CSEDU 2017 Abstracts


Area 1 - Artificial Intelligence in Education

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 149
Title:

Autonomous Semantic Structuring of Lecture Topics - Synthesis of Knowledge Models

Authors:

Robin Nicolay, Nikolaj Troels Graf von Malotky, Tanja Auge and Alke Martens

Abstract: Students attending lectures in universities suffer from a weak structural awareness on lecture content. According to learning theories, structural awareness is a relevant factor to association and comprehension of new learning inputs. We synthesize semantic structures from non annotated lecture slides using Topic Modeling algorithms to identify relevant terms and relate them in force-directed graphs. The synthesized graphs provide a structural overview on the topic distribution and relations of non annotated sequential lecture slides.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 31
Title:

Evaluation of Talents’ Scientific Research Capability based on Rough Set Fuzzy Clustering Algorithm

Authors:

Yan Xia, Xinlin Wu and Hui Feng

Abstract: Scientific research is one of the main functions of universities and colleges. The scientific research level of universities and colleges depends on talents’ scientific research capability. The evaluation of scientific research capability of talents is one of the effective methods to check their scientific research level. This paper presents a method to evaluate talents’ scientific research capability based on rough set fuzzy clustering. The method introduces how to use domain rough set theory and generalized fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm to cluster and evaluate research capability of talents, combining with evaluation indicator system of scientific research capability. An automatic system to cluster and evaluate scientific research capability is implemented, verifying the method and analyzing data from a university in Shanghai. It provides advice and guidance for scientific research management and development strategy in order to promote the overall level of scientific research in universities and colleges.

Paper Nr: 84
Title:

RouteQuizer - A Geocaching System for Educational Purposes

Authors:

Vyron Ignatios Michalakis, Michail Vaitis and Aikaterini Klonari

Abstract: This article presents a geocaching educational system called RouteQuizer that consists of an Android application, a web application and an online database. It motivates students to visit various geographic points of interest and answer site-related questions of multiple choice type. The android application used by the students, takes advantage of the navigation (GPS) and internet connectivity features of their smartphones. The web application is used by tutors, to create dynamic location-based educational games for their students. The database stores data such as site information and coordinates, questions and answers regarding the area of interest, as well as students’ performance results. There are no geographical restrictions and no limits regarding the number of destinations, thus making the application usable from everyone everywhere.

Paper Nr: 95
Title:

Building an Adaptive E-Learning System

Authors:

Christos Chrysoulas and Maria Fasli

Abstract: Research in adaptive learning is mainly focused on improving learners’ learning achievements based mainly on personalization information, such as learning style, cognitive style or learning achievement. In this paper, an innovative adaptive learning approach is proposed based upon two main sources of personalization information that is, learning behaviour and personal learning style. To determine the initial learning styles of the learner, an initial assigned test is employed in our approach. In order to more precisely reflect the learning behaviours of each learner, the interactions and learning results of each learner are thoroughly recorded and in depth analysed, based on advanced machine learning techniques, when adjusting the subject materials. Based on this rather innovative approach, an adaptive learning prototype system has been developed.

Paper Nr: 135
Title:

Limitations of Emotion Recognition from Facial Expressions in e-Learning Context

Authors:

Agnieszka Landowska, Grzegorz Brodny and Michal R. Wrobel

Abstract: The paper concerns technology of automatic emotion recognition applied in e-learning environment. During a study of e-learning process the authors applied facial expressions observation via multiple video cameras. Preliminary analysis of the facial expressions using automatic emotion recognition tools revealed several unexpected results, including unavailability of recognition due to face coverage and significant inconsistency between the results obtained from two cameras. The paper presents the experiment on e-learning process and summarizes the observations that constitute limitations of emotion recognition from facial expressions applied in e-learning context. The paper might be of interest to researchers and practitioners who consider automatic emotion recognition as an option in monitoring e-learning processes.

Area 2 - Information Technologies Supporting Learning

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 6
Title:

Improving Student Content Retention using a Classroom Response System

Authors:

Robert Collier and Jalal Kawash

Abstract: The most typical uses of a classroom response system are to improve student engagement and to provide opportunities for immediate feedback. For our introductory course in computer science we sought to investigate whether the content and format typically associated with a classroom response system could be adapted from a feedback tool into an approach for improving content retention. We devised an experiment wherein different sections would be presented with complementary sets of questions presented either immediately after the corresponding material (i.e., for feedback) or at the beginning of the following lecture, with the express purpose of reminding and reinforcing material (i.e., to improve content retention). In every case, the participants that encountered an item in the following lecture exhibited relatively better performance on the corresponding items of the final exam. Thus our evidence supports the hypothesis that, with no significant additional investment of preparation or lecture time (beyond that associated with all classroom response systems), questions can be presented in such a way as to engage students while simultaneously improving content retention.

Paper Nr: 7
Title:

Identifying Objectives for a Learning Space Management System with Value-focused Thinking

Authors:

Ari Tuhkala, Hannakaisa Isomäki, Markus Hartikainen, Alexandra Cristea and Andrea Alessandrini

Abstract: A classroom with a blackboard and some rows of desks is obsolete in special education. Depending on the needs, some students may need more tactile and inspiring surroundings with various pedagogical accessories while others benefit from a simplified environment without unnecessary stimuli. This understanding is applied to a new Finnish special education school building with open and adaptable learning spaces. We have joined the initiative creation process by developing software support for these new spaces in the form of a learning space management system. Participatory design and value-focused thinking were implemented to elicit the actual values of all the stakeholders involved and transform them into software implementation objectives. This paper reports interesting insights about the elicitation process of the objectives.

Paper Nr: 16
Title:

Supporting Institutional Awareness and Academic Advising using Clustered Study Profiles

Authors:

Mariia Gavriushenko, Mirka Saarela and Tommi Kärkkäinen

Abstract: The purpose of academic advising is to help students with developing educational plans that support their academic career and personal goals, and to provide information and guidance on studies. Planning and management of the students’ study path is the main joint activity in advising. Based on a study log of passed courses, we propose to use robust, prototype-based clustering to identify a set of actual study path profiles. Such profiles identify groups of students with similar progress of studies, whose analysis and interpretation can be used for better institutional awareness and to support evidence-based academic advising. A model of automated academic advising system utilizing the possibility to determine the study profiles is proposed.

Paper Nr: 23
Title:

Educating Computer Science Educators Online - A Racket MOOC for Elementary Math Teachers of Finland

Authors:

Tiina Partanen, Pia Niemela, Linda Mannila and Timo Poranen

Abstract: Many countries all over the world are in the process of introducing programming into their K-12 curricula. New Finnish Curriculum includes programming mentioned especially in accordance with mathematics and crafts. Consequently, Finland needs to train teachers to teach programming at elementary school level. In this paper, we describe how elementary math teachers were educated online to teach programming using the Racket programming language. The aim of the course was to increase both content knowledge (CK) and technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). By analyzing the course feedback, questionnaires and exercise data, we present the teachers’ views on the course and effects on their professional development (TPD). Finally, we describe development ideas for future online courses.

Paper Nr: 44
Title:

Improving the Quiz - Student Preparation and Confidence as Feedback Metrics

Authors:

Pantelis M. Papadopoulos, Antonis Natsis and Nikolaus Obwegeser

Abstract: The study analyzes the potential of different feedback metrics that could improve learning in quiz-based activities. For five consecutive weeks, a group of 91 sophomore students started their classes on Information Systems with a short multiple-choice quiz. The quiz activity was organized into three phases: (a) provide initial response to the questions, (b) view feedback on class activity and revise initial responses, and (c) discuss correct answers and class performance with the teacher. The feedback included information on the percentage of students that selected each choice, on students’ self-reported levels of preparation, and their, also self-reported, confidence that their initial responses were correct. The students used an online quiz tool that was developed for the study and were randomly distributed into four groups, according to the type of feedback they received (only percentage; percentage & confidence; percentage & preparation; percentage, confidence, & preparation). Result analysis revealed that students were relying first and foremost on the percentage metric, even in cases where a wrong answer had the highest percentage value. However, statistical analysis also revealed a significant main effect for confidence and preparation metrics in questions where the percentage metric was ambiguous (i.e., several choices with high percentages).

