CSEDU 2016 Abstracts


Area 1 - Information Technologies Supporting Learning

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 14
Title:

Student Progress Modeling with Skills Deficiency Aware Kalman Filters

Authors:

Carlotta Schatten and Lars Schmidt-Thieme

Abstract: One new usage of Learning Analytics in Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) is sequencing based on performance prediction, which informs sequencers whether a student mastered or not a specific set of skills. Matrix Factorization (MF) performance prediction is particularly appealing because it does not require tagging involved skills in tasks. However, MF’s difficult interpretability does not allow to show the student’s state evolution, i.e. his/her progress over time. In this paper we present a novel progress modeling technique integrating the most famous control theory state modeler, the Kalman Filter, and Matrix Factorization. Our method, the Skill Deficiency aware Kalman State Estimation for Matrix Factorization, (1) updates at each interaction the student’s state outperforming the baseline both in prediction error and in computational requirements allowing faster online interactions; (2) models the individualized progress of the students over time that could be later used to develop novel sequencing policies. Our results are tested on data of a commercial ITS where other state of the art methods were not applicable.

Paper Nr: 22
Title:

How Do Students ‘Really’ Interact with Virtual Worlds? - The Influence of Proper Induction for Virtual Interactions

Authors:

Athanasios Christopoulos, Marc Conrad and Mitul Shukla

Abstract: Our ongoing research focuses on the ways that interactions affect learner engagement with a virtual world and, consequently, the educational activities that take place within it when a hybrid learning approach is used. It aims to form a complete taxonomy of the types of interactions that can lead to the development of engaging and interactive learning experiences. In this paper, we examine the impact that the orientation (induction) process has on learner engagement by observing a cohort of postgraduate students while using an OpenSim-based institutionally hosted virtual world. The results of our study highlight that educators and instructors need to plan their in-world learning activities very carefully and with a focus on interactions if engaging activities are what they want to offer their students. Additionally, it seems that student interactions with the content of the virtual world and the in-class student-to-student interactions have stronger impact on student engagement when hybrid methods are used. We confirm and further enhance our hypothesis investigating student feelings and thoughts about the interaction taking place within a virtual world when that is used in higher education.

Paper Nr: 28
Title:

Incorporating Cultural Factors into the Design of Technology to Support Teamwork in Higher Education

Authors:

Wesam Shishah and Elizabeth FitzGerald

Abstract: Online teamwork is an instructional strategy widely used in education courses to ensure active knowledge construction and deeper learning. There is a challenge for online course designers and technology designers to create group environments that encourage participation, and have the ability to enhance positive attitudes toward group work. It is hypothesised that incorporating cultural factors into the design of teamwork technology has the potential to encourage participation and increase students’ positive attitudes towards group work. This paper looks to do exactly that, although the definition of culture in this paper is limited to the individualism–collectivism dimension. The paper summarises our findings from interviews conducted with lecturers and students who have experience with teamwork. It then presents culturally-related design strategies which are identified from cross-cultural psychology literature and our interviews finding. Finally, it demonstrates how culturally-related design strategies are incorporated into the IdeasRoom prototype design.

Paper Nr: 43
Title:

SRECMATs - An Intelligent Tutoring System to Deliver Online Materials for Student Revision

Authors:

Petch Sajjacholapunt and Mike Joy

Abstract: The use of online course material is the approach adopted by most universities to support students’ revision, and teachers usually have the responsibility for designing or uploading online materials on their own course websites. However, some teachers might lack programming skills or motivation, and most current online materials are just uploaded in a static format (such as PDF) which is not suitable for all students. Moreover, during revision periods students may be faced with a lot of unorganised materials to be revised in a short period of time, and this can lead to an ineffective revision process. In order to address these issues, this paper proposes a software framework that aims to maximise the benefit of current online materials when used to support student revision. This framework is called SRECMATs (Self-Revision E-Course MATerials) and has been deployed as a tool that allows teachers to automatically create an intelligent tutoring system to manage online materials without any programming knowledge, and to support students to navigate easily through these online materials during their revision. This paper evaluates the proposed framework in order to understand students’ perceptions with regard to the use of the system prototype, and the results indicate which features are suitable for providing online revision materials as well as confirming the benefit of the revision framework.

Paper Nr: 51
Title:

Towards a Music-based Framework for Content and Language Integrated Learning in Preschool

Authors:

Luca A. Ludovico and Claudia Zambelli

Abstract: This paper aims to discuss the applicability of the approach known as Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) to preschool. CLIL is a form of language immersion where the learners’ second language represents the medium of classroom instruction. The novel idea is to use music and related multimedia contents in order to foster bi- and multi-lingualism by addressing children aged from 3 to 6. In this context, we will propose a computer-supported education environment which adopts IEEE 1599, an XML format originally designed for the representation and synchronization of music and media contents. Its multi-layer approach represents a valid tool to support multiple interconnected descriptions, thus fostering abilities and reinforcement techniques typical of CLIL. Finally, we will present an example aiming to test the efficacy of the proposed approach in real-world use cases.

Paper Nr: 58
Title:

A New Technique of Policy Trees for Building a POMDP based Intelligent Tutoring System

Authors:

Fangju Wang

Abstract: Partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP) is a useful technique for building intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs). It enables an ITS to choose optimal tutoring actions when uncertainty exists. An obstacle to applying POMDP to ITSs is the great computational complexity in decision making. The technique of policy trees may improve the efficiency. However, the number of policy trees is normally exponential, and the cost for evaluating a tree is also exponential. The technique is still too expensive when applied to a practical problem. In our research, we develop a new technique of policy trees for better efficiency. The technique is aimed at minimizing the number of policy trees to evaluate in making a decision, and reducing the costs for evaluating individual trees. The technique is based on pedagogical orders of the contents in the instructional subject. In this paper, we first provide the background of ITS and POMDP, then describe the architecture of our POMDP based ITS, and then present our technique of policy trees for POMDP solving, and finally discuss some experimental results.

Paper Nr: 68
Title:

Can Digital Games Help Seniors Improve their Quality of Life?

Authors:

Louise Sauvé, Lise Renaud, David Kaufman and Emmanuel Duplàa

Abstract: A developmental research study aimed to design, publicize and evaluate an online educational game to improve the quality of life for seniors 55 years and older. The game Live Well, Live Healthy! (cvje2.savie.ca) is a Bingo game in which the learning content in the study was integrated into the mechanism of the game. A "pre-test/post-test" single group methodology measured the impact of the game in three dimensions of quality of life: psychological, physical and social. A total of 56 seniors played for a week in the multiplayer mode (real-time interaction with at least two other participants). The results indicate that the educational game improved the perception of seniors in a majority of the variables concerning the three dimensions: physical (fatigue, sleep, eating habits); social well-being (building ties, social connectedness, friendships) and psychological well-being (depression, difficulty doing activities, mood and feeling of being loved). Some variables (sadness, isolation, proximity to family and physical habits) generated a weak perception of positive benefits for these seniors.

Paper Nr: 74
Title:

The TuringLab Programming Environment - An Online Python Programming Environment for Challenge based Learning

Authors:

Henry Miskin and Anandha Gopalan

Abstract: Computing has recently been introduced as a core subject in British schools, meaning that children need to learn computer programming. Teachers have to be prepared to be able to deliver the new curriculum, but many of them do not feel confident teaching it as they have no formal background in Computer Science. Also, when learning to programme, children need the correct environment and support to succeed. This paper presents TuringLab, an environment to assist teachers in delivering the practical elements of the computing curriculum, while also proving to be engaging and challenging for the children. Teachers can create programming challenges for their pupils and see how they are progressing (or struggling) during completion of the challenges. Students can undertake challenges in an engaging environment which displays a graphical output of their code and assists in understanding errors they may encounter. TuringLab has been used to teach children how to programme at a number of volunteer-led coding clubs. Children engaged well with TuringLab, and the volunteers, who acted as teachers in these sessions, found TuringLab an extremely valuable educational tool.

Paper Nr: 77
Title:

e-Learning Platform Ranking Method using a Symbolic Approach based on Preference Relations

Authors:

Soraya Chachoua, Nouredine Tamani, Jamal Malki and Pascal Estraillier

Abstract: e-Learning platforms are of a great help in teaching and learning fields given their ability to improve training activity quality. Subsequently, several e-Learning systems have been developed in many domains. The diversity of such platforms in a single field makes it arduous to select the optimal platform in terms of tools and services that meet users’ requirements. Therefore, we propose in this paper a ranking approach of e-Learning platforms relying on symbolic values, borrowed from the Qualitative Weight and Sum method (QWS) (Stufflebeam, 1994), preference relations and aggregating operators providing a total order among the considered e-Learning platforms.

Paper Nr: 79
Title:

An Interactive Data Visualisation Approach for Next Generation Presentation Tools - Towards Rich Presentation-based Data Exploration and Storytelling

Authors:

Reinout Roels, Yves Baeten and Beat Signer

Abstract: Existing research in the field of information visualisation has shown that interactive data exploration and storytelling can significantly improve the extraction and transfer of knowledge from raw data. Established visualisation techniques help viewers to strengthen their mental model and improve the understanding of the underlying data. However, these techniques are not yet manifested in slide decks created by existing presentation tools which offer little to no support beyond static charts for transferring knowledge. Based on a detailed analysis of interactive and narrative data visualisation solutions and the shortcomings of existing presentation tools, we derived a set of requirements for interactive information visualisation in presentation tools. The presented prototype of a presentation tool for interactive data visualisation addresses these requirements and has been implemented as a plug-in for the MindXpres presentation platform. Our approach for rich presentation-based data exploration and storytelling enables the presenter to predefine a series of interactive views as support for their oral narrative, but also allows them to freely explore the data during presentation time.

Paper Nr: 86
Title:

Social Creativity in the Design of Digital Resources Interweaving Math with Environmental Education - The Case Study of the Climate Change C-Book

Authors:

Maria Daskolia, Angeliki Kolovou and Chronis Kynigos

Abstract: This study focuses on how social creativity is manifested in the collective design of digital educational resources (called “c-books”, c for creativity) aiming to foster students’ creative mathematical thinking. We investigate social creativity as a process by focusing on the boundary-crossing encounters taking place within a socio-technical environment constituted of teachers of diverse expertise interacting with each other and with the C-Book technology, while designing a c-book on “Climate Change”. The analysis of two critical episodes shows that during the design process the socio-technical environment allowed the communication and coordination of diverse perspectives enhancing the designers/ teachers creativity and leading to the transformation of initial ideas into ‘tangible’ objects.

Paper Nr: 89
Title:

Feedback Authoring for Exploratory Learning Objects: AuthELO

Authors:

Sokratis Karkalas and Manolis Mavrikis

Abstract: This paper presents a tool for the configuration of logging and authoring of automated feedback for exploratory learning objects (ELOs). This tool has been developed in the context of a larger project that is developing a platform for authoring interactive educational e-books. This platform comprises an extendable set of diverse widgets that can be used to generate instances of exploratory activities that can be employed in various learning scenarios. AuthELO was designed and developed to provide a simple, common and efficient authoring interface that can normalise the heterogeneity of these widgets and give the ability to non-experts to easily modify — if not program themselves — the feedback that is provided to students based on their interaction. We describe the architecture and design characteristics of AuthELO and present a small-scale evaluation of the prototype that shows promising results.

Paper Nr: 90
Title:

Learning Tracking Data Analysis - How Privacy Issues Affect Student Perception on e-Learning?

Authors:

Madeth May, Sébastien Iksal and Claus Alexander Usener

Abstract: Research works from the past ten years have demonstrated that technologies could in many ways enhance learning experience. Meanwhile, technologies can also create obstacles to the latter. For instance, using tracking approaches on the majority of e-learning platforms to monitor learners’ activities raises many privacy questions. As for learners, knowing that their personal data are being used, even for educational purposes, they could radically change their perception on e-learning technologies. This paper presents a study on privacy issues in e-learning, based on both existing research findings and an experiment that we have conducted with the participation of students from three universities in France and one university in Germany. The study covers two main aspects. First, it outlines various tracking approaches in e-learning. Second, it analyzes how the participants perceive the use of their tracking data and the related privacy issues. The major contribution of this paper is the awarenes

Paper Nr: 92
Title:

EduBridge Social - Bridging Social Networks and Learning Management Systems

Authors:

Luciana Oliveira and Álvaro Figueira

Abstract: The exponential growth of social media usage and the integration of digital natives in Higher Education Institutions (HEI) have been posing new challenges to both traditional and technology-mediated learning environments. Nowadays social media plays an important, if not central, role in society, for professional and personal purposes. However, it’s important to highlight that in the mind of a digital native, social media is not just a tool, it is a place that is as real and as natural as any real-life world place where formal/informal social interactions happen. Still, formal higher education contexts are still mostly imprisoned in locked up institutional Learning Management Systems (LMS), while a new world of social connections grows and develops itself outside schools. One of the main reasons we believe to be persisting in the origin of the matter is the absence of a suitable management, monitoring and analysis tools to legitimize and to efficiently manage the relationship with students in social networks. In this paper we discuss the growing relevance of the “Social Student Relationship Management” concept and introduce the EduBridge Social system, which aims at connecting the most commonly used LMS, Moodle, and the most popular social network, Facebook.

