Alemany and Laura Panadès

Abstract: In this paper we propose the use of collaborative tools to enhance traditional e-learning platforms for university courses that are developed outside the school environment, as is the case of a Practicum or internship in a company or external institution. These courses have specific requirements with regard to monitoring, guidance and assessment of students, and we postulate that collaborative tools, usually implemented as cloud-based applications, combined with mobile technologies, today affordable to most students, constitute a suitable platform for implementing the assessment of this type of courses.