Paper Nr: 62
Title:

Supporting Decision-making Activities in Multi-Surface Learning Environments

Authors:

Lili Tong, Audrey Serna, Sébastien George and Aurélien Tabard

Abstract: Collaborative decision-making is one of the emphasized student skills required by educators from different domains including science, technology and society. Multi-surface environments (MSE) appear particularly well suited for such learning activities, with large shared surfaces dedicated to the overview of information and context awareness, while personal surfaces serve browsing and analytical purposes. In this study, we present the design of Pickit, a MSE tool supporting collaborative decision-making activities. We show how Pickit is used by four groups of high school students as part of a learning activity. We analyze students’ interactions with digital devices that are related to given phases of the decision making process. Our results show that MSE are particularly interesting for such learning activities as they enable to balance personal and group work. The introduction of personal devices (tablets) makes free riding more difficult, while enabling development of personal judgment. By using Pickit, students successfully made their decisions and meanwhile better knew about the decision-making process.

Paper Nr: 65
Title:

An Authoring Tool to Elicit Knowledge to be Taught without Programming

Authors:

Awa Diattara, Nathalie Guin, Vanda Luengo and Amélie Cordier

Abstract: Knowledge acquisition is a crucial problem for the design of Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs). To overcome this problem, authoring tools have been proposed. Over two dozen of authoring tools have been built since the earliest days of ITS, but each of them focuses on a particular kind of ITSs such as constraint-based tutors or model-tracing tutors. In the context of the AMBRE project, we are interested in ITSs teaching problem-solving methods. Such ITSs enable learners to acquire a specific method in problem-solving. Despite of the variety of existing authoring tools, these tools do not meet our needs either because approach adopted do not match to AMBRE principle or because they do not allow to represent all knowledge needed to design an AMBRE ITS. We propose AMBRE-KB, an authoring tool to help authors to elicit knowledge needed for the design of AMBRE ITSs. This tool supports the acquisition of knowledge to be taught, and the description of problems to be solved. We present the authoring process and illustrate it using French verb conjugation domain. A preliminary evaluation shows that AMBRE-KB is successful in producing domains models but more thorough evaluation is planned.

Paper Nr: 74
Title:

Formative Evaluation of a Web-based Multimedia Intervention to Support Learning of Statistics

Authors:

Natalya Koehler, Ana-Paula Correia, Nimet Alpay and Carolyn LeVally

Abstract: Tailoring information to the needs of the learner is an important strategy in teaching complex concepts. Web based learning modules informed by multimedia theory for teaching declarative and procedural knowledge (statistical terminology, concepts, and procedures) were introduced to a mathematics course designed to teach undergraduate students. The formative evaluation of these modules was conducted over a period of two trimesters (August to December 2015 and January to April 2016) with a total of 187 students and six instructors. Students’ perceptions on the modules’ usability features (e.g., pace of audio presentations, ease of navigation, and layout) as well as on cognitive support and effectiveness of the modules were analyzed. Students and instructors’ reflections on their experiences with the modules were also gathered and analyzed. Both set of participants were overwhelmingly positive about their online learning and teaching experiences of statistics. Suggestions for improvement included having more multimedia lectures, showing more examples as well as calculator tutorials, and asking more comprehension questions in the modules.

Paper Nr: 75
Title:

Use of Augmented Reality to Support Education - Creating a Mobile E-learning Tool and using it with an Inquiry-based Approach

Authors:

Walter J. Rezende, Eduardo S. Albuquerque and Ana Paula Ambrosio

Abstract: Education is the basis of human development. In recent years working professionals have demonstrated a considerable interest in new technologies, searching to enhance teaching quality. Tools such as e-learning, cellphones, video-conferences, web quests and others are becoming popular options to help motivate and enrich the knowledge of students. Now, with modern technology, society requirements for knowledge have gotten more specific and accumulated, but the traditional teaching model has not been able to keep up. This paper presents a mobile software educational tool for children, using the Jigsaw methodology and augmented reality (AR) technology, aiming to improve teaching experience. The proposed software contains an AR marker reader, a game library and a digital quiz module. By presenting book contents in three dimensions, together with the use of Jigsaw learning, we create an interactive and fun environment for learning, that can help increase the interest and motivation of students.

Paper Nr: 81
Title:

Using an IT Laboratory for Training IT Architects

Authors:

Lina Casas, Mario Sánchez and Jorge Villalobos

Abstract: Information Technology Architecture (ITA) has been known for its importance in the alignment of the business’s needs and its technological strategies. As the companies have become more complex and the market more competitive, ITA has gained more significance and the demand for IT architects has strongly increased around the world. Nonetheless, the offer of qualified architects is not growing as fast. This is because a qualified IT architect is not easy to find as he or she has to possess many hard and soft skills. It is not a surprise then, that the time frame required for a professional to become an experienced IT architect is too long, the necessary experience is difficult to acquire and the skills are difficult to develop. This paper proposes a way to help students and professionals obtain these elements through a project based approach supported by different reality simulated enterprise cases. These cases compose what we call an IT Laboratory.

Paper Nr: 93
Title:

Towards Adaptive Dashboards for Learning Analytic - An Approach for Conceptual Design and Implementation

Authors:

Dabbebi Ines, Iksal Sebastien, Gilliot Jean-Marie, May Madeth and Garlatti Serge

Abstract: Designing Learning Analytic (LA) dashboards can be a challenging and complex task when dealing with abundant data generated from heterogeneous sources with various uses. On top of that, each dashboard is designed in accordance with the user’s needs and their observational objectives. Therefore, understanding the context of LA and its users is compulsory as it is part of the dashboard design approach. Our research effort starts with an exploratory study of different contextual elements that could help us define what an adaptive dashboard is and how it fulfills the user’s needs. To do so, we have conducted a needs assessment to characterize the user profiles, their activities, their visualization preferences and objectives when using a dedicated dashboard. In this paper, we introduce a conceptual model, which will be used to generate a variety of LA dashboards. Our main goal is to provide users with adaptive dashboards, generated accordingly to their context of use while satisfying the users’ requirements. We also discussed the implementation process of our first prototype as well as further improvements.

Paper Nr: 101
Title:

Personalized, Affect and Performance-driven Computer-based Learning

Authors:

Christos Athanasiadis, Enrique Hortal, Dimitrios Koutsoukos, Carmen Zarco Lens and Stylianos Asteriadis

Abstract: The growing prevalence of Internet during the last decades has made e-learning systems and Computer-based Education (CBE) widely accessible to a great amount of people with different backgrounds and competences. Due to these rapid advances in computer technologies, there has been a great shift from conventional, low interaction and printed learning content to high-level, computerized interactions for Computer-based Education. The above has led to the need for personalized systems, able to adapt their content for a variety of learner’s abilities and skills. A key factor in content personalization is the degree to which the material itself keeps learners engaged over the course of the interaction: a CBE system has to cater for enough flexibility and be endowed with the ability to infer the degree to which the learner is engaged in the interaction and also be in the position to take decisions regarding the triggering of those adaptation mechanics that will keep the learner in a state of high engagement, maximizing, thus, the knowledge acquisition. A straightforward approach in content adaptation is the monitoring of levels of engagement, frustration and boredom in a learner and the subsequent adaptation of challenge levels imposed by the learning material. In this paper, we investigate the use of Collaborative Filtering, in order to build a content adaptation mechanism, based on recommendations on learner affect states. We showcase results on an interface developed specifically for the purposes of this research. The system’s objective is to offer optimized sessions to the learners and improve their knowledge acquisition during the interaction with the system.