Paper Nr: 99
Title:

Learning Path Specification forWorkplace Learning based on Business Process Management

Authors:

Venkatapathy Subramanian and Antonia Bertolino

Abstract: In modern society, workers are continuously challenged to acquire new skills and competencies while at work. Novel approaches and tools to support effective and efficient workplace learning in collaborative and engaging ways are needed. On the other hand, Business Process Management (BPM) is more and more employed to support and manage the complex processes carried out within organizations. We propose to use BPM also to drive workplace learning, with the advantage of aligning real tasks to training tasks. We introduce a specification of learning path that maps BPM tasks and activities into sequences of learning tasks that can be customized to learners competence. The learning path specification can be used to both drive learning sessions, and to inform a monitor that can assess learner’s progress. We describe a platform that is under development, and provide a simple motivational example to illustrate the approach. The goal is to combine work and learning in natural and effective way.

Paper Nr: 102
Title:

Detecting Play and Learning Styles for Adaptive Educational Games

Authors:

Renny S. N. Lindberg and Teemu H. Laine

Abstract: Digital games have emerged as promising tools that aim to make learning more fun. As each person has different learning and play styles, educational games can become more effective should they adapt content delivery according to the user’s learning and play styles. To achieve this, models are needed to represent these styles. Several learning and play style models exist today with varying levels of validity and complexity. With the emergence of educational games, the importance of using such models for enhancing the effectiveness of games as viable educational tools increases. However, not many studies have been conducted that simultaneously consider both style groups. We first analysed existing learning and play models. Based on the analysis results, we created a questionnaire that uses Bartle’s Player Types model and Honey and Mumford’s Learning Style Questionnaire, and tested it with 127 South Korean elementary school children. The results indicated that within the play style model specific styles were clearly more preferred, whereas learning styles were distributed more evenly. There also were some differences between genders. The results can be used to inform us on what sort of stimuli might yield better immersion in educational games and thereby facilitate the learning process.

Paper Nr: 114
Title:

Streamlining Assessment using a Knowledge Metric

Authors:

Nils Ulltveit-Moe, Sigurd Assev, Terje Gjøsæter and Halvard Øysæd

Abstract: This paper proposes an efficient tool-supported methodology for marking student assignment answers according to a knowledge metric. This metric gives a coarse hint of student answer quality based on Shannon entropy. The methodology supports marking student assignments across each sub-assignment answer, and the metric sorts the answers, so that the most comprehensive textual answers typically get the highest ranking, and can be marked first. This ensures that the teacher quickly gets an overview over the range of answers, which allows for determining a consistent marking scale in order to reduce the risk of scale sliding or hitting the wrong scale level during marking. This approach is significantly faster and more consistent than using the traditional approach, marking each assignment individually.

Paper Nr: 164
Title:

Suremath - User Study and Related (Re-)Implementation of a Multitouch Application for Learning Math

Authors:

Georg J. Schneider and Immanuel Ubl

Abstract: Learning of the relation between mathematical effects and the underlying formula is a huge step for learners, which are used to execute rather basic arithmetic calculations up to this point. This usually happens in high school and pupils are often overstrained by the amount of abstraction which is required. In order to help students to overcome this gap, we have developed an application for a multitouch table. The pupils are able to grasp and move function graphs and see how the parameters of the formula change immediately. We have claimed that this approach leads to a better and faster understanding of the facts to be learned. In order to evaluate our approach we have carried through several workshops with a focus group and a small user study with pupils at the relevant age. In this paper we will describe the findings and we will shortly sketch the resulting (re-) implementation of our system.

Paper Nr: 167
Title:

Threshold Concepts Vs. Tricky Topics - Exploring the Causes of Student´s Misunderstandings with the Problem Distiller Tool

Authors:

Sara Cruz, José Alberto Lencastre, Clara Coutinho, Gill Clough and Anne Adams

Abstract: This paper presents a study developed within the international project JuxtaLearn. This project aims to improve student understanding of threshold concepts by promoting student curiosity and creativity through video creation. The math concept of 'Division', widely referred in the literature as problematic for students, was recognised as a 'Tricky Topic' by teachers with the support of the Tricky Topic Tool and the Problem Distiller tool, two apps developed under the JuxtaLearn project. The methodology was based on qualitative data collected through Think Aloud protocol from a group of teachers of a public Elementary school as they used these tools. Results show that the Problem Distiller tool fostered the teachers to reflect more deeply on the causes of the students’ misunderstandings of that complex math concept. This process enabled them to develop appropriate strategies to help the students overcome these misunderstandings. The results also suggest that the stumbling blocks associated to the Tricky Topic ‘Division’ are similar to the difficulties reported in the literature describing Threshold Concepts. This conclusion is the key issue discussed in this paper and a contribution to the state of the art.

Paper Nr: 170
Title:

Understanding Electric Current Using Agent-based Models: Connecting the Micro-level with Flow Rate

Authors:

Pratim Sengupta and Uri Wilensky

Abstract: Rate-based processes comprise an important set of scientific phenomena, as well as an important part of the K12 science curricula. Electric current is one such phenomenon, which is taught in various forms from 4th – 12th grades. Research shows that students at all levels find electricity difficult to understand, and the difficulties persist even after classroom instruction. In this paper, we present a design-based research study and argue that interacting with multi-agent-based computational models based on the microscopic theory of electrical conduction, can enable 5th grade and 7th students to develop a deep understanding of electric current as an emergent process of flow in terms of its microscopic level entities and their attributes, by bootstrapping their repertoire of intuitive knowledge. We present a particular design strategy – representing electric current as a fictive and transient process of charge accumulation, without falling in previously reported traps of the “source sink” mental models – and show how this strategy was effectively implemented in the computational model as well as in the learning activities performed by the students. We identify the mental models that students developed through their interactions with the model, and show that after their interactions, students were able to provide correct, multi-level explanations of the behavior of electric current in a resistive circuit.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 17
Title:

MathAuthor: Authoring Interactive Math Exercises for the Web

Authors:

Edgar Seemann

Abstract: The creation of online exercise sheets or interactive lecture notes for math courses still poses many challenges for teachers. Authoring tools of e-learning systems typically do not directly support the rendering of mathematic equations. Teachers are therefore required to find and install additional plugins. Visual elements such as plots, drawings or diagrams have to be created using external tools. Exercise questions and student responses are mostly restricted to simple multiple-choice or fixed answer questions, since common e-learning systems are not able to process mathematic expressions. With MathAuthor we propose an authoring environment tailored to the specific needs of math educators. Math- Author allows teachers to quickly create interactive exercises with various types of mathematic responses (e.g. functions, solution sets etc.). Its web-based editing functionality allows a real-time preview of all created content elements including equations and interactive input fields. MathAuthor also proposes a language for describing mathematic plots and 3D drawings, allowing teachers to easily embed graphics (e.g. function curves or vector geometry drawings). MathAuthor can provide immediate feedback to student responses. This feedback is generated purely in Javascript, thus requiring no special server component. As a consequence, it is easy to integrate the resulting exercise sheets into existing websites and e-learning systems.

Paper Nr: 23
Title:

ITSEGO: An Ontology for Game-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems

Authors:

Valentina Centola and Francesco Orciuoli

Abstract: This work proposes the definition of a tool supporting the transition of children from kindergarten to primary school and, as a side effect, the development of problem solving and digital competences. The tool has been defined, by means of an ontology-driven approach, as an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) integrated to a structured game-based educational environment and provides benefits for both teachers and children. The definition of a novel ontology, namely ITSEGO, providing a model (generally applicable in different learning contexts) to build Game-based ITS and, the design of a concrete Game-based ITS for supporting the aforementioned transition are the main results of this work.

Paper Nr: 34
Title:

Development of a Task-driven Mobile Teaching Tool for Enhancing Teachers’ Motivation

Authors:

Renée Schulz, Ghislain Maurice Norbert Isabwe and Andreas Prinz

Abstract: Mobile technology is widely available and has a potential to support teaching and learning. However, teachers are not motivated to integrate new technology frequently. Therefore, innovative technology is missing in most teaching situations. This research put emphasis on teachers’ needs and requirements since they are as important stakeholders as students. To increase motivation to use mobile technology in teaching, we propose to focus on task design and distribution. That fits well to the flexibility and personalization aspects of mobile technology. In this paper we present the results of user studies conducted in Norway and Uganda, at early development stages of a task-driven mobile teaching tool for enhancing the teachers’ motivation. The study participants indicated that the use of mobile technology can help to enhance motivation to use technology in teaching. This article describes the requirements for developing an innovative task-based tool for teaching.

Paper Nr: 36
Title:

Comparison Function with Right Answer for Software Design Support Tool Perseus

Authors:

Tetsuro Kakeshita and Yuki Shibata

Abstract: Systematic software design is a typical engineering design problem which has multiple solutions. We have developed a software design support tool Perseus for systematic software design education. In this paper, we develop and evaluate the comparison function for Perseus between student’s answer and a set of multiple right answers. Perseus represents software design by a tree structure. The comparison function automatically makes correspondence between tree nodes using tree matching. The matching between nodes is performed by utilizing Levenshtein distance. Considering the nature of software design, the comparison function utilizes various parameters such as alternative answer, keyword, NG word, incorrect answer and integrates the adjustment function of the threshold value for comparison. We also develop a right answer editor named Pras.Edit. We perform an evaluation of the comparison function using 20 student answers. The number of mistakes detected by the improved comparison function is approximately 3 times larger than that of the manual checking. Furthermore 93.1% of the detected mistakes were correct.

Paper Nr: 37
Title:

Item Difficulty Analysis of English Vocabulary Questions

Authors:

Yuni Susanti, Hitoshi Nishikawa, Takenobu Tokunaga and Obari Hiroyuki

Abstract: This study investigates the relations between several factors of question items in English vocabulary tests and the corresponding item difficulty. Designing the item difficulty of a test impacts the quality of the test itself. Our goal is suggesting a way to control the item difficulty of questions generated by computers. To achieve this goal we conducted correlation and regression analyses on several potential factors of question items and their item difficulty obtained through experiments. The analyses revealed that several item factors correlated with the item difficulty, and up to 59% of the item difficulty can be explained by a combination of item factors.

Paper Nr: 47
Title:

Semi-Automatic Assessment Approach to Programming Code for Novice Students

Authors:

Selim Buyrukoglu, Firat Batmaz and Russell Lock

Abstract: Programming languages have been an integral element of the taught skills of many technical subjects in Higher Education for the last half century. Moreover, secondary school students have also recently started learning programming languages. This increase in the number of students learning programming languages makes the efficient and effective assessment of student work more important. This research focuses on one key approach to assessment using technology: the semi-automated marking of novice students’ program code. The open-ended, flexible nature of programming ensures that no two significant pieces of code are likely to be the same. However, it has been observed that there are a number of common code fragments within these dissimilar solutions. This observation forms the basis of our proposed approach. The initial research focuses on the ‘if’ structure to evaluate the theory behind the approach taken, which is appropriate given its commonality across programming languages. The paper also discusses the results of real world analysis of novice students’ programming code on ‘if’ structures. The paper concludes that the approach taken could form a more effective and efficient method for the assessment of student coding assignments.

Paper Nr: 48
Title:

Programming for the Humanities - Logic and Adaptable Languages

Authors:

Jerzy Karczmarczuk

Abstract: We argue in favour of teaching modern programming to students of “non-scientific” undergraduate disciplines (humanities), considering that computer-assisted learning should not be reduced to the usage of tools, but provides some answers to the question: how the knowledge is built. The computer science should be treated as an inherent part of their culture. We advocate the teaching of Logic Programming languages: Prolog, and of the Constraint Programming languages, such as CHR. Logic programming permits to formulate the computational problems and their solutions in a form more close to human reasoning than several other languages, and adaptable to the domains of interest of the learners.

Paper Nr: 50
Title:

Personalizing Game Selection for Mobile Learning - With a View Towards Creating an Off-line Learning Environment for Children

Authors:

Mohamed Metawaa and Kay Berkling

Abstract: Online education nowadays plays a very important role in enhancing the educational processes mostly for adults. Given this maturing technology and the number of children that lack access to safe education, mobile education for children is a logical next step and opens options that change their prospects. This paper is part of a larger project on mobile learning with games for children without access to schools. Games can motivate children to learn without the necessity of a teacher. The goal is to recommend learning games based on children’s preferences of past choices and ratings, which can supplement other recommender systems. The resulting implemented algorithm is designed as a plug-in to exisiting learning platforms that use games. Such a system was implemented and evaluated in a feasibility study on adults. We show that a prediction based on user’s choice and rating of games corresponds to a direct survey to determine the gamer types in 66% of the cases for 61 participants.