Paper Nr: 105
Title:

An Interactive Book Authoring Tool to Introduce Programming Logic in Schools

Authors:

André Campos, Alberto Signoretti and Mário Rodrigues

Abstract: In the past years, there was a growing interest in teaching computational thinking in elementary and high school institutions. Although the idea is spread and well accepted among academics, it has been rarely put in practice in the classrooms. Currently, when a programming-related activity is offered, with some few exceptions, it is usually presented as an extra-curricular (optional) activity. However, it does not need to be disassociated from the common school curriculum. The present work is based on the idea that programming logic can be used transversally with different subjects, such as history, geography, science, literacy, mathematics, among others. The authors envisage to accomplish this goal by enabling programming as a supporting tool for teachers and students, allowing them to create digital interactive books. The tool, named piBook, has its main focus in the production of interactive storytelling using non-linear narratives. Besides, it is also possible to create textual games (such as role-playing games), interactive activities (such as quizzes), tutorials, chatbots and similar applications.

Paper Nr: 143
Title:

Does the Learning Channel Really Matter? - Insights from Commercial Online ICT-training

Authors:

Nestori Syynimaa

Abstract: Evolving ICT has provided new options to participate to training. Online participation has been found to be cost effective, helping people to deal with the time and cost pressures they are facing on their jobs. Previous studies conducted in higher education sector indicates that student satisfaction or learning outcomes does not differ between online and classroom participants. However, little is known what is the situation in commercial ICT-training. This paper studied course feedbacks from courses having both online and classroom participants of a commercial ICT-training provider. Results revealed that the learning channel has no effect on satisfaction, perceived teacher’s substance and teaching skills, or course arrangements. The results also revealed some areas how the commercial training providers could improve their online training.

Paper Nr: 153
Title:

User Experience Evolution of M-Learning Applications

Authors:

Amir Dirin and Marko Nieminen

Abstract: The development of a mobile learning application is associated with many challenges including timely technology, richness of the learning content, pedagogy, usability, and the design of user experience. Users’ expectations and requirements on m-learning applications have evolved since the beginning of this millennium. The evolvement is mainly a result of the advancement of mobile technologies, devices, and network services. Users’ expectations are based on previous experiences, expertise level, and the context that users have previously worked. The focus of this paper is on mobile learning usability and user experience. We elaborate on m-learning applications’ user experience evolution from 2003 to 2016. The results demonstrate that usability needs to be complemented with user experience analysis when developing m-learning applications.

Paper Nr: 160
Title:

Learning Experiences in Programming: The Motivating Effect of a Physical Interface

Authors:

Chris Martin, Janet Hughes and John Richards

Abstract: A study of undergraduate students learning to program compared the use of a physical interface with use of a screen-based equivalent interface to obtain insights into what made for an engaging learning experience. Emotions characterized by the HUMAINE scheme were analysed, identifying the links between the emotions experienced during programming and their origin. By capturing the emotional experiences of learners immediately after a programming experience, evidence was collected of the very positive emotions experienced by learners developing a program using a physical interface (Arduino) in comparison with a similar program developed using a screen-based equivalent interface.

Paper Nr: 163
Title:

Extending Cognitive Skill Classification of Common Verbs in the Domain of Computer Science for Algorithms Knowledge Units

Authors:

Fatema Nafa, Javed I. Khan and Salem Othman

Abstract: To provide an adaptive guidance to the instructors through designing an effective curriculum and associated learning objective, an automatic system needs to have a solid idea of the prerequisite cognitive skills that students have before commencing a new knowledge before enhancing those skills which will enable students to steadily acquire new skills. Obtaining the learning objectives in knowledge units based on cognitive skills is a tedious and time-consuming task. This paper presents subtasks of an automatic meta-learning recommended model that enables the extraction of learning objectives from knowledge units, which are teaching materials. Knowing the cognitive skills will help mentors to connect the knowledge gaps between learning materials and their aims. The model applies Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques to identify relevant knowledge units and their verbs, which assist in the identification of extracting the learning objectives and classifying the verbs based on cognitive skill levels. This work focuses on the computer science knowledge domain. We share the result that evaluates and validates the model using three textbooks. The performance analysis shows the importance and the strength of the automatic extraction and classification of the verbs among knowledge units based on cognitive skills.

Paper Nr: 168
Title:

The Teacher as a Facilitator for Learning - Flipped Classroom in a Master’s Course on Artificial Intelligence

Authors:

Robin T. Bye

Abstract: In this paper, I present a flipped classroom approach for teaching a master’s course on artificial intelligence. Traditional lectures in the classroom are outsourced to an open online course to free up valuable time for active, in-class learning activities. In addition, students design and implement intelligent algorithms for solving a variety of relevant problems cherrypicked from online game-like code development platforms. Learning activities are carefully chosen to align with intended learning outcomes, course curriculum, and assessment to allow for learning to be constructed by the students themselves under guidance by the teacher, much in accord with the theory of constructive alignment. Thus, the teacher acts as a facilitator for learning, much similar to that of a personal trainer or a coach. I present an overview of relevant literature, the course content and teaching methods, and a recent course evaluation, before I discuss some limiting frame factors and challenges with the approach and point to future work.

Paper Nr: 171
Title:

Using Educational Robotics with Primary Level Students (6-12 Years Old) in Different Scholar Scenarios: Learned Lessons

Authors:

Alfredo Pina and Gabriel Rubio

Abstract: In this paper, we describe the experiences we have been carrying out the last years using educational robotics in classroom at the primary level, mainly with boys and girls from 6-7 to 12-14 years old. We have set up a constructivist Problem Based Learning Approach in order to use robotics to teaching/learning key competences and standard curricula topics. We have introduced the possibility of working with virtual robots as well as with real robots. In order to achieve that, firstly we chose real robots (Beebot and Lego Mindstorms NXT/EV3 respectively). Secondly we implemented software tools for the virtual robots using either our own developed software or Scratch or Byob/Snap, and thirdly we designed different projects and materials that could work with all those technological artifacts. Afterwards, and in order to validate such tools and such methodological approach, we used all of them in three different educational environments: firstly in a series of teacher’s training summer courses (11, 12 years old, in August from 2012 until 2016), secondly in the First Lego League (FLL) contests (10-14 years old, which took place from 2009 until 2016) and then with a teacher’s teams network we promoted (7-14 years old, consolidated in 2014- 2015 and still in place up to date). The results are promising as we have managed to create a sustainable network of schools and a significant group of people working in a coordinated way. The Educational authorities support our work and we have set up a binding agreement between the university, the schools and the Planetarium of Pamplona, in order to work both in the school and out of the school (the Planetarium plays the role of a Science and Technological Museum).

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 19
Title:

A Survey of Context-awareness in Learning Environments in 2010-2016

Authors:

Aziz Hasanov and Teemu H. Laine

Abstract: Context-aware learning environments can detect the learner’s context and adapt learning materials to match the context. The support for context-awareness is essential in these systems so that they can make learning contextually relevant. Previously, several surveys on context-aware learning environments have been conducted, but they are either old or they do not consider several important aspects of context-awareness. To alleviate this, we first performed a literature search on context-aware learning environments in 2010-2016. After filtering the results, we analyzed 28 studies. Highlights of the results are: (i) PDAs and mobile phones are the most common client types, (ii) RFID/NFC are the most common sensors, (iii) ontology is the most common context modeling approach, and (iv) context data typically originates from the learner’s profile or the learner’s location. Additionally, we proposed a taxonomy for context categories in context-aware learning environments. Finally, based on our survey results, we gave directions for future research in the field. These results can be of interest to educational technology researchers and context-aware application developers.

Paper Nr: 21
Title:

Technology Enhanced Active Learning in Software Engineering

Authors:

Muthu Ramachandran

Abstract: Educating software engineers in software management have long been hard both in academia and in industry. It is extremely difficult to educate software engineering management techniques actively. Historically, we have been quite used to educate in programming in a classroom and in a lab with instructions Teaching any management aspects has been traditionally based on instructions and case studies. We have adopted an active based learning approach to teach final year BSc students in Software Engineering. We let the final year students manage group projects carried out by level 5 students. Mainly, we don’t come across a large real-world case study. This work on active learning has changed our way of teaching software engineering and it has made a significant impact on the way the students learning and have been taught traditionally. This research has also proposed an information system model for Technology Enhanced Active Learning and Teaching (ALT) with emphasis on three key principles for teaching Software Engineering: divergent thinking, collaborative learning, and learning through differentiated assessments. More than 90% of students felt they had gained knowledge more quickly with active learning. The ALT model is part of the large scale technology enhanced learning for future learning environments which has been developed adopting most of computer science courses and specialist module.