Paper Nr: 62
Title:

C-Helper: C Latent-error Static/Heuristic Checker for Novice Programmers

Authors:

Kota Uchida and Katsuhiko Gondow

Abstract: For better programming language education, it is crucial to make compiler warning messages more understandable for novice programmers. Unfortunately, however, Kojima’s research showed warning messages in commercial-level compilers like GCC are still difficult to understand, and the commercial-level compilers tend not to emit how to modify programs to correct the problems. Furthermore, we found that they also tend not to handle latent errors. To solve this problem, by using a heuristic approach, we propose a novel C static checker called C-Helper, that aims to emit more direct error messages understandable for novices to correct wrong programs, and also aims to handle latent errors. Our preliminary evaluation shows that C-Helper was positively evaluated, although our heuristic approach increased false-positives.

Paper Nr: 65
Title:

Effectiveness of an Instructional Intervention in Developing Critical Thinking Skills - Role of Argument Mapping in Facilitating Learning of Critical Thinking Skills

Authors:

Shumaila Mahmood

Abstract: This paper is focused on how argument mapping (AM) software can be helpful for developing critical thinking (CT) skills of initial teacher educators. The study discusses the usefulness of argument mapping software for lessening the cognitive load of students. The main study is conducted to test the effectiveness of an instructional intervention for the development of critical thinking skills. The effectiveness includes an assessment of the implementation process as well. The instructional intervention is comprised of computer supported (audio-video lectures and argument mapping) and non-computer supported (Communities of Inquiry discussions and concept mapping on paper) learning materials thought to enhance the CT skills of initial teacher educators in a public teacher education university in Pakistan. The teaching programme based on seven principles has several elements for teaching critical thinking of which one is computer supported visual representation (argument mapping). In this paper, the focus is on participants’ accounts of the usefulness of visual representation (argument mapping) feature for the provision of critical thinking. The analysis shows the positive influence of computer-supported argument mapping in increasing student interest in learning CT. However, the belief that argument mapping increases critical thinking could not be determined in this study for design issues. Students found that AM help them lessening cognitive load while helping in structuring thoughts. The results from observations and interview responses are discussed for the implications of argument mapping in mainstream teaching at college/university level with regards to teaching critical thinking skills. The paper briefly discusses the possibility of placing cognitive load theory on instructional interventions explains a lot about complex learning environments, element interactivity and learning. Therefore, if rightly executed, visualization tools as part of teaching strategies for CT may increase the critical thinking skills.

Paper Nr: 67
Title:

Teaching Arabic to Native Speakers - Educational Games in a New Curriculum

Authors:

Hanan Alshikhabobakr, Pantelis Papadopoulos and Zeinab Ibrahim

Abstract: This paper presents nine educational games and activities for learning the Arabic language. The games are developed for Arabiyyatii project, a three-year endeavor that involves re-conceptualization of the curriculum of standard Arabic as a first language in kindergarten. The applications presented in this paper are developed on tabletop surface computers that support a collaborative and interactive learning environment. These applications focus on speaking drills, word production, and sentence recognition of Modern Standard Arabic. This work incorporates an interdisciplinary research framework exploiting best practices used from related disciplines namely: computer-supported collaborative learning, language learning, teaching and learning pedagogy, instructional design and scaffolding.

Paper Nr: 69
Title:

A Machine Learning Approach to Identify Dependencies Among Learning Objects

Authors:

Carlo De Medio, Fabio Gasparetti, Carla Limongelli, Filippo Sciarrone and Marco Temperini

Abstract: Selecting and sequencing a set of Learning Objects (LOs) to build a course may turn out to be quite a challenging task. In this paper we focus on such an aspect, related to the verification and respect of the relationships of pedagogical dependence existing between two LOs added to a course (meaning that if a given LO has another one as “pre-requisite”, then any sequencing of the LOs in the course will need to have the latter LO taken by the learners before of the former). In our approach the sequencing of LOs in the course can still be managed by the instructor, basing on her/his taste and preferences, yet s/he can also be helped by a set of suggestions, related to the pre-requisite relationships existing among the LOs selected for the course. Such suggestions (such relationships, in effect) can be computed automatically and provide the instructor with significant help and guidance. We show a light-weight formalization of the LO, and how it can be “represented” by a set of WikiPedia Pages (“topics”); then we show how such set of topics, together with a set of relevant hypotheses we previously defined, can help establish the dependence relationship existing between two LOs. In this endeavor we exploit the classification in categories available for the WikiPedia topics, and obtain interesting results for our framework, in terms of precision and recall of the dependence relationships.

Paper Nr: 75
Title:

Instructor Contour Extraction and Overlay for Near-real Presence in e-Learning Systems

Authors:

Ramkumar N, Balaji Hariharan, Uma Gopalakrishnan and Venkat Rangan

Abstract: E-Learning technologies focus on methods to replicate entities such as white board, presentation screen and other teaching aids in remote classrooms. Often, a high detail video stream of the whiteboard or presentation screen (board-stream) is streamed to the remote classroom along with the instructor’s video stream. However, remote participants find it difficult to correlate between the two displayed streams to find out the area focused by the instructor‘s gestures such as finger pointing over the board. This paper deals with a method to overlay the instructor's contour-extracted frames from the instructor-stream over the board-stream for remote participants. Since the board-stream and instructor-stream have different camera perspectives, a transformation from the instructor’s video perspective to the board-stream perspective has to be made before overlay. The process includes finding the Homography-matrix, warping and overlay. Our performance results indicate that remote participants are able to discern the area focused by the instructor on the board with much greater accuracy and speed.

Paper Nr: 85
Title:

Older Adults, Learning and Technology - An Exploration of Tangible Interaction and Multimodal Representation of Information

Authors:

Emma Murphy

Abstract: This paper explores concepts of tangible interaction and multimodal representation of information framed by the theories of universal design for learning (UDL) to enhance learning for older adults. Two participatory user panels were organised to explore the potential of assistive technology and tangible interaction to engage and support older learners. A creative co-design method using a rich user scenario with practical demonstration examples was used. Existing assistive technologies designed for users with visual impairments and a novel design prototype were presented to participants. This design prototype is based on the idea of linking physical fixed learning materials with digital multimodal representations. Feedback on the existing and new interactive tools are presented based on the reactions and ideas of 7 older adult students between the ages of 57 and 76. Participants were not familiar with examples of assistive technology such as screenreaders and magnification, but were interested in exploring new ways to have information represented through multiple modalities for learning.

Paper Nr: 88
Title:

A Cloud-based Framework for Personalized Mobile Learning Provisioning using Learning Objects Metadata Adaptation

Authors:

Elarbi Badidi

Abstract: With the proliferation of Internet-capable mobile handheld devices and the availability of wireless broadband networks, mobile learning is increasingly adopted to deliver learning content anywhere and anytime to mobile users. Offering compelling mobile learning solutions faces several challenges. These challenges are mainly the adaptation of the learning material to the profile and preferences of the mobile user and the support of multiple devices. Other concerns include the storage, retrieval, and processing of learning content outside of mobile devices. Furthermore, building rich learning management systems requires the integration of learning content from third party providers. This paper describes our proposed cloud-based framework for delivering adaptive mobile learning services. The paper explains the benefits and requirements of cloud-based solutions for educational organizations, and describes the components of the proposed framework together with the process of integrating learning objects imported from third-party providers with in-house learning objects of the educational organization.

Paper Nr: 91
Title:

Evaluation of Requirements Collection Strategies for a Constraint-based Recommender System in a Social e-Learning Platform

Authors:

Francesco Epifania and Riccardo Porrini

Abstract: The NETT Recommender System (NETT-RS) is a constraint-based recommender system that recommends learning resources to teachers who want to design courses. As for many state-of-the-art constraint-based recommender systems, the NETT-RS bases its recommendation process on the collection of requirements to which items must adhere in order to be recommended. In this paper we study the effects of two different requirement collection strategies on the perceived overall recommendation quality of the NETT-RS. In the first strategy users are not allowed to refine and change the requirements once chosen, while in the second strategy the system allows the users to modify the requirements (we refer to this strategy as backtracking). We run the study following the well established ResQue methodology for user-centric evaluation of RS. Our experimental results indicate that backtracking has a strong positive impact on the perceived recommendation quality of the NETT-RS.

Paper Nr: 95
Title:

Visualising Formula Structures to Support Exploratory Modelling

Authors:

Chris Roast, Roxanne Leitão and Michael Gunning

Abstract: Visualisation is often presented as a means of simplifying information and helping people understand complex data. In this paper we describe a project designing interactive visualisations to support learner competencies in the broad area of numeracy. The work builds upon: (i) the observation that while spreadsheets are traditional ICT tools, their familiarity means that they are used for exploratory mathematical modelling; (ii) a research theme examining the human factors that influence the ease with which formal notations can be understood and applied appropriately. Our paper describes the iterative design and evaluation of a tool to visualise spreadsheets, with the aim of supporting mid-teen learners based on the premise that spreadsheets serve as a gateway tool for supporting learner experimentation and confidence within numerate subjects. This iterative process is informed by background research into notational design, graphic design as well as learner and tutor feedback.

Paper Nr: 98
Title:

Sequencing Wikipedia Pages: An On-the-fly Approach to Course Building

Authors:

Fabio Gasparetti, Carla Limongelli, Alessandra Milita, Filippo Sciarrone and Andrea Tarantini

Abstract: With its 5,006,202 articles, 49 millions of registered people and on average 800 new articles per day, Wikipedia provides a knowledge base for teachers and instructional designers to build didactic materials. As a matter of fact, teachers often consult this encyclopaedia to arrange, integrate or enrich their courses. Moreover, with the exponential growth of the Internet, didactic materials are freely available and usable by teachers, instructional designers and students from Learning Objects Repositories such as Mertlot or Ariadne and others. On the other hand, designing and delivering a new course is a crucial task for teachers, who have to face two main problems: building or retrieving and sequencing learning materials. Retrieving or building learning materials requires a great effort and is time-consuming, while sequencing requires an accurate didactic project. In this paper we present a sequencing engine of learning materials, embedded in the Wiki Course Builder system, a system capable of retrieving and sequencing Wikipedia web pages, taking into account both the teacher model based on the Grasha teaching styles and on a social didactic approach. The main goal is to support teachers building on-the-fly courses, i.e., building courses quickly, with a few clicks of the mouse. An important feature of the system is represented by its ability to allow teachers to interact with the recommended learning path through a graph-based interface where they can directly modify the proposed learning path, adding or deleting Wikipedia pages. A first questionnaire has been submitted to a sample of teachers with encouraging results.

Paper Nr: 101
Title:

GamES MOOC - Conceptual Ideas and First Steps Towards Implementation of a MOOC for Children

Authors:

Kay Berkling, Abdullrahman El-Husseny, Dennis Latt, Christian Petrov, Andreas Waigand and Jochen Walther

Abstract: This paper presents conceptual ideas and a first prototype towards establishing a GamES (GAM)ified (E)lementary (S)chool MOOC for children who do not have access to schools. The project is being developed across several Bachelor student projects in collaboration between Cooperative State University, Karlsruhe and the German University of Cairo. A hybrid architecture is designed to support children on mobile devices with intermittent Internet access. Upon access, current learning status and new content are updated. The content consists of leveled games addressing skills defined by the US common core standards for K-5 in subjects Mathematics and English (that can be adapted to other languages). The children's MOOC combines ideas of adaptive user interface, off-line personalized learning, common core standards, and game-based learning. The child's user interface is gamified and after initial registration designed to be manageable for K-5 graders. A second interface addresses the community of game developers who are interested in donating games for certain core skills. In a next step, assessment and government certification of achievements will be tackled. The MOOC software is intended as open source to allow for community development.

Paper Nr: 106
Title:

A Software System in Support of Quality of Degree Programmes

Authors:

Gennaro Costagliola, Mattia De Rosa, Vittorio Fuccella and Alessandro Ricchiuti

Abstract: We present a software system aimed at providing support to the management of processes for the self evaluation of the quality of degree programmes. The system was developed for quality management at the University of Salerno, Italy. Its main functionalities include: monitoring of the process status, scheduling of meetings, document management, support for working groups. With the help of some screenshots, the main features will be described in the context of scenarios that commonly arise in the management of processes of self-assessment of quality.

Paper Nr: 112
Title:

Wiki-LDA: A Mixed-Method Approach for Effective Interest Mining on Twitter Data

Authors:

Xiao Pu, Mohamed Amine Chatti, Hendrik Thüs and Ulrik Schroeder

Abstract: Learning analytics (LA) and Educational data mining (EDM) have emerged as promising technology enhanced learning (TEL) research areas in recent years. Both areas deal with the development of methods that harness educational data sets to support the learning process. A key area of application for LA and EDM is learner modelling. Learner modelling enables to achieve adaptive and personalized learning environments, which are able to take into account the heterogeneous needs of learners and provide them with tailored learning experience suited for their unique needs. As learning is increasingly happening in open and distributed environments beyond the classroom and access to information in these environments is mostly interest-driven, learner interests need to constitute an important learner feature to be modeled. In this paper, we focus on the interest dimension of a learner model and present Wiki-LDA as a novel method to effectively mine user’s interests in Twitter. We apply a mixed-method approach that combines Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), text mining APIs, and wikipedia categories. Wiki-LDA has proven effective at the task of interest mining and classification on Twitter data, outperforming standard LDA.