Paper Nr: 22
Title:

Learning Environment for Problem-based Learning in Teaching Software Components and Service-oriented Architecture

Authors:

Muthu Ramachandran and Rezan Sedeeq

Abstract: CBSE (Component Based Software Engineering) has been with us nearly two decades since the popularity of object-oriented programming in some form or other. The concept of component abstraction is to increase the abstraction level to provide large chunk of software solution (building blocks), therefore, it results in increased productivity. Sadly, CBSE has been taught in the way we have been teaching programming with smaller abstraction known as functions and procedures. Similarly, OO programming languages have also been taught in a similar manner. Therefore, we have adopted a combination of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) and Neural Pathway Based Learning (NPL) techniques to teach high level CBSE modelling and concepts, large-scale design, and design for reuse with UML components. One of our main objectives of this paper is to develop a learning technique based on PBL and NPL. The research methodology is based delivery of the developed learning content into existing VLE and to study how well the learning has improved on these two modules delivered on the MSc Software Engineering course. The evaluation by students shows high satisfaction for this semester batch of post-graduate students. This paper presents the learning environment for PBL based learning on our VLE which provides an excellent learning experience for students to learn advanced topics such as software components and service computing.

Paper Nr: 34
Title:

Analyzing and Predicting the TEM-4 Performance of English Majors in China

Authors:

Yao Meng, Xiangdong Gu, Qing Zhou and Yu Zhong

Abstract: Test for English Majors-Band 4 (TEM-4) is a national Test for Chinese English majors in the end of their second year at university. This paper focuses on analysis and prediction of the TEM-4 performance of 77 English majors in a Chinese key university. A rich amount of data was collected including students’ demographics and family status, learning related achievement, motivation and learning journals they kept for a year with school’s permission and students’ willingness. The accuracy of three classification algorithms to predict students’ TEM-4 performance were compared and Naive Bayes Classifier is verified to gain the highest accuracy. On predicting whether the students’ TEM-4 scores might reach the excellent level, the accuracy of the model is above 90%. On predicting whether the students might pass the exam, the accuracy reaches 98%. One contributing finding of this study is that a richer set of data was collected, and we integrate the data. Another one is that students’ written learning journals have been verified in the improvement of the accuracy of the prediction model which hasn’t been explored in the previous researches about the test.

Paper Nr: 36
Title:

A Virtual Reality based Engine Training System - A Prototype Development & Evaluation

Authors:

Tami Im, Deukyoung An, Oh-Young Kwon and Sang-Youn Kim

Abstract: A Virtual Reality based Engine Training System (VRETS) was developed and tested in this study. This training system was developed to use a head mounted display and a motion detector to pursue realistic engine dissembling and assembling training with natural interaction. 26 college students participated in the user test of this training system. The results of the user test show high interest, immersion, satisfaction, and perceived learning effectiveness of VRETS. Participants also reported that they could easily and naturally operate VRETS, and they also had full control of the content.

Paper Nr: 40
Title:

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Three Different Course Delivery Methods in Online and Distance Education

Authors:

Barry Cartwright and Sheri Fabian

Abstract: Students who completed at least one of three introductory Criminology courses offered through Simon Fraser University’s Centre for Online and Distance Education (CODE) between May 2013 and April 2014 were invited to participate in an online survey regarding their perceptions of and experiences with these three fully online courses. The three courses varied substantively from each other in their online format and pedagogical approaches. The research indicates that students find interactive exercises, educational video games, online audio-visual instruction (e.g., online lectures or Webcasts) and online quizzes helpful in understanding course content and preparing for examinations. Results regarding participation in online discussion groups were mixed, although students feel these groups give them an opportunity to interact with their peers in the online environment. The survey results have already influenced the format of recently revised and newly designed CODE courses at the university, and are expected to inform the design of future courses.

Paper Nr: 41
Title:

Proposal of a Framework for the Assessment of ICT Literacy and Examining the Structure of High School Students’ ICT Literacy: A Case of Turkey

Authors:

Feriha Soysal, Erman Coşkun and Büşra Alma

Abstract: Development levels of societies are highly correlated with the efficiency in usage of information and communication technologies between people belonging to those particular societies. For this reason, this study aims to investigate ICT literacy levels of high school students, to find out the general profile in terms of literacy levels and to reveal the students’ internet usage purposes according to their ICT literacy levels. So as to achieve this goal a questionnaire developed by the researchers was conducted among the students at their 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th levels of study. Sample of the study encompassed different types of high schools in the Sakarya province of Turkey including Anatolian High School, Science High School, Vocational & Technical High School, Private Anatolian High School and Sports School. Students were questioned so as to determine their ICT literacy levels and to find out reasons behind their internet usage by means of variables representing school type, gender, level of study (9, 10, 11, 12), average success score and frequency of usage. As a result, even though the purpose of internet usage demonstrated a common trend among groups having different levels of ICT literacy, priorities for the usage of internet changed among different levels.

Paper Nr: 48
Title:

A Computer Platform to Increase Motivation in Programming Students - PEP

Authors:

Paula Correia Tavares, Pedro Rangel Henriques and Elsa Gomes

Abstract: Motivate students is one of the biggest challenges that teachers have to face, in general and in particular in programming courses. In this article two techniques, aimed at supporting the teaching of programming, are discussed: program animation, and automatic evaluation of programs. Based on the combination of these techniques and their currently available tools, we will describe two possible approaches to increase motivation and improve the success. The conclusions of a first experiment conducted in the classroom will be presented. PEP, a Web-based tool that implements one of the approaches proposed, will be introduced.

Paper Nr: 49
Title:

Educational Data Mining Rule based Recommender Systems

Authors:

Ghadeer Mobasher, Ahmed Shawish and Osman Ibrahim

Abstract: Educational Data Mining (EDM) is an emerging multidisciplinary research area, in which data mining techniques are deployed to extract knowledge from educational information systems to help decision makers to improve the learning process and enhance the academic performance of the students. The available studies mainly focused on predicting the academic performance based on demographic and study related attributes. Most of the previous work adopted the decision trees as one of the most famous data mining techniques to predict rather than extracting real knowledge that reveals the reasons behind student’s dropout. On the other hand, there were other studies in the psychological track to measure the mental health score based on the educational environment. This paper proposes a complete EDM framework in a form of a rule based recommender system that is not developed to analyze and predict the student’s performance only, but also to exhibit the reasons behind it. The proposed framework analyzes the students’ demographic data, study related and psychological characteristics to extract all possible knowledge from students, teachers and parents.Seeking the highest possible accuracy in academic performance prediction using a set of powerful data mining techniques. The framework succeeds to highlight the student’s weak points and provide appropriate recommendations. The realistic case study that has been conducted on 200 students proves the outstanding performance of the proposed framework in comparison with the existing ones.

Paper Nr: 56
Title:

Improving Communication in Online Learning Systems

Authors:

Godfrey Mayende, Andreas Prinz and Ghislain Maurice N. Isabwe

Abstract: In this paper, we study communication in online learning systems using both quantitative and qualitative research methods. Quantitative methods provide the interaction statistics, while qualitative content analysis was used for categorisation of the messages. It turns out that 20% of the active participants dominate the online learning interactions, and more than 80% are passive consumers. From the categorization, we learned that most of the communication is not related to learning, but to technical problems (26%), small talk (29%), sharing experience (16%), and encouragement (11%). Only 10% are related to the content. For improved communication, it is therefore important to use the right communication tools in the online learning systems. Especially, learning by content creation should be provided.

Paper Nr: 57
Title:

Conceptual Mapping of the use of Non-Traditional Processes in Engineering’s Higher Education

Authors:

Cleber A. Pereira, Paulo Oliveira and Manuel J. C. S. Reis

Abstract: In this paper, we shall present a study on the tools most often used as a support in the teaching of engineering in higher education. We seek to assess which are the current practices and identify the main tools used in the teaching of electric and computer engineering, highlighting the curricular units in which they are being used. We seek to contribute towards the improvement of the results obtained in higher education curricula in engineering. The methodology used is based on a literature review together with the systematization and presentation of the findings through a conceptual mapping. The results present a conceptual mapping of the courses in which positive experiences were reported through the adoption of non-traditional teaching processes. We concluded that both the initiatives that have resorted to new technologies in engineering degrees, as well as reports of similar experiments in international publications on this topic are both reduced and ad hoc. Initiatives such as this may contribute towards an improvement of the implemented teaching processes in engineering.

Paper Nr: 66
Title:

Precise Estimation of Reading Activities with Face Image and Read Aloud Voice

Authors:

Kyota Aoki, Shuichi Tashiro and Shu Aoki

Abstract: In Japanese public primary schools, every pupil may use an ICT device individually and simultaneously. In normal primary school, a few teachers must teach all pupils in a class. It is difficult to help all pupils to use an ICT device. For using ICT devices individually in a normal class, the ICT device help its’ user by itself. To help the user, the ICT device must understand the state of the user. To help a teacher, it must precisely understand the users' reading activities. Reading ability is the base of all subjects. It is important that pupils acqure reading ability. This paper proposes a method to recognize the precise reading activity of a user with read aloud voices and facial images, shows its implementation, and experimental results. With the cooperative analysis of a read aloud voice from a microphone and a movement of a mouth from a camera, our implementation enables to estimate the action of read aloud much more precisely. The timing of a read aloud action is estimated in phrase by phrase manner. In-vitro experiments confirm the performance of our implementation.

Paper Nr: 70
Title:

Assisting School Units Management with Data Mining Techniques and GIS Visualization

Authors:

John Garofalakis, Antonios Maritsas and Flora Oikonomou

Abstract: Educational Data Mining (EDM) has emerged as an interdisciplinary research area that applies Data Mining (DM) techniques to educational data in order to discover novel and potentially useful information. On the other hand, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are ones designed to manage spatial data and related attributes and can be used for assisting decision support. This paper proposes an innovative use of DM and visualization GIS techniques for decision support in planning and management of Greek public education focused on high risk groups such as young children. The developed application clusters school units with similar features, such as students’ and teachers’ absences, and represents them on a map, enabling user to make decisions being aware of geographical information. Afterwards, based on real data stored during epidemic spread periods, such as the H1N1 flu pandemic during 2009, the application predicts whether a school should be opened or closed considering students’ and teachers’ absences of a specific time interval.

Paper Nr: 76
Title:

A Course Recommender System based on Graduating Attributes

Authors:

Behdad Bakhshinategh, Gerasimos Spanakis, Osmar Zaiane and Samira ElAtia

Abstract: Assessing learning outcomes for students in higher education institutes is an interesting task with many potential applications for all involved stakeholders (students, administrators, potential employers, etc.). In this paper, we propose a course recommendation system for students based on the assessment of their “graduate attributes” (i.e. attributes that describe the developing values of students). Students rate the improvement in their graduating attributes after a course is finished and a collaborative filtering algorithm is utilized in order to suggest courses that were taken by fellow students and rated in a similar way. An extension to weigh the most recent ratings as more important is included in the algorithm which is shown to have better accuracy than the baseline approach. Experimental results using correlation thresholding and the nearest neighbors approach show that such a recommendation system can be effective when an active neighborhood of 10-15 students is used and show that the numbers of users used can be decreased effectively to one fourth of the whole population for improving the performance of the algorithm.

Paper Nr: 79
Title:

Adaptive Presentation based on Learning Style and Working Memory Capacity in Adaptive Learning System

Authors:

Widya Lestari, Dade Nurjanah and Nungki Selviandro

Abstract: In the learning process, learner have different characteristics and learning styles; therefore they need the learning material that fits their needs. But in real life, students tend to be given the same material as other students by their teachers. Other study has proven that the quality of learning will improve when students have the proper material. On the contrary, students will face difficulty in completing the learning activity when the material is inappropriate for their characteristics. Another important aspect that could also affect the learning process is working memory capacity (WMC), which is one of the cognitive abilities. This study provides the learning recommendations and adaptive learning based on detection of learning style and WMC of students to improve the quality of learning itself.

Paper Nr: 80
Title:

The Goal - Question - Indicator Approach for Personalized Learning Analytics

Authors:

Arham Muslim, Mohamed Amine Chatti, Memoona Mughal and Ulrik Schroeder

Abstract: Open learning analytics (OLA) is a relatively new branch of learning analytics (LA) which emerged due to the growing demand for self-organized, networked, and lifelong learning opportunities. OLA deals with learning data collected from various learning environments and contexts, analyzed with a range of analytics methods, and for different stakeholders with diverse interests and objectives. This diversity in different dimensions of OLA is a challenge which needs to be addressed by adopting a personalized learning analytics (PLA) model. Current implementations of LA mainly rely on a predefined set of questions and indicators which is not suitable in the context of OLA where the indicators are unpredictable. In this paper we present the goal - question - indicator (GQI) approach for PLA and provide the conceptual, design, implementation and evaluation details of the indicator engine component of the open learning analytics platform (OpenLAP) that engages end users in the indicator generation process by supporting them in setting goals, posing questions, and self-defining indicators.

Paper Nr: 82
Title:

Automatic Generation of English Reference Question by Utilising Nonrestrictive Relative Clause

Authors:

Arief Yudha Satria and Takenobu Tokunaga

Abstract: This study presents a novel method of automatic English reference question generation. The English reference question is a multiple choice question which is comprised of a reading passage, a target pronoun, a correct answer (an antecedent of the target pronoun), and three distractors. The reading passage is generated by transforming human made passages using the proposed sentence splitting technique on nonrestrictive relative clauses (NRC). The correct answer is generated by the analysis of parse trees of the passage. The distractors are extracted from the reading passage by using a part-of-speech (POS) tagger and a coreference resolver. Human evaluation showed that 53% of the generated questions were acceptable.

Paper Nr: 96
Title:

The JuxtaLearn Process in the Learning of Maths’ Tricky Topics - Practices, Results and Teacher’s Perceptions

Authors:

Sara Cruz, José Alberto Lencastre, Clara Coutinho, Rui José, Gill Clough and Anne Adams

Abstract: This paper presents a study developed in the framework of a training course for teachers of STEM areas on the JuxtaLearn process. This process, divided into eight steps, aims to improve student understanding of threshold concepts by planning, editing and sharing creative videos in CLIPIT. CLIPIT is an online platform for collaborative learning designed to support the JuxtaLearn process. We describe the training of eight teachers, and the subsequent supervision of one of them, a math teacher, made to understand how the JuxtaLearn process was applied with her students. We collect qualitative data through the observation of the teacher's work. Also, quantitative data through initial and final quizzes applied to the students, to understand their level of understanding of the tricky topic, automatic records on CLIPIT and a satisfaction questionnaire applied to the eight teachers to assess the ease of use with the CLIPIT. The results show that teachers were able to put into practice the eight steps of the JuxtaLearn process and suggest that students’ engagement in creating creative videos helped them in overcoming tricky math topics.

Paper Nr: 97
Title:

Evaluation of a Gamified 3D Virtual Reality System to Enhance the Understanding of Movement in Physics

Authors:

Diego Alonso Iquira Becerra, José Alfredo Herrera Quispe, Roni Guillermo Apaza Aceituno, Gaby Mary Poma Vargas, Flor Gabriela Fernandez Zamora, José Luis Huillca Mango, Guadalupe Paulina Anccasi Figueroa, Aldo Alexis Perez Vizcarra and Jaison Willian Torres Chana

Abstract: The creation of new technological tools in education provides different learning opportunities to students. The present research evaluates an application that we have developed for the use of virtual reality to enhance the understanding of movement in physics, using gamification techniques on the application allowed us to improve the motivation of the students to learn, the validation of this research was made using a methodology to evaluate the didactic value of educational software, and this evaluation was carried out on a group of teachers.