Paper Nr: 116
Title:

Good and Similar Learners’ Recommendation in Adaptive Learning Systems

Authors:

Dade Nurjanah

Abstract: Classic challenges in adaptive learning systems are about performing adaptive navigation that recommends a topic or concept to be learned next and learning materials relevant to the topic. Both recommendations have to meet active learners’ needs. As adaptive navigation problems have been solved using artificial intelligence techniques, learning material recommendation problems can be solved using recommender techniques that have been successfully applied to other problems. Until recently there have been a number of techniques that come with certain advantages and disadvantages. This paper proposes a new technique for recommending learning materials that combine content-based filtering and collaborative filtering based on the similarity between learners and learners’ competence. It aims to diminish the drawback of classic collaborative filtering, which is based on the similarities between learners and does not consider learners’ competence. It also diminishes problems arising from collaborative filtering based on good learners’ competence, which potentially produces recommended objects that do not meet the learners’ condition. The results of a recent experiment show that the proposed technique performs well, as indicated by the MAE score of 0.96 for a rating scale of 1 to 10.

Paper Nr: 122
Title:

Customized Teaching Scenarios for Smartphones in University Lecture Settings - Experiences with Several Teaching Scenarios using the MobileQuiz2

Authors:

Daniel Schön, Melanie Klinger, Stephan Kopf and Wolfgang Effelsberg

Abstract: Many teachers use Audience Response Systems (ARS) in lectures to re-activate their listeners and to get an insight in students’ knowledge of the current lecture contents. Plenty of such applications have been developed in recent years, they provide a high variety of different teaching scenarios with the use of the students’ smartphones, including quizzes, lecture feedback and dynamic message boards. We developed a novel application based on an abstract model to enable this variety of customizable teaching scenarios within one application. After presenting the application to the first charge of lecturers, the responses were quite good, and several new teaching scenarios were created and used. This paper presents first experiences when using a variety of customizable teaching scenarios, the special opportunities and challenges as well as the opinions of lecturers and students, which we collected with a survey at the end of the semester.

Paper Nr: 134
Title:

Content Assistance and Recommendations in Learning Material - A Folksonomy-based Approach

Authors:

Benedikt Engelbert, Karsten Morisse and Oliver Vornberger

Abstract: With the variety of Learning Materials (LM) available in Learning Management Systems and the Internet, the time a student requires to select the most appropriate content increases. Especially the use of the Internet to find new LM is time consuming and not necessarily successful. A study accomplished at our university shows, that students mainly look for alternative explanations, content related exercises and examples, which can be used in addition to the existing LM. In this paper we describe the System Learning Assistance Osnabrueck (LAOs), which is based on a collaborative tagging approach with the main goals to give content related assistance for available LM, but also recommend content in further LM e.g. from the Internet.

Paper Nr: 143
Title:

What Should We Add to Syntax-oriented Generation of Random Expressions to Meet Pedagogical Needs?

Authors:

Rein Prank

Abstract: The paper looks for an exercise environment where the teacher program would enable to fix parameters of random generation so that the generated tasks have desired pedagogical properties. In particular, it should be possible to prescribe qualitative content and size of the solution and its parts, opportunities to make certain errors, probabilities of different decisions to be made by the student. We analyse two existing environments for algebraic exercises in Propositional Logic and identify what additional options are necessary and what computational engines or precomputed resources could produce the desired properties.

Paper Nr: 146
Title:

Extending the Reach with Blackboard+ - Enhancing the Student Blended Learning Experience through Good Online Course Design

Authors:

Ruth Greenaway

Abstract: The implementation of Bb+ supports the increasing use of a blended learning approach in tertiary education: a fundamental requirement of modern tertiary education. The use of a blended approach facilitates the expansion of the University both physically and virtually as courses are increasingly offered online across the sector. The Blackboard Plus (Bb+) initiative has been developed to broadly and significantly improve the quality of the student experience when using the University’s online learning environment. This will ensure consistency in design and structure across courses in a degree program to improve access to learning materials and for ease of navigation. Bb+ consists of a number of components to guide and support academics with its implementation as they design blended educational programs. To empower academics a bottom-up approach to the implementation of Bb+ is utilised to create the change and to maintain momentum and lasting change across the University.

Paper Nr: 157
Title:

Towards Tool Support for Team Awareness in Collaborative Argumentation

Authors:

Maria Fysaraki and Heinrich Hussmann

Abstract: Supporting collaborative argumentation in higher education is a challenging task, and raising the awareness of students on the relational space of their collaboration may be the key to simplifying it. In this paper, we explore the role of team awareness for enhancing the quality of collaborative argumentation. Ten groups of master students from Media Informatics (n= 28) participated in a multiple-case study for arguing on ill-structured problems where they received different team awareness prompts embedded in collaboration scripts , argued for solving the problems and built argument maps. The initial analysis of the argument maps indicates that the social awareness script has a moderately higher impact on the quality of argumentation compared to the behavioural awareness script.

Paper Nr: 173
Title:

Live Biblia: Evaluation of a Support System with a Tangible Interface for Viewing Science Museum Exhibitions

Authors:

Ryohei Egusa, Machi Saito, Fusako Kusunoki and Shigenori Inagaki

Abstract: In this study, we present a museum exhibit guide system that uses a tangible user interface: Live Biblia. Based on the visitor’s learning interests, museum exhibits are sorted and mapped by the system. Thus, it is possible to create a unique viewing map for the visitor, unrestricted by the existing exhibit environment. We describe the development and evaluation of the implemented Live Biblia prototype, which provides exhibit information based on selected material objects. We conducted evaluation experiments to examine the system’s effectiveness. The results suggest that the interface prototype using physical objects spurred participants’ interest in paleontology and facilitated effective museum exhibit learning. Additionally, we found that presenting information in the prototype animation aroused the participants’ motivation to learn and supported the viewing of not only the single fossil object but also the related museum exhibits.

Posters
Paper Nr: 31
Title:

ICT as Learning Tools and Collaborative Work Facilitators in the Moroccan University Educational System: Summary, Review and Optimization Approach

Authors:

Bouchaib Riyami, Khalifa Mansouri and Franck Poirier

Abstract: In the Moroccan university educational system, courses, tutorials and hands-on exercises are taught in face-to- face lectures. This means that learners’ attendance is required in all training sessions. Learners do not have access to alternatives courses, nor to the explanations and lecture notes. There is also a lack of distance education (henceforth, e-learning system) allowing them to have flexible access to course content. For these reasons, the learners, especially those who, for some reason or other, cannot attend the face-to-face lectures, prefer to work in groups to re-discuss and rework all course sections not seen with their teachers. Our contribution is to highlight the different uses of ICT tools by Moroccan university students during their daily collaborative work in relation to projects and assignments requested by their teachers, and also to advance a practical means to revise some sections of the course with learners with difficulties, and explain the difficult parts to learners who have not attended the face-to-face sessions. We then unveil some obstacles which hamper the success of "e-learning” in the Moroccan university educational system, relying on our daily experience as university teachers for the last fifteen years, as well as on statistical data on the appropriation of ICT by university students.

Paper Nr: 42
Title:

Responsive Course Design - An Adaptive Approach to Designing Responsive m-Learning

Authors:

Ivan Madjarov

Abstract: The ubiquitous availability of a wide range of Internet connected mobile devices makes possible to dedicate small amounts of spare time for mobile learning. The limited screen size makes current mobile devices quite hard to visualize multifaceted web pages, so this kind of content could be adjusted to meet the device needs. CMS-based websites, in general, are designed for large screens and when users go online with mobile phones, smartphones and tablets they feel some discomfort. The usability and user experience may be reduced when interacting with learning platforms that are not optimized for such features. A possible solution has arisen with recent advances in Responsive Web Design specifications. This adaptive web design technique advocates a single self-adaptive interface and avoids thereby multiplication of information sources and technical supports and promotes the possibility to design adaptive e-Learning courses and adaptive e-Learning mobile applications. In this paper we discuss about the possibilities of Responsive Web Design technique to adapt a learning content compared to an adaptive service-based approach to design responsive learning contents for m-Learning usage.

Paper Nr: 45
Title:

Teaching Programming to Large Student Groups through Test Driven Development - Comparing Established Methods with Teaching based on Test Driven Development

Authors:

Morten Goodwin and Tom Drange

Abstract: This paper presents an approach for teaching programming in large university classes based on test driven development (TDD) methods. The approach aims at giving the students an industry-like environment already in their education and introduces full automation and feedback programming classes through unit testing. The focus for this paper is to compare the novel approach with existing teaching methods. It does so by comparing introduction to programming classes in two institutions. One university ran a TDD teaching process with fully automated assessments and feedback, while the other ran a more traditional on-line environment with manual assessments and feedback. The TDD approach has clear advantages when it comes to learning programming as it is done in the industry, including being familiar with tools and approaches used. However, it lacks ways of dealing with cheating and stimulating creativity in student submissions.

Paper Nr: 61
Title:

Use of Virtual Classroom: Summarized Opinion of the Stakeholders in the Learning-Teaching Process

Authors:

Myriam Peñafiel, Stefanie Vásquez and Sergio Luján-Mora

Abstract: Nowadays, the use of ICTs in education is proof of innovation, quality, and ease of access. Aware of this challenge, higher education institutions are making efforts in line with technological advances by incorporating tools that promote more and better learning results. The aim of this investigation is to determine how much backing Moodle virtual classrooms provide to support classroom work at the university in the case study. Moodle can be used to improve, renovate and motivate the teaching-learning process in the classroom. To confirm this hypothesis, we conducted a summary of previous research carried out from the perspective of students, teachers and authorities, and considered the agreements and disagreements among these groups. We evaluated perceived usefulness, ease of use and other variables to validate the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) of the investigation. The results show that Moodle virtual classrooms are an accepted tool in terms of obtained benefits. We also determined that it is necessary to implement training in using Moodle, as well having policies and incentives to increase its use.

Paper Nr: 97
Title:

Automatic Concepts Classification based on Bloom’s Taxonomy using Text Analysis and the Naïve Bayes Classifier Method

Authors:

Fatema Nafa, Salem Othman and Javed Khan

Abstract: This paper aims to add Bloom’s Taxonomy levels as tags to the contents (e.g. concepts) of any given text-book which is written in formal English and given as a course material. Bloom’s Taxonomy levels defines concepts and knowledge of learning as six levels. Preparing the material of any course based on these six could help the students to better understand the course’s concepts and their interrelationships. However, the relations between concepts are highly sophisticated and require a human judgment. A set of methods have been proposed to extract the relations among concepts. We use the naïve Bayes classifier which is the best known and most successful classification technique in Machine Learning (Mahesh Kini M et al., 2015). This work presents a naive classifier method which identifies the Bloom’s Taxonomy levels in text paragraphs based on some rules in the training set. We evaluate and validate the proposed method on a text-book. By utilizing the concepts of computer science for determining its knowledge domain. As a result of the proposed method achieves an accuracy of average 70-85%, which is significantly high. Furthermore, we show that taking Bloom’s Taxonomy levels into account in course design is valuable and our method can be used to achieve.

Paper Nr: 108
Title:

The Effectiveness of e-Portfolios for Enhancing College Freshmen’s Reflection and Aesthetic Literacy

Authors:

Shih-yun Lu, Wei-her Hsieh, Chih Cheng Lo, Yi Zeng Hsieh and Tsai-Cheng Chang

Abstract: This paper aims to explore the theories and interrelationships of the effectiveness of creating e-portfolios for enhancing the reflection and aesthetic literacy of first-year college students. First, the paper re-examined the reflection scale and the aesthetic literacy scale with a questionnaire survey of first-year university students in the central of Taiwan. Moreover, this paper justified the relationships between the reflection and aesthetic literacy scales and their dimensions. Furthermore, the research results show that the reflection is highly correlation to the depth of the digital files and aesthetic literacy is highly correlation to the visual presentation of the digital files. Both variables can suitably reflect the student’s characteristics in the e-portfolio., which provides a foundation for future research. Finally, the research attempted to encourage the school educational incorporating the use of e-portfolios in the 12-year compulsory education curricula.

Paper Nr: 133
Title:

Computer-aided Training of Engineers: Challenges and Solutions

Authors:

Irina Makarova, Rifat Khabibullin, Eduard Belyaev and Vadim Mavrin

Abstract: The paper discusses the advantages of computer technologies and augmented virtual reality in training of engineers, including the main areas of application and influence on the quality of education, and attaches an example of training of engineers for the automobile industry. It is shown that using of systemic approach to the educational process allows to improve the tuition quality of specialists for hi-tech industries. Such engineers can easily adapt in business both due to acquired fundamental knowledge and skills.

Paper Nr: 136
Title:

Precise Understandig of Reading Activities - Sight, Aural and Page Turning

Authors:

Kyota Aoki, Shuichi Tashiro and Shu Aoki

Abstract: In Japanese public elementary schools, every pupil may use an ICT device individually and simultaneously. In the cases, a few teachers must teach all pupils. For being welcomed from a teacher, the ICT devices must help pupils to use the ICT devices by itself for effective usage, and it must help the teacher to use the ICT devices in a class. For help the user, the ICT devices must understand the state of the user. For help the teacher, it must precisely understand the users' reading activities. This paper proposes a method to recognize the precise reading activity of a user with read aloud voices and facial images. This paper discusses the relation between reading activity and features caught with a voice and a facial image, and proposes the method to implement the precise understanding of reading activity.