Paper Nr: 103
Title:

Gamification Under the Hood - Using Game Technology for Building an Interactive Math Learning System

Authors:

Jan Simon and Georg J. Schneider

Abstract: The papers describes the implementation of an interactive math learning system using the game engine Unity3D. We will focus on the implementation aspects of interactive learning systems using this game engine, since the game development approach as well as the use of this specific game engine bring along several benefits, like device independence and reactivity.

Paper Nr: 104
Title:

Instructional Videos and Others on Youtube - Similarities and Differences in Comments

Authors:

Hugo Silva and Isabel Azevedo

Abstract: YouTube is a video sharing platform and its resources have been used for formal and informal learning. Users can add comments, as well as sign that they like a given video. The work described in this paper is mainly devoted to the comments provided by users and how they differ (or not) depending on the type of videos: those that are used to support learning versus those that does not. An application was developed to collect data available on the YouTube platform. The analysis of comments extracted from YouTube was performed using natural language processing techniques and differences in writing were also analyzed. Two major groups of videos were considered: technical, or instructional videos, and non-technical videos. The former usually have an educational nature and are watched by people that aim to improve their knowledge and skills, while the others are more devoted to entertainment. The similarities and differences found between these different types of videos are discussed.

Paper Nr: 106
Title:

Supporting Technology-enhanced Teaching Practices for Health Academics

Authors:

Mark O'Connor and Patrick Abela

Abstract: Two learning technologists (LTs) at an Australian University support some 140 Health faculty academics. Resources and strategies for innovative technology-enhanced teaching have been put in place, including a MediaHub, iPad pack pool and a Blackboard community site with curated resources and templates for best practice. Examples of LT-assisted and academic self-created media are presented. Designed in keeping with the university’s central learning and teaching strategies, 85 ’Landing pages’ for subject sites were created. With a design and feel praised by students, they displayed subject outlines, welcome messages, pre-class flipped activities, and library curated eReadings lists. Crucially, during the busy exam marking winter period, academics unavailable to meet in person were engaged remotely by email and interactive PDF Landing page request forms. This paper looks at this transformational subject design work and analysis of student usage data. Academics feedback has been positive. Analytics reveal strong engagement by students and academics. Suggestions for future work are also presented.

Paper Nr: 110
Title:

Peer Tutoring Orchestration - Streamlined Technology-driven Orchestration for Peer Tutoring

Authors:

Lighton Phiri, Christoph Meinel and Hussein Suleman

Abstract: Peer tutoring models that involve senior students teaching junior students is a well established practice in most large universities. While there are a range of teaching activities performed by tutors, these are often done in an ad hoc manner. We propose to leverage organised orchestration in order to make peer tutoring more effective. A prototype tutoring platform, aimed at facilitating face-to-face tutoring sessions, was implemented in order to facilitate orchestration of activities in peer tutoring sessions. The tool was evaluated by 24 tutors for first year Computer Science courses at a large university. The NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) and Perceived Usefulness and Ease of Use (PUEU) instruments were used to measure the orchestration load and usability of the tool, respectively. The overall workload falls within acceptable limits. This initial result confirms the feasibility of the early stage tools to implement organised orchestration for peer tutoring.

Paper Nr: 116
Title:

Improving Play and Learning Style Adaptation in a Programming Education Game

Authors:

Renny S. N. Lindberg, Aziz Hasanov and Teemu H. Laine

Abstract: The drive to teach programming to K-12 students has amplified in the past few years as several European countries have added programming to their national curricula. Teaching programming is not simple as even older students struggle with the topic. Educational games have been shown to increase motivation and learning efficiency, and many games have been created to teach programming. Adaptation is a technique that could improve these benefits even further by personalizing the game to learners in a heterogeneous group. In this study we presented Minerva, an adaptive programming education game designed for elementary school students. The game uses Bartle’s Player Types and Honey and Mumford’s Learning Style Questionnaire to adapt gameplay and learning content to match the player’s styles. We tested Minerva with 33 6th grade South Korean students using a post-test questionnaire, interviews, and a game log that was designed to keep track of the students’ profiles and how Minerva adapted to them. Based on the results, we proposed how Minerva’s adaptation system can be improved in the future. This paper can be of interest to anyone researching possible uses of adaptivity in (programming) education games.

Paper Nr: 123
Title:

Learning Language Grammar with Interactive Exercises in the Classroom and Beyond

Authors:

Marina Purgina, Maxim Mozgovoy and Monica Ward

Abstract: We describe how the principles of gamification, rich learning material, and personalized experience were used to design WordBricks, a software tool intended to assist learning natural language grammar, which is a challenging task for learners. We briefly discuss the distinctive features of successful educational software instruments with a large user base, and argue that the possibility of independent, personalized out-of-class interaction with an educational tool is nearly essential for success. In addition to these elements, our application implements a visual grammar formalism that turns solving grammar exercises into a puzzle game-like experience, attractive for the learners. The results of our ongoing classroom experiments show that the users of WordBricks score better on grammar tests thus proving the feasibility of our approach. Subsequent experiments with the Irish language also demonstrated that the students enjoyed playing with the application, which is important for learners with low levels of motivation and lack of modern multimedia teaching materials.

Paper Nr: 127
Title:

SATOYAMA: Time-limited Decision Game for Students to Learn Hundreds Years Forestry Management

Authors:

Shuya Kawaguchi, Tsugunosuke Sakai, Haruya Tamaki, Hiroshi Mizoguchi, Ryohei Egusa, Yoshiaki Takeda, Etsuji Yamaguchi, Shigenori Inagaki, Fusako Kusunoki, Hideo Funaoi and Sugimoto Masanori

Abstract: Global environmental problems continue to worsen. In this situation, it is important to understand and experience changes in the natural environment in realistic ways. However, it was difficult to experience these changes in real time because they happen over large time scales. To overcome this problem, the authors developed a game-like learning tool that enables players to learn about vegetation succession. This game is Windows-based and enables players to simulate the conservation of SATOYAMA, rural natural areas. The player selects the actions within a designated time and the vegetation succession of the SATOYAMA changes according to that action. At the end of this game, the score is based on the SATOYAMA conserved by the player. Thirty-seven students participated in this experiment whose result suggested that this game would enable children to develop an interest in vegetation succession and motivate them to learn about it.

Paper Nr: 131
Title:

BELONG: Body Experienced Learning Support System based on Gesture Recognition - Enhancing the Sense of Immersion in a Dinosaurian Environment

Authors:

Mikihiro Tokuoka, Haruya Tamaki, Tsugunosuke Sakai, Hiroshi Mizoguchi, Ryohei Egusa, Shigenori Inagaki, Mirei Kawabata, Fusako Kusunoki and Masanori Sugimoto

Abstract: As the first step toward realizing an immersive learning support system for museums, Yoshida et al. developed and evaluated a prototype system. However, this system was problematic in that it could only be operated by using simple body movements. Moreover, the other problem was that learning about paleontology itself cannot be performed only by learning about a paleontological environment. Therefore, we developed an immersive learning support system "BELONG" as an upgraded version of the above-mentioned system. Using a recognizer capable of gesture recognition, the system can be operated using complicated body movements. The improved system enables learners to enhance their sense of immersion in a paleontological environment and learn about the fossil itself and its paleontology. This paper summarizes the prototype of "BELONG" and describes the experiments that were performed to evaluate its ability to achieve learning support and immersion.