Paper Nr: 137
Title:

A Serious Game to Improve Students’ Skills in Global Software Development

Authors:

David Valencia, Aurora Vizcaino, Juan Pablo Soto and Mario Piattini

Abstract: In recent years, companies have been forced to change their business model, due to the phenomenon of globalization. Software development companies are no exception, and have attempted to join the global market so as to be able to hire labor in other countries, seeking to reduce costs, increase productivity and gain competitive advantages. This is known as Global Software Development (GSD). To perform this practice, companies require developers who possess knowledge and skills for solving problems that arise due to geographical, temporal and cultural distance. Traditional methods for teaching students or employees how to work in GSD environments are usually expensive, and require much effort. This is where serious games can play a key role, as they are educational games that allow for the acquisition of knowledge and skills at a low cost. This article presents a serious game with which some of the competencies needed in GSD can be acquired. The game simulates scenarios that usually occur in the overall development of a software project, so that the user can become aware of the problems concerning GSD and gain some experience in solving these problems.

Paper Nr: 142
Title:

A Fuzzy System to Automatically Evaluate and Improve Fariness of Multiple-Choice Questions (MCQs) based Exams

Authors:

Ibrahim A. Hameed

Abstract: Examination is one of the common assessment methods to assess the level of knowledge of students. Assessment methods probably have a greater influence on how and what students learn than any other factor. Assessment is used to discriminate not only between different students but also between different levels of thinking. Due to the increasing trends in class sizes and limited resources for teaching, the need arises for exploring other assessment methods. Multiple-Choice Questions (MCQs) have been highlighted as the main way of coping with the large group teaching, ease of use, testing large number of students on a wide range of course material, in a short time and with low grading costs. MCQs have been criticised for encouraging surface learning and its unfairness. MCQs have a variety of scoring options; the most widely used method is to compute the score by only focusing on the responses that the student made. In this case, the number of correct responses is counted, the number of incorrect answers is counted and a final score is reported as either the number of the correct answers or the number of correct answers minus the number of incorrect answers. The disadvantages of this approach are that other dimensions such as importance and complexity of questions are not considered, and in addition, it cannot discriminate between students with equal total score. In this paper, a method to automatically evaluate MCQs considering importance and complexity of each question and providing a fairer way to discriminating between students with equal total scores is presented.

Paper Nr: 152
Title:

OPPIA: A Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Platform to Exploit Short-Lived Student Networks for Collaborative Learning

Authors:

Jack Fernando Bravo-Torres, Vladimir Espartaco Robles-Bykaev, Martín López-Nores, Esteban Fernando Ordoñez-Morales, Yolanda Blanco-Fernández and Alberto Gil-Solla

Abstract: We present the OPPIA platform, a ubiquitous and smart learning environment, that deploys sporadic learning networks (SLNs) among people (students, teachers and experts) who happen to be in a common place or in a remote place but connected to the platform through the Internet. The idea is to establish dynamic learning networks that encourage their members to work together and create a learning environment with proper resources and activities to satisfy their learning needs. This paper describes the design of the platform from the lowest levels of establishing connections among members of the SLNs, up to the highest level of smart learning services.

Paper Nr: 153
Title:

Next Generation Learner Modeling by Theory of Mind Model Induction

Authors:

Klaus P. Jantke, Bernd Schmidt and Rosalie Schnappauf

Abstract: Learning is a spectrum of involved processes requiring the learner’s engagement and building upon the learner’s prior knowledge and other prerequisites. Educators know how to adapt to their learners’ needs and desires. User modeling is a key technology to enable digital systems such as e-learning environments and serious games to adapt to their users’s peculiarities. There is a huge corpus of scientific research on user modeling, on implementation of user modeling and related system adaptivity, and on the impact on teaching and learning. The aim of the present contribution is to go even further. The concept of theories of mind is adopted and adapted from animal behavioral research. Theory of mind user models allow for the identification and representation of user/learner/player peculiarities beyond the limits of all other preceding approaches to user modeling. Theory of mind learner models allow for the representation of higher quality profiles describing, for instances, intention, misconceptions, or even fear. The acquisition of suchlike expressive profiles is an inductive learning process of the digital system. The inductive inference of learner profiles requires particular concepts and algorithms. An implementation serves as proof of concept.

Paper Nr: 160
Title:

An Input Support System for Customized Scouting Charts of Baseball Games

Authors:

Kazunari Uchiki, Yasuhiko Watanabe, Haruka Morimoto and Kenji Yasuda

Abstract: In physical education, it is important for students to learn how to observe, record, and analyze their activities. Ryukoku University Baseball Team developed a customized scouting chart and records the type and course of every individual pitch thrown by all the pitchers in the team and their rivals. However, it is not easy to record the pitching data by using pens and paper. To solve this problem, we developed an input support system for customized scouting charts of baseball games in Unity and C#. In preliminary experiments, our system enables users to create pitch combination records easily and improves the readability of them.

Paper Nr: 172
Title:

Adaptive and Blended Learning for Electrical Operators Training - With Virtual Reality Systems

Authors:

Yasmín Hernández and Miguel Pérez Ramírez

Abstract: Due to the danger involved in the electrical field, qualified electricians are required. Traditionally, training has been based on classroom courses and camp training, but it is costly and students need to spend a long time to develop their competences. We propose to complement traditional training with an intelligent training system composing a blended training model. The blended model enables adaptive training through a student model which represents the affective and knowledge states of the trainees. The affect is recognized taking into account a theoretical model of emotions. The knowledge of the student is updated as he interacts with the system. The instruction is presented in a virtual reality environment by an empathic agent. The virtual reality system enables practicing in a controlled and safe environment. In this paper, the general proposal for the blended training model is presented.

Paper Nr: 175
Title:

Using a Learning Management System in the Course of English for University Students

Authors:

Natalya Snytnikova

Abstract: The paper explores the potential of using a Virtual Learning Environment in teaching English to Master students at a Russian university. On the base of an e-Learning platform a kind of private website has been created with an online English course for Master students “English for Chemists and Biologists”. The course is described in some detail. The Learning Management System supplied by Moodle, an e-Learning platform, is presented. The materials and tools provided by the Moodle system are considered. The outcomes are discussed of a mixture of a traditional and online English course used to teach the university students. The author endeavours to determine whether the infusion of technology positively influences the acquisition of the English language by the Russian university students. The author claims that the pedagogical approach which involves both the technology-enhanced teaching and the face-to-face teaching is the approach which is characteristic of the 21st century teaching practice. This promising pedagogical approach helps to improve and innovate language learning in the classroom and outside the classroom.

Area 2 - Learning/Teaching Methodologies and Assessment

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 18
Title:

Pre-service Teacher ICT Tool-kit - The Role of the Setting

Authors:

Kathy Jordan and Jennifer Elsden-Clifton

Abstract: For some time, Teacher Education policy and research has consistently argued that graduates are ill prepared to use ICT in their practice (TEMAG, 2015). In Australia, an increasing regulatory environment means that Teacher Education providers need to meet national accreditation demands as well as design programs that address professional standards for graduates where an effective ICT use is a requirement. In an effort to have greater understanding of how to design Teacher Education programs that meet these challenges, this small scale study investigated where 69 pre-service teachers learned how to use a number of ICT resources commonly used in primary and secondary schools. Findings suggest that they learned how to use many resources (particularly general-type resources) in their everyday life prior to undertaking their teaching qualification and that they learned how to use a lesser number in university coursework or practicum in schools. A number of implications for Teacher Education conclude this paper.

Paper Nr: 33
Title:

An Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic System for Assessment of Students’ Answer Scripts under High Levels of Uncertainty

Authors:

Ibrahim A. Hameed, Mohanad Elhoushy, Belal A. Zalam and Ottar L. Osen

Abstract: The proper system for evaluating the learning achievement of students is the key to realizing the purpose of education and learning. Traditional grading methods are largely based on human judgments, which tend to be subjective. In addition, it is based on sharp criteria instead of fuzzy criteria and suffers from erroneous scores assigned by indifferent or inexperienced examiners, which represent a rich source of uncertainties, which might impair the credibility of the system. In an attempt to reduce uncertainties and provide more objective, reliable, and precise grading, a sophisticated assessment approach based on type-2 fuzzy set theory is developed. In this paper, interval type-2 (IT2) fuzzy sets, which are a special case of the general T2 fuzzy sets, are used. The transparency and capabilities of type-2 fuzzy sets in handling uncertainties is expected to provide an evaluation system able to justify and raise the quality and consistency of assessment judgments.

Paper Nr: 115
Title:

An Analysis of Factors Affecting Automatic Assessment based on Teacher-mediated Peer Evaluation - The Case of OpenAnswer

Authors:

Maria De Marsico, Andrea Sterbini and Marco Temperini

Abstract: In this paper we experimentally investigate the influence of several factors on the final performance of an automatic grade prediction system based on teacher-mediated peer assessment. Experiments are carried out by OpenAnswer, a system designed for peer assessment of open-ended questions. It exploits a Bayesian Network to model the students’ learning state and the propagation of information injected in the system by peer grades and by a (partial) grading from the teacher. The relevant variables are characterized by a probability distribution (PD) of their discrete values. We aim at analysing the influence of the initial set up of the PD of these variables on the ability of the system to predict a reliable grade for answers not yet graded by the teacher. We investigate here the influence of the initial choice of the PD for the student’s knowledge (K), especially when we have no information on the class proficiency on the examined skills, and of the PD of the correctness of student’s answers, conditioned by her knowledge, P(C|K). The latter is expressed through different Conditional Probability Tables (CPTs), in turn, to identify the one allowing to achieve the best final results. Moreover we test different strategies to map the final PD for the correctness (C) of an answer, namely the grade that will be returned to the student, onto a single discrete value.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 9
Title:

Profiling Student Behavior in a Blended Course - Closing the Gap between Blended Teaching and Blended Learning

Authors:

Nynke Bos and Saskia Brand-Gruwel

Abstract: Blended learning is often associated with student-oriented learning in which students have varying degrees of control over their learning process. However, the current notion of blended learning is often a teacher-oriented approach in which the teacher identifies the used learning technologies and thereby offers students a blended teaching course instead of a blended learning course (George-Walker & Keeffe, 2010). A more student-oriented approach is needed within educational design of blended learning courses since previous research shows that students show a large variation in the way they use the different digital learning resources to support their learning. There is little insight into why students show distinct patterns in their use of these learning resources and what the consequences of these (un)conscious differences are in relation to student performance. The current study explores different usage patterns of learning resources by students in a blended course. It tries to establish causes for these differences by using dispositional data and determines the effect of different usage patterns on student performance.

Paper Nr: 15
Title:

Assessment of Learner’s Algorithms

Authors:

Ismail Bouacha and Tahar Bensebaa

Abstract: In this paper we propose a method based on program comprehension to assess learners in algorithmic. This method understands automatically the algorithms proposed by the students using comprehension methods from the domain of the software engineering. To assess students propositions, we use prebuilt models of algorithms. These models are documented with information and pedagogical characteristics, and they are organized into tasks and subtasks. We recognize students propositions based on a distance calculus between the model and the proposition. A first experiment and results are presented.

Paper Nr: 19
Title:

Discipline Decision Tree Classification Algorithm and Application based on Weighted Information Gain Ratio

Authors:

Yan Xia, Jian Shu, Na Xu and Hui Feng

Abstract: Discipline evaluation is an important part in higher education evaluation. It plays a significant role in discipline construction in universities and colleges. It is challenging how to use scientific discipline evaluation to classify disciplines, such as advantageous disciplines and newly-emerging ones. This paper proposes an algorithm of discipline decision tree classification based on weighted information gain ratio. It determines evaluation attributes and creates decision tree according to weighted information gain ratio. Discipline classification rules are deduced by decision tree. An automatic classification system is developed, implementing the algorithm and analysing data from universities and colleges in Shanghai. Experimental results show that our scheme can achieve about 83.33% accuracy in forecasts. It provides advice and guidance for discipline evaluation, and establishes foundation for discipline development strategy.

Paper Nr: 20
Title:

Online Learning: Strategies for Pedagogical Retooling

Authors:

Maureen Snow Andrade

Abstract: Higher education can be conceptualized as a partnership between the learner and the institution. However, this may necessitate changes in practice, such as the development of flexible learning models to accommodate individuals from a range of backgrounds and life circumstances, particularly those traditionally excluded from higher education. Flexible modes of learning may encounter resistance or fail to deliver expected outcomes, however, thus limiting adoption. Pedagogical retooling can address this. This paper reviews the current status of one type of flexible delivery—online learning—in terms of stakeholder views, the need for continued institutional responsiveness, and pedagogical strategies that support desired outcomes. The latter includes pedagogical training that involves implementing elements of effective course design, simulating the student learning experience, forming communities of practice, and sustaining practice with follow-on support.