Paper Nr: 136
Title:

A Virtual Environment to Support Classroom Face-to-Face Teaching of Engineering Courses

Authors:

Ana Paula Ladeira, Juliana Capanema Ferreira Mendonca, Osmar Ventura Gomes, Celso Peixoto Garcia and Bráulio Roberto Gonçalves Marinho Couto

Abstract: The objective of our study is to answer three questions: a) How to build a low cost online teaching tool to support face-to-face classrooms of introductory engineering disciplines? b) What is the effectiveness of the use of virtual environment in promoting learning? c) Does the number of accesses by the students onto the virtual environment increases their grades and reduces their failure in introductory engineering disciplines? The online teaching tool was developed in Moodle environment, being composed by three components for each discipline: a) video lectures, b) video lessons explaining how to solve proposed exercises, c) a list of unsolved exercises. To evaluate the effectiveness of the virtual environment we collected data during Jan- Dec/2016, amongst engineer students. The main predictor variable, the number of access to the online support tool, was firstly evaluated in univariate analysis. Multiple linear regression was used to assess how the outcome of “final grade” were influenced by all predictors variables together, in a multivariate way. The number of accesses by the students onto the virtual environment increases their grades and reduces their failure in introductory engineering disciplines, especially for General Chemistry, Differential Calculus, Physics Electricity and Algorithms.

Paper Nr: 151
Title:

Using OERs at the Border between Formal Education and Professional Development

Authors:

Giuseppe Ritella, Marco Montanari, Andrea Spila, Stefano Lariccia and Donatella Cesareni

Abstract: This paper aims at discussing how the use of OERs can become a valuable resource for boundary crossing between the academy and the world of work. The background of our argumentation is that often there is a perceived distance between academy (considered as the place of theory development) and professional communities (considered as the place for the development of practice). While the discussion often focuses on the opposition between formal and non-formal use of OERs, we defend the thesis that a great potential resides exactly in the creation of hybrid practices crossing the boundaries between universities and professional communities, enriching academic discourse and providing scientific knowledge for professional practice. We exemplify our argumentation by discussing our experience in building a platform, called CommonSpaces, for the cataloguing, re-use and revising of OERs at the boundary between university and the world of work. This type of boundary crossing can release the great potential made possible by the development of technology – which allows to easily co-create, share, re-mix and revise educational content – and by the openness of OERs – which is a practical implementation of the philosophical understanding of knowledge as a public good resulting from collective efforts and should be accessible to everyone.

Paper Nr: 158
Title:

Improving a Mobile Learning Companion for Self-regulated Learning using Sensors

Authors:

Haeseon Yun, Albrecht Fortenbacher and Niels Pinkwart

Abstract: The ability to efficiently manage learning is linked to positive learning experience and outcome. However, attaining the ability of self-regulating is not a matter of course for students and it requires an external assistance. To support learners to be equipped with self-regulated learning skills, a mobile device can serve as an ideal learning companion which provides valuable feedback. A learning companion stemming from intelligent tutoring system (ITS) has non-authoritative, co-present effect as a learning support and with available sensor technology, self-regulated learning can be better promoted. Sensor enhanced learning companion can detect learning states, learning behaviours and context and provide valuable feedback to learners to increase their awareness of learning progress and to effectively manage their learning. Considering the mobility, autonomy of learners along together with current trend in open online learning resources and contents, available embedded sensors are suitable for realising the concept of learning companion for self-regulated learning. The paper reviews a self-regulated learning concept, a learning companion pedagogy and proposes that self-regulated learning skills can be promoted using sensor technology and a learning companion pedagogy.

Paper Nr: 166
Title:

A Collaborative Game for Learning Algorithms

Authors:

Foteini Grivokostopoulou, Isidoros Perikos and Ioannis Hatzilygeroudis

Abstract: Educational games constitute an important mean of delivering effective learning procedures to students and they can offer various learning opportunities in all levels of education. In this work, we present a collaborative game that was developed to assist students in learning algorithms and we explore its learning capabilities. The game aims to assist students in learning constraint satisfaction algorithms and it is based on the map coloring game. In the context of the game, students can experiment and apply the algorithms in various learning activities and training scenarios. The game has been integrated into the curriculum of the artificial intelligence course in our university. An evaluation study was conducted in real classroom conditions and revealed quite promising results which indicate that the game is an effective way to enhance students’ motivation, engagement and interest and also it helps students to deeper understand the functionality of constraint satisfaction algorithms.

Paper Nr: 169
Title:

NeuroK: A Collaborative e-Learning Platform based on Pedagogical Principles from Neuroscience

Authors:

Fernando Calle-Alonso, Agustín Cuenca-Guevara, Daniel de la Mata Lara, Jesús M. Sánchez-Gómez, Miguel A. Vega-Rodríguez and Carlos J. Pérez Sánchez

Abstract: The use of online education platforms has grown extensively and most education centers and companies use them for their learning programs. Although technology has changed the learning environment, the pedagogical model has mostly remained the same as it was many years ago. Therefore, another education paradigm should arrive to online platforms in a generalized way. In this paper, NeuroK is presented as a new e-Learning platform leveraging the latest technologies and, moreover, implementing new tools that support pedagogical principles from neuroscience. While most of traditional platforms focus on content, content management and applying teacher-centred methodologies (everything goes through the teacher), NeuroK focuses on students, and uses collaborative learning, motivational processes and a “learning by doing” perspective to achieve a long-term relevant learning. The proposed NeuroK framework describes the already implemented tools and the new ones to be included in next versions. An active R&D process allows new methodologies from the fields of Learning Analytics, Data Mining and Social Learning to be proposed and implemented. The main contribution of this platform is to deploy a significant improvement in the e- Learning process based on a neurodidactics approach and data analysis research results.

Paper Nr: 170
Title:

Development of Electronic Lab-book for College Chemistry-Experiment - SN1 & SN2 Reactions -

Authors:

Akira Ikuo, Yuki Toyama, Yusuke Yoshinaga and Haruo Ogawa

Abstract: We developed a computer graphics (CG) teaching material (TM) for university students, concerning reactions involving drastic changes in the structure of the reactants in the following chlorination, for example SN1: formation of tert-butyl chloride from tert-butanol and SN2: formation of 1-chlorobutane from 1-butanol. The CG-TM could clearly demonstrate the changes in the structures during the reaction by the ball-and-stick model, in addition to the image of the energy change in terms of the reaction profile. An electronic lab-book for chemical experiments in the students’ laboratory at the university was produced, aiming at the integration of observable-level experiments, symbolic chemical equations, and the molecular world. The lab-book displays pictures of apparatus, flow-chart of experimental procedures, and reaction mechanisms with the CG-TM. A preliminary study on the effectiveness of the CG-TM suggested that students were able to obtain images of SN1 and SN2 reactions.

Posters
Paper Nr: 12
Title:

Discipline Evaluation Management Platform based on Big Data

Authors:

Yan Xia, Xinlin Wu and Hui Feng

Abstract: Discipline evaluation is an important means in discipline construction in universities and colleges. Effective discipline evaluation depends on scientific and comprehensive analysis. Big data focuses on deep data mining and scientific analysis based on a large number of multidimensional data, to discover hidden relationship and value behind the data. It helps discipline evaluation from speculation on fragment information to decision making on overall information. This paper proposes a discipline evaluation solution based on big data. A discipline evaluation management platform based on big data is established to practise business in discipline construction with multidimensional analysis automatically. It provides advice and guidance for discipline construction, and establishes foundation for discipline development strategy.

Paper Nr: 15
Title:

An Intelligent Learning Support System

Authors:

Mariia Gavriushenko, Oleksiy Khriyenko and Ari Tuhkala

Abstract: Fast-growing technologies are shaping many aspects of societies. Educational systems, in general, are still rather traditional: learner applies for school or university, chooses the subject, takes the courses, and finally graduates. The problem is that labor markets are constantly changing and the needed professional skills might not match with the curriculum of the educational program. It might be that it is not even possible to learn a combination of desired skills within one educational organization. For example, there are only a few universities that can provide high-quality teaching in several different areas. Therefore, learners may have to study specific modules and units somewhere else, for example, in massive open online courses. A person, who is learning some particular content from outside of the university, could have some knowledge gaps which should be recognized. We argue that it is possible to respond to these challenges with adaptive, intelligent, and personalized learning systems that utilize data analytics, machine learning, and Semantic Web technologies. In this paper, we propose a model for an Intelligent Learning Support System that guides learner during the whole lifecycle using semantic annotation methodology. Semantic annotation of learning materials is done not only on the course level but also at the content level to perform semantic reasoning about the possible learning gaps. Based on this reasoning, the system can recommend extensive learning material.