Paper Nr: 32
Title:

Teaching Students to Learn

Authors:

Halvard Øysæd, Rune Andersen, Andreas Prinz and Renée Schulz

Abstract: The classical model of higher education studies is the sink-or-swim model, where some students are born with certain skills or inherit them and become swimmers, whereas students without good study strategies will not be able to keep up with the teaching in higher education and ultimately fail (they sink). This is no longer a valid model, as it cannot handle the large amount of students enrolling despite poor study strategies. The paper discusses how students can become swimmers in the context of higher education through teaching them study strategy, thus enabling them to take more responsibility for their own progress. In addition to explaining and showing examples of good study strategies, the focus is on the teaching of good study habits and the ICT tools required for achieving good results in doing so.

Paper Nr: 46
Title:

A Preprocessing Design Scheme for Sequential Pattern Analysis of a Student Database

Authors:

R. Campagni, D. Merlini and M. C. Verri

Abstract: In a data mining project evolved on a relational database often a significant effort needs to be done to construct the data set for the analysis. In fact, usually the database contains a series of normalized tables that need to be joined, aggregated and processed in an appropriate way to build the data set. This process generates various SQL queries that are written independently of each other, in a disordered manner. In this way, the database grows with tables and views which are not present at the conceptual level and this can yield problems for the development of the database. In this paper we consider a typical database containing data about students, courses and exams and illustrate some SQL transformations to build a data set to perform a sequential pattern analysis eventually combined with clustering and classification. In particular, we introduce in the student database some interesting patterns representing relationship between the exams given by students in various periods and the career of each student. This is achieved by introducing a particular encoding of a the career of a student. The resulting table can be analyzed with clustering and classification algorithms. We present a case study following this organization.

Paper Nr: 64
Title:

Relevance of UCD Education to Software Development – Recommendation for Curriculum Design

Authors:

Amir Dirin and Marko Nieminen

Abstract: This paper describes the implementation and impact of specific focus on user-centred design (UCD) methods and practices to a mobile application concept development course. The course has been held for two consecutive years at a University of Applied Sciences. This project-based course educates students in teamwork, user study techniques, data interpretation, and scenario-based design. Moreover, by applying usability assessment methods such as heuristic evaluations and usability tests, students learn the basics of usability engineering methods and principles. In addition to outcomes on students’ learning, the course has resulted in several innovative mobile application concepts some of which are in the process of being commercialized. This paper presents student feedback about the applied methods months after the completion of the course. The questionnaire-originating results indicate that students gain knowledge and skills that are very valuable for their future careers in software and service development. Knowledge on UCD is relevant in contemporary mobile application development and an important asset for students to become competitive in job markets. Almost all students have applied the educated methods in their work, and they are willing to promote the UCD methods and framework to their professional peers. The results are further used to discuss and emphasize the importance of UCD education.

Paper Nr: 107
Title:

Towards a Trace-based Evaluation Model for Knowledge Acquisition and Training Resource Adaption

Authors:

Soraya Chachoua, Nouredine Tamani, Jamal Malki and Pascal Estraillier

Abstract: e-Assessment in an e-learning system is aimed at evaluating learners regarding their knowledge acquisition. Available assessment methods are usually used at the end of a training activity in order to state if a given learner has either passed or failed a training unit or level, based on the grading results obtained. Most of grading processes follow the SCORM norm in the matter (Scorm, 2006) and make use of duration and number of attempts to compute the scores. These information are valuable in grading but they can also be exploited to capture the learner bahaviour during a training activity, and then assess both learner knowledge acquisition and training resource quality in terms of adequacy. Therefore, we consider in this paper duration and number of attempts as modeled traces, upon which we build a theoretical model for automated evaluation of learners’ knowledge acquisition evolution as a training activity progresses. The values obtained can be used to adapt training strategies and resources to improve both learner’s knowledge level and e-learning platform quality.

Paper Nr: 118
Title:

An Educational Game for Teaching Search Algorithms

Authors:

Foteini Grivokostopoulou, Isidoros Perikos and Ioannis Hatzilygeroudis

Abstract: Search algorithms constitute an important topic in the Artificial Intelligence curriculum and are acknowledged by most tutors to be a hard and complex domain for teachers to teach and students to deeply understand. In this paper, we present an educational computer game, designed to teach search algorithms, based on the popular Pacman game. The purpose of the educational Pacman game is to assist students to understand the artificial intelligence topic of search algorithms in an entertaining, interactive and motivating way. During their experience with the game, students can examine the behaviour of various search algorithms and a graphical annotated depiction of them through suitable visualizations. Visualizations can demonstrate the operational functionality of algorithms and are designed in line with the principles of student’s active learning. Various learning activities were designed and request students to apply specific search algorithms in various example cases with or without the assistance and feedback of the game. An evaluation study was conducted in real classroom conditions and revealed quite satisfactory results. The results indicate that the educational Pacman game is an effective way to enhance students’ engagement and help them to deeper understand the AI search algorithms.

Paper Nr: 124
Title:

Cognitive Benefits of Digital Games for Older Adults - Strategies for Increasing Participation

Authors:

Robyn Schell and David Kaufman

Abstract: There is evidence that shows that playing digital games has cognitive benefits for older adults. However, to reap these cognitive benefits, barriers that prevent full participation in gameplay must be overcome. This position paper describes the cognitive benefits of digital gaming for older people, outlines some of the obstacles they may face when playing digital games, and offers strategies that could help reduce these barriers so more older adults could enjoy the benefits of playing digital games.

Paper Nr: 141
Title:

Exploratory Game Play to Support Language Learning: Dinner Talk

Authors:

Klaus P. Jantke, Oksana Arnold and Torsten Bosecker

Abstract: In response to the contemporary influx of refugees to Europe, the author's team has developed and implemented a digital game concept to support language learning of any written language. Fast progress in small steps is required and small and flexible software tools are necessary. The core implementation is available on the web and runs on mobile devices such as tablets and smartphones, on conventional desktop PCs and on special purpose devices such as interactive learning tables. This core implementation allows for a very flexible and fast exchange or modification of contents to fit to varying needs. This paper puts emphasis on the potential of the approach beyond the needs of refugees. Educators may apply it to regular courses in school, in higher education, in vocational training, and in further education.

Paper Nr: 147
Title:

COSEY: Computer Supported Enhancement of Young Children’s Cooperation - Toward a Multiple-player Cooperative Full-body Interaction Game

Authors:

Tsugunosuke Sakai, Haruya Tamaki, Ryuichi Yoshida, Ryohei Egusa, Shigenori Inagaki, Etsuji Yamaguchi, Fusako Kusunoki, Miki Namatame, Masanori Sugimoto and Hiroshi Mizoguchi

Abstract: We have developed a full-body interaction game that allows children to cooperate and interact with other children in small groups. The intent of the full-body interaction game developed in this study is to encourage cooperation between children. The game requires two children to jump together with the same timing. We let children experience the game, and observed the children using several strategies to coordinate the timing of their jumps. These included shouting time, watching each other, and jumping in a constant rhythm as if they were skipping rope. In this manner, we observed the children playing the game while cooperating with each other. Therefore, the game enabled children to experience cooperation with others by using body movements.

Paper Nr: 150
Title:

Science Education Enhancement within a Museum using Computer-human Interaction Technology

Authors:

Haruya Tamaki, Tsugunosuke Sakai, Ryuichi Yoshida, Ryohei Egusa, Shigenori Inagaki, Etsuji Yamaguchi, Fusako Kusunoki, Miki Namatame, Masanori Sugimoto and Hiroshi Mizoguchi

Abstract: We are developing an immersive learning support system for paleontological environments in museums. The system measures the physical movement of the learner using a Kinect sensor, and provides a sense of immersion in the paleontological environment by adapting the surroundings according to these movements. As the first step toward realizing an immersive learning support system for museums, Yoshida et al. developed and evaluated a prototype system. However, their system cannot learn about certain paleontological features such as the names of extinct animals and their characteristics. Therefore, we developed an improved version of this system that allows for an enriched knowledge of paleontological environments, focusing in particular on extinct animals and plants and the ecological environment. Here, we evaluate the system’s learning assistant and immersive features insofar as they are directed toward children in primary school. This paper summarizes the current system and describes the evaluation results.

Paper Nr: 151
Title:

Computer Supported Evolution Inside Van Hiele Levels 1 and 2

Authors:

Borislav Lazarov and Rumyana Papancheva

Abstract: The goal of the study is to clarify the communicative abilities of 5th grade students related to the computer supported geometry education. Theoretical frame is the Van Hieles’ model. The experimental teaching gives an idea of how the language characteristics of Level 1 and 2 could be improved by a short-term game-like math education. Some coding-decoding activities make students to be more accurate in written communications.

Paper Nr: 174
Title:

A Case Study of Team Learning Measurements from Groupware Utilization - A Proposal of Measurement Method for the Contribution Ratio of Knowledge

Authors:

Ayako Masuda, Chikako Morimoto, Tohru Matsuodani and Kazuhiko Tsuda

Abstract: In software development, there is a need to share a variety of knowledge; therefore, team learning (organizational learning) is required. As tools to support team learning, various groupware has been utilized. In groupware utilization, there is variation among development sites, which is suggested to reflect the maturity of team learning. Therefore, a case analysis on a team with a higher maturity of team learning was performed using groupware utilization as a measure of knowledge sharing. The Gini coefficient is used to represent the distribution of assets in economics. An inversion of the Gini coefficient was used to represent the groupware utilization and defined as the contribution ratio of knowledge. When the contribution ratio of knowledge is large, knowledge sharing is considered to be progressing. The contribution ratio of knowledge in this case study was observed to improve in proportion to the duration of the team. In future, we will expand the measurement range and continue to verify the measurement of team learning maturity using the contribution ratio of knowledge. This study measures the state of the team by analyzing their responses to the questionnaire. If this verification is successful, we would be able to measure the progress of team learning using the contribution ratio of knowledge, which can be measured more easily and objectively without resorting to the questionnaire.

Paper Nr: 176
Title:

Anaís: A Conceptual Framework for Blended Active Learning in Healthcare

Authors:

Adriano Araujo Santos, José Antão Beltrão Moura, Joseana Macêdo Fechine Regis de Araújo and Marcelo Alves de Barros

Abstract: The guarantee of the right to quality education is a fundamental principle for policy and management education. In addition to the organizational processes and regulation, as well as for citizenship, currently the student satisfaction plays a key role for the adequacy of actual courses and the needs of the educational community who depend on them. This way, interest on active methodologies has intensified with the emergence of new strategies that may favour the autonomy of students. Active Learning (AL) becomes an important strategy in healthcare to the extent that theory and practice go hand in hand in the training of health experts. This paper proposes a conceptual framework (Anaís) for active learning in healthcare studies and summarizes a qualitative research with healthcare experts and students on the feasibility and applicability of Anaís and its potentially positive results. Statistical tests and descriptive analysis of the collected data indicate Anaís could indeed bring a contribution to the healthcare area in terms of benefits to use it as an AL tool for professional training of physicians and other healthcare professionals and specialists.

Posters
Paper Nr: 56
Title:

Possibilities of Inducing Pupils’ Inquiry Activities during Instruction

Authors:

Jiří Dostál, Prasart Nuangchalerm, Ján Stebila and Belgin Bal

Abstract: The contemporary tendences emphasize the use of so-called inquiry-based learning (IBL). However, there remains a question – by which ways should be the active inquiry of pupils induced? The author of this article finds the answer in the union of the theory learning tasks and theory of the inquiry-based instruction. Via the analytical and comparative approaches, it turns out that two categories of the inquiry tasks can be used. The first one was provisionally marked as “instructive inquiry tasks”, the second one as “inquiry tasks with internal activation”. Both stated tasks have different essence in how are the pupils induced to perform the inquiry learning activities.

Paper Nr: 129
Title:

Assessing Project based Learning with 3D Printing

Authors:

Alicia Stansell, Tandra Tyler-Wood and Gwendolyn M. Morel

Abstract: A study was conducted with middle school students using a STEM transmedia book to complete engineering projects. Included in the book were optional 2D cutters and 3D printers activities that students used to solve some of the engineering projects in the book. The article explains the framework for study and possible ways to assess student achievement through a project-based transmedia STEM book.

Paper Nr: 130
Title:

Improvement of IT Students’ Communication Skills using Project Based Learning

Authors:

Chikako Morimoto

Abstract: It is well known that communication skills are important in business. In recent decades, diversity has been becoming a big trend among Japanese companies. As a result, a high level of communication skills is required of employees. The mainstream information technology (IT) industry is shifting focus from software development to providing software “services.” IT companies need to communicate with their clients to understand the clients’ IT strategies. However, typically, IT engineers are not seen as having good communication skills. There is a similar impression of IT students. In this study, we compared communication skills of IT students and non-IT students. Then, we compared communication skills of the IT students before and after participating in project-based learning (PBL). As a result, we found that PBL is effective in improving the communication skills of IT students.

Paper Nr: 132
Title:

Empirical Analysis of Influences on Dissertation Quality of Postgraduates from Perspective of Psychodynamics

Authors:

Ping Cheng

Abstract: This paper employs multivariate statistical analysis methods to empirically analyze the relationship of dissertation quality with the factors of student’s achievement goal orientation, achievement motivation, and self-efficacy; and to examine the influences of the factors on the dissertation quality. Through the analysis of the investigation, the research draws following conclusions: First, there are differences of graduates’ achievement goal orientation, achievement motivation, and self-efficacy due to their gender and specialty. Second, the dissertation quality has close relations with student’s achievement goal orientation, achievement motivation, and self-efficacy. Third, social responsibility goal that belongs to the achievement goal orientation directly has a positive influence on the dissertation quality; and avoiding failure goal exerts a negative influence on the dissertation quality.

Paper Nr: 145
Title:

Computer-supported Techniques to Increase Students Engagement in Programming

Authors:

Paula Correia Tavares, Pedro Rangel Henriques and Elsa Ferreira Gomes

Abstract: One of the main reasons that justify the student’s failure in (introductory) programming courses is the lack of motivation that impacts on the knowledge acquisition process, affecting learning results. As soon as students face the difficulties concerning the development of algorithms or the coding in a programming language, they give up and do not try harder to solve other problems; they think it is a demanding activity and feel frustrated. In this paper we describe in detail an experiment conducted to verify the effectiveness, in terms of the increase in motivation and in knowledge acquisition, of combining program Animation tools with the immediate feedback provided by Automatic Evaluations Systems.

Area 3 - Social Context and Learning Environments

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 11
Title:

Can a Wii Bowling Tournament Improve Older Adults’ Attitudes towards Digital Games?

Authors:

Fan Zhang, Simone Hausknecht, Robyn Schell and David Kaufman

Abstract: This study examined the effectiveness of a Wii Bowling tournament for improving older adults’ attitudes towards digital games. A total of 142 older adults were recruited from 14 senior centers; 81 were placed in the experimental group and 61 in the control group. Participants in the experimental group played in teams of four members formed within each participating site. The 81 participants in the experimental group formed a total of 21 teams, which played against one another in an 8-week tournament. The findings indicate that the Wii Bowling tournament was an effective way to improve older adults’ attitudes towards digital games (t = 2.53, p = .01). Consistent with the findings in previous studies, this research found that co-located social gaming creates a natural context for fun, immersion, and competition.

Paper Nr: 25
Title:

Teachers’ Experiences of the Integration of 21st Century Learning in the Mathematics Classroom - The Bridge21 Model in Action

Authors:

Aibhin Bray

Abstract: Current research indicates a need for ongoing support and continuous professional development (CPD) for teachers in order to facilitate the development of 21st Century pedagogies and the integration of technology, as well as to scaffold their changing role in the classroom. This article describes a particular model of 21st Century teaching and learning and an associated approach to CPD, with a particular focus on mathematics education. A qualitative, case study approach has been taken in order to explore the teachers’ experiences of using the model of teaching and learning, as well as their perceptions of the students’ experiences. A total of 15 teachers who attended a Contextual Mathematics module on the CPD course provided consent for their data to be used in this study and a constant comparative analytic technique has been used to analyse their written reflections. Results indicate that the approach has the potential to address many of the difficulties associated with 21st Century teaching and learning identified in the literature review.

Paper Nr: 59
Title:

New Ways to Tell my Story - Evaluation of a Digital Storytelling Workshop for Older Adults

Authors:

Simone Hausknecht, Michelle Vanchu-Orosco and David Kaufman

Abstract: This study discusses the design, development, and implementation of a digital storytelling workshop for older adults. The paper reports on the post-evaluation of three iterations of the workshop in three different centres. Adjustments were made for the second iteration and these are discussed. The facilitation and a socially supportive environment were important to digital learning. Participants reported increased skills in digital storytelling as well as other computer and internet skills. Finally, it was found that participants enjoyed the contribution of others and sharing of stories, creative expression through learning story creation, and facilitation. The main difficulty reported by participants was related to time restrictions.

Paper Nr: 87
Title:

Exploring the Educational Capabilities of Social Media in High Schools

Authors:

Isidoros Perikos, Foteini Grivokostopoulou, Konstantinos Kovas and Ioannis Hatzilygeroudis

Abstract: Social media constitute an innovative technology that has transformed the way that people communicate and collaborate. Social networks and Web 2.0 tools like wikis and microblogging have the potential to be used by tutors in their courses with the aim to enhance the learning efficiency of educational systems and eLearning procedures. In this work, we study the educational capabilities of social media and web 2.0 technologies like Twitter, Wikispaces and TodaysMeet, exploring their educational potential and learning capabilities and examining their impact on students’ learning. The social networks have been extensively evaluated in real classroom conditions and the results collected indicate that the proper utilization of social networks and web 2.0 tools in terms of students’ active engagement can motivate and improve students’ learning.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 93
Title:

Evaluating Lectures Through the Use of Mobile Devices - Auditorium Mobile Classroom Service (AMCS) as a Means to Bring Evaluation to the Next Level

Authors:

Felix Kapp, Iris Braun and Tenshi Hara

Abstract: For lecturers at universities timely feedback from their students is very important in order for them to improve their teaching with adaptations targeted at the students’ requirements. Classical evaluation methods address overall evaluations at the end of a semester, commonly with paper-based questionnaires. However, this does not provide direct benefit to the students of that course as adaptations will most likely be carried over into the next iteration of the same course. For this reason, students’ motivation to participate in these surveys decreases over time. Therefore, we propose a tool support for continuous evaluation during the conduct of a course available the whole semester, including direct feedback during the lecture, formative evaluation during the entire course, and a summative evaluation at the end of the course or semester. For that purpose, we expanded the functionality of the interactive Auditorium Mobile Classroom Service (AMCS), which was developed to support students in self-regulated learning (SRL) processes during classical university lectures. In the present article the concepts and features of AMCS for evaluation are described. Furthermore, we report first experiences from a field test in two university lectures.

Paper Nr: 158
Title:

Constructivist Learning and Mantle of the Expert Pedagogy - A Case Study of an Authentic Learning Activity, the “Brain Game”, to Develop 21St Century Skills in Context

Authors:

Grace Lawlor and Brendan Tangney

Abstract: Making new meanings and relating them to existing knowledge and systems is at the heart of the constructivist approach to learning. Authentic learning builds on this by exploiting the power of information and communications technology (ICT) and is often delivered as a project based learning experience. Authentic learning aligns well with the 21st Century (21C) approach to teaching and learning which emphasises the development of key skills, such as problem solving, creativity and collaboration, along with the mastering of curriculum content. Against this backdrop this study seeks to explore a particular approach to technology mediated, authentic, project based, constructivist, 21C teaching and learning which uses the “Mantle of the Expert” pedagogy from drama education as a way of structuring an innovative learning experience. Mantle of the Expert learning explicitly uses role-play in which, within an imagined context, learners take on the role of experts within an enterprise and work together to solve a problem. The “Brain Game” is a model activity that immerses learners within an authentic context, collaborating with peers to manage a project within deadlines. Technology is a central element of the intervention as it provides a means for learners to engage in role-play through email, researching information online and producing deliverables. 144 students aged 13-14 from 11 schools participated in an exploratory case study involving two one-day workshops. The findings of the study suggest that a technology mediated approach was effective in developing students’ 21C skills and that “Mantle of the Expert” is an appropriate pedagogy to use in designing authentic learning experiences.

Paper Nr: 159
Title:

Teacher Experiences of Learning Computing using a 21st Century Model of Computer Science Continuing Professional Development

Authors:

Lorraine Fisher, Jake Rowan Byrne and Brendan Tangney

Abstract: Computer Science (CS) is a subject which is perceived as a difficult to learn and to teach. Building on previous work (Fisher et al., 2015), which explored post-primary school teacher reactions to a social constructivist Continuing Professional Development (CPD) Programme in CS, this paper explores the same teachers’ experiences of learning CS during the workshops. The CS CPD workshops were delivered using the Bridge21 model of 21st century teaching and learning. This paper examines the extent to which the Bridge21 activity model proved effective in helping teachers learn computing knowledge and skills and explores teacher attitudes towards applying their new learning in the classroom. Nine workshops took place over the 2013/2014 academic year, resulting in 45 teaching hours and 110 teacher engagements. An exploratory case study approach informed data collection with comparative coding used to analyse results. Analysis indicates that peer-collaboration played an important role in assisting teachers develop computing knowledge and skills and that teachers intend to use the Bridge21 model to teach computing in their own classrooms.

Paper Nr: 168
Title:

A Triangulated Model to Assess Adoption of Virtual Learning Environments in Primary Schools

Authors:

Elena Codreanu, Christine Michel, Marc-Eric Bobillier-Chaumon and Olivier Vigneau

Abstract: The objective of this paper is to highlight the existing theoretical approaches which study the issue of technological adoption, and to establish a triangulated model to explore Virtual Learning Environments adoption in primary schools. The theoretical models cover three approaches: the social acceptance, the practical acceptance and the situated acceptance. Our triangulated model proposes to explore three types of factors: technological factors, activity and task factors and perceptual factors in order to assess technological adoption.

Posters
Paper Nr: 149
Title:

Measuring the Velocity of Elementary Particles - Fundamental Physics in Schools by Remote Learning

Authors:

Luigi Benussi, Stefano Bianco, Franco L. Fabbri, Paola Gianotti, Andrea Lalli, Antonio Paolozzi, Claudio Paris, Luciano Passamonti, Davide Piccolo, Daniele Pierluigi, Guido Raffone, Alessandro Russo and Giovanna Saviano

Abstract: Teaching of modern physics requires nuclear and particle detectors that are not always available to high school audiences. A system which allows the measurement of the speed of muon particles detected in cosmic rays is presented. The system was setup at Frascati National Labs of the Italian Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) and is being used for hands-on teaching. The system is being upgraded for operation in fully remote control thus enabling e-learning capabilities to a much wider target audience.

Paper Nr: 161
Title:

Computer Modeling and Programming in Algebra

Authors:

Arnulfo Perez, Kathy Malone, Siva Meenakshi Renganathan and Kimberly Groshong

Abstract: This paper introduces a novel approach to providing high school students with access to computer science experiences as part of an Algebra unit on linear functions. The approach is being developed and tested as part of a funded National Science Foundation study. The unit piloted in the study integrates computational thinking and computer modeling into a project-based Algebra unit on linear functions. Literature on computational thinking, access to computer science in secondary settings, modeling approaches, project-based learning, and design-based research is described to provide a rationale for the study design. The ultimate goal of the study is to develop a paradigm for integrating computer science experiences into algebra as a way to increase engagement in STEM and computing among students from all backgrounds.

Area 4 - Domain Applications and Case Studies

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 30
Title:

The Acceptance of VLEs (Virtual Learning Environments) by Primary School Teachers

Authors:

Elena Codreanu, Christine Michel, Marc-Eric Bobillier-Chaumon and Olivier Vigneau

Abstract: This article presents a study on the conditions of use of a VLE (Virtual Learning Environment) by primary school teachers. To this end, we used research related to activity theory and implemented qualitative methods (individual and collective interviews). Our study describes how teachers (8 participants) perceived the role of the VLE in the evolution of their working practices (maintaining, transforming or restricting existent practices), in their relationship with parents and in the follow-up of their students.

Paper Nr: 84
Title:

Teaching Programming Fundamentals to Modern University Students

Authors:

Anton Bogdanovych and Tomas Trescak

Abstract: In this paper we investigate how teaching programming to the modern generation of students, “digital natives” who grew up with Google and Facebook and do not know the world before the Internet, can be improved through a highly visual game-like approach. Many programming teachers report that modern programming students have short attention span, lack concentration and have poor motivation to learn programming. We show how we were able to improve the motivation of students and their marks by changing the study program so that the entire entry-level programming course (Programming Fundamentals) is being taught using a visual set of in-class examples and assignments. The paper presents a set of successful teaching patterns that helped to convert one of the most hated subjects in our school into a subject that many students loved and were able to master. The corresponding statistics suggests that one of the key achievements of our approach is a dramatic change in students’ motivation to learn programming, which has resulted a significant improvement in their overall results and was noticeable in the follow-up subjects.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 53
Title:

Adaptive Vocabulary Learning Environment for Late Talkers

Authors:

Mariia Gavriushenko, Oleksiy Khriyenko and Iida Porokuokka

Abstract: The main aim of this research is to provide children who have an early language delay with an adaptive way to train their vocabulary taking into account individuality of the learner. The suggested system is a mobile game-based learning environment which provides simple tasks where the learner chooses a picture that corresponds to a played back sound from multiple pictures presented on the screen. Our basic assumption is that the more similar the concepts (in our case, words) are, the harder the recognition task is. The system chooses the pictures to be presented on the screen by calculating the distances between the concepts in different dimensions. The distances are considered to consist of semantic, visual and auditory similarities. Each similarity factor can be measured with different methods. According to the user’s feedback, the weights of the factors and similarity distance are adjusted to modify the level of difficulty in further iterations. The system is designed to attempt to retrieve knowledge about the learners by recognition of aspects that are difficult for them. Proposed solution could be considered as a self-adaptive system, which is trying to recognize individual model of the learner and apply it for further facilitation of his/her learning process. The use of the system will be demonstrated in future work.

Paper Nr: 57
Title:

Critical Success Factors for the of Acceptance and Use of an LMS - The Case of e-CLASS

Authors:

Stavros Valsamidis, Ioannis Kazanidis, Vasilios Aggelidis, Sotirios Kontogiannis and Alexandros Karakos

Abstract: Nowadays, as e-learning is increasingly used in education, it is useful to know what are the critical factors for its successful implementation in higher education institutes. This research has two main objectives. The initial objective is to clarify and categorize the Critical Success Factors (CSF) of education with the use of a Learning Management System (LMS) from the perspective of students and then to investigate the relationships among these factors, suggesting a new causal model. To achieve the above objectives, an extensive, detailed and systematic study of available literature sources was held. Then, the critical success factors were separated in four (4) broad categories: instructors' characteristics, students' characteristics, information and communications technology used and technical support provided by the technical staff. Each factor contains a number of deterministic variables which were adopted mainly by previous studies. Also, for the collection of data for analysis, a questionnaire was distributed to students who use the LMS. Technical multivariate analysis was used to examine the relevance of each variable determinant factor, while for the evaluation of the causal model, structural equation systems were used.

Paper Nr: 81
Title:

Earth Rotation: An Example to Teach Rigid Body Motion and Environmental Monitoring - A Fallout of the Exploitation of LARES Satellite Data

Authors:

Antonio Paolozzi, Erricos Pavlis, Claudio Paris, Giampiero Sindoni and Ignazio Ciufolini

Abstract: The use of satellite laser ranging in combination with other space geodetic techniques allows us to determine Earth’s motion with unprecedented accuracy, which is not as simple as usually described in basic textbooks. Besides rotation and revolution there is a wobble of the rotation axis that can be derived by the torque free case in rigid body dynamics. The presence of gravitational perturbations complicates the motion and considering Earth as non-rigid introduces even more variations in the basic Earth motion theory. What is interesting is that also the mass redistribution of air and water on the planet can affect the motion of Earth’s rotational axis. Thanks to the millimetre accuracy achievable today, it is possible to correlate very small anomalous rotational axis displacements with global environmental changes such the change in ice melting. The paper will show the experimental motion of the Earth rotation axis and interpret it with the use of the Euler rigid body equations of motion, outlining also the effects of the gravitational perturbations of other bodies in the solar system and of the global climate changes on the Earth rotational axis.

Paper Nr: 135
Title:

Upgrade of the LARES-lab Remote Controllable Thermo-vacuum Facility - Lab Improvements for Remote Testing and e-Learning

Authors:

Claudio Paris and Giampiero Sindoni

Abstract: The LARES-lab facility was specifically designed to perform tests in simulated space environment on the optical payload of the LAser RElativity Satellite (LARES). Since the facility was intended to perform demanding tests, it was equipped with the best technology available at the time. After the launch of LARES the facility was used both for testing payloads and small university satellites and for didactic activities. Testing in simulated space environment is fundamental for the development of a space mission, so a well equipped facility in a university is a precious resource for teaching. At the moment, room dimension and the location limit the access to the lab to a small number of students per lesson. To fully exploit the didactic potential of the LARES-lab an improvement over the remote control operation of the thermo-vacuum chamber is planned. The project, which has been described in a previous paper, is currently under development. A new device implemented is a robotic arm to manipulate some mechanisms and to gain experience for remote controlling other servo mechanisms. This way both researchers and students can operate the facility remotely with minimal need of on site operations. Once the improvements will be fully operational, LARES-lab will allow access to the laboratory didactic activities to a much larger number of students.

Paper Nr: 155
Title:

Supporting Zoo Visitors’ Scientific Observations with a Mobile Guide

Authors:

Yui Tanaka, Ryohei Egusa, Etsuji Yamaguchi, Shigenori Inagaki, Fusako Kusunoki, Hideto Okuyama and Tomoyuki Nogami

Abstract: This study proposes an observation guide to support zoo visitors’ scientific observation of animals in motion by providing viewpoints through animations. One of the difficulties that visitors experience when observing animals is that they do not sufficiently understand the functions and behavior of the body parts of the animal they are seeing. The guide aims to enhance visitors’ understanding by resolving this issue through the use of animations of the functions and behaviors of parts of animals’ bodies. To evaluate the guide, we had kindergarteners and elementary school students use its contents on seals while observing their hind flippers, noses, and claws at the Asahiyama Zoo. Our finding was that the guide was an effective means to enhance the children’s understanding of the functions and behaviors of these parts of the body.

Posters
Paper Nr: 169
Title:

Using Blended Learning to Support Community Development - Lessons Learnt from a Platform for Accessibility Experts

Authors:

Christophe Ponsard, Joël Chouassi, Vincent Snoeck, Anne-Sophie Marchal and Julie Vanhalewyn

Abstract: Blended learning, mixing both online and face-to-face learning, is now a well established trend in higher education and also increasingly used in companies and public sector. While preserving direct contact with the teacher/trainer, it also provides additional electronic channels to easily share training material and to support interactions among all actors. This paper focuses on specificities of adult training such as their goal orientation, the higher level of practicality and the higher level of collaboration. We also deal with the explicit goal of building communities where learners are progressively sharing their growing experience. Our work is driven by a real-world case study. We report about how generic e-learning tools available on the market can be adapted to address the needs of such a use case and also present some lessons learnt.

Area 5 - Ubiquitous Learning

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 49
Title:

Know the Mobile Learning Application Users - Transactional Distance Perspective

Authors:

Pakapan Limtrairut, Stuart Marshall and Peter Andreae

Abstract: We developed a mobile learning application grounded on Transactional Distance Theory. The aim is to engage learners and decrease their feelings of isolation and emptiness when learners and instructor are physically separated. This study was launched in an effort to understand our target learners and provide an indication towards the practicality, possibility, and appropriateness of such theory-based design. The application provides text, video, and recorded audio as media, and includes chat function, game-based learning, and electronic assignment. This paper explores the method and findings of a survey study targeted at first year Computer Engineering and Computer Science student learners at the Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. Our survey results indicated that the learners had a positive attitude towards mobile learning, and they had a lot of experience using the provided media and functions. The theoretical-design was deemed to be practically appropriate for our learners. However, more encouragement and promotions would be needed in order to increase the application’s usage and recognition. We performed statistical analysis on the results and clustered the responses to form a persona which will be used in the next stage of this application’s development process.

Paper Nr: 113
Title:

Learning Activities Mediated by Mobile Technology: Best Practices for Informatics Education

Authors:

Gabriela Lovászová, Martin Cápay and Viera Michaličková

Abstract: Mobile devices with all their advanced features (the networking and multimedia capabilities, portability, intuitive interfaces, location awareness etc.) enable teachers to involve students in learning activities that may bring the formal school environment closer to real-world contexts, provide the attractive and personalized learning experiences as well as enhance the collaboration, creativity and productivity of learners substantially. Thanks to the long-term national projects concerned with mobile technology and its successful adaption as an effective learning tool, teaching practice in Slovak primary and secondary schools is getting better. However, the integration of tablets and smartphones is still rather intuitive or even improper. Within the informatics education, lessons usually take place in a computer laboratory, so the innovative mobile scenarios are considered less frequently. This paper provides an overview of the potential of tablet devices to support learning. This paper presents the sum of general and specific use cases targeting the learning objectives stated by the Informatics curriculum. They were implemented during the regular lessons, non-formal workshops or summer camps and comprise both, the indoor and outdoor scenarios. They focus on informatics concepts and were designed to foster computational thinking. Mobile technology is used to facilitate the active construction of knowledge and development of new skills.

Paper Nr: 125
Title:

A Suitable m-Learning System using e-Book for Developing Countries

Authors:

Masumi Hori, Seishi Ono, Kazutsuna Yamaji, Shinzo Kobayashi, Toshihiro Kita and Tsuneo Yamada

Abstract: While large scale online courses such as MOOCs are popular in developed countries, their dissemination is difficult in developing countries due to the existing challenges faced by the digital divide such as poverty, internet accessibility, and the low PC ownership ratio. A learning platform for mobile learning was developed for developing countries where people often have no access to the Internet. The platform is called creative higher education with learning objects (CHiLO) and was developed with the aim of solving the problem. As a demonstration experiment, we distributed CHiLO books of the NSA1 series in about one year (from April 2014 to March 2015), 47% of over 20,000 downloaded books were from developing countries. Our experimental results in Japan have indicated the potential effectiveness of CHiLO for developing countries.

Paper Nr: 177
Title:

Towards a Mobile Application for an Engineering Geology Course - A Contribution to Improved Student Learning

Authors:

João Paulo Barros, Pedro Caixinha and Sofia Soares

Abstract: One of the subjects studied on engineering geology courses is the description of rock masses and the application of geotechnical classifications. Field information is collected and organised in order to make possible to apply rock mass classification systems and analyse stereographic projection data. The present work proposes the use of computer supported ubiquitous learning to collect and treat field data. It presents work in progress towards the creation of a mobile application suitable for Engineering Geology courses. A first prototype for the Apple iOS system is presented.

Posters
Paper Nr: 24
Title:

Problem-Based Learning in a MOOC - Exploring an Innovative Instructional Design at a Large Scale

Authors:

Daniëlle M. L. Verstegen, Annemarie Spruijt, Diana Dolmans and Jeroen van Merriënboer

Abstract: This paper describes a MOOC about PBL which is designed –as far as possible in the setting of a MOOC- in line with modern learning principles that are also at the basis of PBL: constructive, contextual, collaborative and self-directed learning: Problem-Based Learning: Principles and design. Students at the centre! The course is centred around a set of authentic ‘problems’ organized in three different tracks (tutoring, designing, and implementing PBL) targeted at different types of participants. Small group work is essential in this MOOC. Students can either form teams themselves or be assigned to a team automatically. Each team has team space with chat facilities, file exchange, and facilities to schedule online meetings. However, teams can decide themselves how they want to collaborate and communicate, synchronously or asynchronously. A pilot study brought forward strong and weak points, which were used to further improve the design. This paper describes the pilot study, the changes made in the design and some first impressions of the first run of the MOOC. Preliminary conclusions are that MOOCs require careful instructional design. Stimulating online small group learning in a MOOC, i.e. following PBL learning principles to an extent but without tutors for each team, is possible, but not easy.

Paper Nr: 52
Title:

OER-based Lifelong Learning for Older People

Authors:

Rosa Navarrete and Sergio Luján-Mora

Abstract: The Open Educational Resources (OER) are becoming a promising contribution to the enhancement of learning opportunities for all people worldwide. The OER involve educational digital content that have been released under an open license for free use or adaptation. The use of OER in formal and non-formal educational environments is known as OER-based learning. On the other hand, population ageing is currently recognized as a global issue of increasing importance with many implications for the economic development of countries. The access to learning by these people, in particular, the acquisition of the technical competence for using information and communication technologies, can improve their social involvement. This research aims to check the feasibility of using OER in lifelong learning programs for older people. Considering that these people have disabilities due to ageing, this research conducted a searching and validation process to verify the relevance and accessibility of OER to be used on a specific learning program oriented to digital literacy for older people. Finally, this research presents an accessibility validation based on barriers that older people face for using OER. Further, this work highlights the issues that hinder the OER-based learning programs.

Paper Nr: 123
Title:

Cybertrust in e-Learning Environment based on Network Time Synchronization

Authors:

Dmitriy Melnikov, Vladislav Petrov, Natalia Miloslavskaya, Anatoliy Durakovskiy and Tatiana Kondratyeva

Abstract: The concept of cybertrust as a crucial aspect of cyber security for public electronic interactions and, in particular, distance learning systems (DLSs), is introduced. This concept is the opposite of such well-known terms as cyberattacks and/or cyberespionage and it supports cyber security issues by providing legal significance of a public electronic document interchange. The possibility of cybertrust assurance in an e-Learning environment (ELE) is shown using two proposed methods of network time synchronization.

Paper Nr: 165
Title:

An Approach to Developing Electronic Textbook for Chemical Experiment - Taking Walden’s Inversion as an Example

Authors:

Akira Ikuo, Hayato Nieda, Nozomi Nishitani, Yusuke Yoshinaga and Haruo Ogawa

Abstract: We are developing electronic textbook for of basic chemistry-experiment for university students in which reaction mechanisms are shown by computer graphics (CG). The CGs of chemical reactions was made based on the empirical molecular orbital calculations. The CGs include following reactions as a model of Walden’s inversion where drastic change in structure takes place, such as, formation of 2-butyl alcohol and 1-butyl bromide. The CGs could simultaneously demonstrates the nature of the reaction such as structural change by the space-filling model and by the ball-and-stick model in addition to providing image of energy change by the reaction profile. The electronic textbook also displays picture of apparatus and flow-chart of small-scale experiment. Result of preliminary study on effectiveness of the CG is included.