Paper Nr: 18
Title:

Researching Student Perceptions of and Experiences with Alternative Learning Technologies - Replacing Traditional Tutorials with i>clicker Tutorials and Online Tutorials

Authors:

Barry Cartwright and Sheri Fabian

Abstract: The researchers invited university students enrolled in two different offerings of a large introductory course which had recently transitioned from traditional tutorials to student response system (i>clicker) tutorials, four different offerings of two courses which had recently transitioned from traditional tutorials to online tutorials, plus two different upper division courses which continued to employ traditional tutorials to participate in an online survey regarding their experiences with traditional tutorials, fully online tutorials, and tutorials that employed student response systems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate student perceptions of and experiences with alternative learning technologies, and to determine whether these alternative technologies improved learning outcomes when compared to more traditional teaching methods. This paper reports on the design and implementation of the i>clicker and online tutorials, the design and administration of the online survey, and strategies employed to enhance student participation in the survey. While there was no measurable difference in terms of learning outcomes, the survey results indicate that students prefer online tutorials over i>clicker and traditional tutorials, and that there is generally a high level of student satisfaction when it comes to alternative learning technologies. The researchers were able to identify which facets of traditional, i>clicker and online tutorials the students found most appealing (and/or useful), and which facets they did not find appealing and/or useful.

Paper Nr: 67
Title:

Interaction in Situated Learning Does Not Imply Immersion - Virtual Worlds Help to Engage Learners without Immersing Them

Authors:

Athanasios Christopoulos, Marc Conrad and Aslan Kanamgotov

Abstract: Immersion is a central theme when using virtual worlds; the feeling of ‘being there’ is generally considered a positive attribute of virtual worlds, in particular when these are used for recreation. However, within educational context it may be debatable how far immersion can be expected or is even desirable: if we want students to be reflective and critical on their assignment task, wouldn’t it be more important for them to have a critical distance, rather than being immersed? In this paper, we approach this question by examining and discussing how interactions, learner engagement and immersion are linked together when a virtual world is being used in a Hybrid Virtual Learning scenario. Findings from our experiment seem to suggest that even though this learning approach aids positively the educational process, high levels of immersion do not occur. Nevertheless, more research in that direction is highly recommended to be undertaken.

Paper Nr: 73
Title:

Moodle Predicta: A Data Mining Tool for Student Follow Up

Authors:

Igor Moreira Félix, Ana Paula Ambrósio, Priscila Silva Neves, Joyce Siqueira and Jacques Duilio Brancher

Abstract: Educational data mining (EDM) aims to find useful patterns in large volumes of data from teaching/learning environments, increasing academic results. However, EDM requires previous and deep knowledge of data mining methods and techniques, involving several computing paradigms, preprocessing and results’ interpretation. In this paper, Moodle Predicta, an educational data mining desktop tool is presented. This software is developed in Java and enables non-expert data mining users to enjoy benefits from EDM, within the Moodle system. Divided in two modules, Moodle Predicta allows: (i) visualization of Moodle courses data; and (ii) predict students’ performance.

Paper Nr: 77
Title:

An Automatic Method for Structuring and Recommending Exercises - In Light of Case-based Reasoning, Knowledge Representation and Error Mediation

Authors:

Carlos André Zavadinack, Fabiano Silva, Alexandre I. Direne and Alexander Kutzke

Abstract: Case-based Reasoning (CBR) is a method for solving problems with similar retained solutions. CBR demands a knowledge representation that allows the reasoner to find similar cases by a query and the similarity rate is given by a distance in hierarchical tree structure, an ontology. The main goal of this research is to use CBR as a pedagogical tool supported by three pillars: Case-based reasoning, Knowledge representation and Error Mediation in Education. It is considered that the error has a role of importance in the pedagogical development, so it has to be mediated. The error mediation is used as a rule for a quantitative classification of exercises, it takes into account how many times an exercise have been uncorrected answered, the distance between exercises gives the similarity between them. This kind of automatically classification for exercises in a educational support systems is one of the main contributions of this research. This work suggests that the CBR cycle is useful in the designing of a tool for automatic creation of exams.

Paper Nr: 98
Title:

Using Facebook to Transfer Knowledge into Practice and Aid Student, Lecturer and Content Interaction - A Case of Bachelor of Information Technology Undergraduate Students at Makerere University

Authors:

Emily Bagarukayo, Dick Ng'ambi, Rehema Baguma and Proscovia Namubiru Ssentamu

Abstract: Employers have criticised graduates for inadequate skills to apply knowledge into practice due to the traditional teaching and learning methods which concentrate more on theory than practice. Technology affords several teaching and learning methods like social media which students are already motivated to use. The research therefore used Facebook technology to facilitate students’ application of operating systems knowledge to record and upload a video installing a virtual machine and operating system onto a group; to promote content access, and interactive and cooperative learning. The results from the study show that the overall effect of Facebook on students learning process and experience was positive because it enabled putting knowledge into practice, sharing, collaboration, interaction, flexibility and learner – centred activities, among others. Therefore, to increase learning outcome, motivation, desire and interest, new educational technologies should continuously be explored by educational institutions, educators and learners for teaching and learning in the digital era. In this light we recommend that Facebook should be assessed in more studies and integrated as a tool for learning at the university since students appreciate it, find it easy to use and familiar.

Paper Nr: 112
Title:

Building a Formative Assessment System That is Easy to Adopt Yet Supports Long-term Improvement: A Review of the Literature and Design Recommendations

Authors:

Ellis Solaiman, Joshua Barney and Martin Smith

Abstract: Formative assessment has been shown to be an effective teaching tool, yet is infrequently used in practice. With the intent of building a formative e-assessment platform, we examine research on formative practices and supporting computer-based systems with a focus on: institutional barriers to adoption of previous systems; senses in which students and teachers can improve their practices across varying timescales; and collectible data (self-reported or otherwise) necessary or advantageous in supporting these processes. From this research we identify the minimal set of data which adequately supports these processes of improvement, arrive at a set of requirements and recommendations for an innovative system which collects, processes, and presents this data appropriately, and from these requirements design the architecture of an extensible electronic formative assessment system which balances the need for complex long-term analytics with that of accessibility.

Paper Nr: 120
Title:

Jupyter Notebook as the Physics Experimental Laboratory's Logbook - First Approach

Authors:

Irene Urcelay-Olabarria, Ruth Lazkoz, Jon Urrestilla, Aritz Leonardo and Josu M. Igartua

Abstract: In the Physics Degree it is of fundamental importance to practice in an Experimental Laboratory. The standard Laboratory Sessions consist of two main parts: data handling and data processing. The session should also have a prologue, where students get to know the underlaying theory of the practical session and an epilogue, where students present the results obtained and the difficulties encountered. The prologue and the epilogue naturally decouple from the work in the laboratory. Data processing, in most cases, is effectively decoupled from the work in the laboratory, as well. In this short paper we present a tool, the Jupyter Notebook, an electronic laboratory logbook, which conveniently facilitates the decoupling of the data handling and processing, but which merges almost completely into an electronic notebook the four parts of the laboratory practical session: theory, data, processing and presentation. But, interestingly, the notebook goes beyond that: it allows the students to explore the data in an interactive way (simulating variants), to acquire a deeper knowledge of the data (by digitally altering the experiment or simulating new ones), to propose new experiments, etcetera. We strongly believe that this tool can also motivate the students: the results are obtained interactively, immediately, visually, and they can be shared and even improved. Moreover, the laboratory sessions get optimized: simulations make the sessions be focused on obtaining data and in its variants.

Paper Nr: 121
Title:

Electronic Notes Via Jupyter Notebooks

Authors:

Irene Urcelay-Olabarria and Josu M. Igartua

Abstract: Nowadays there are many tools to teach, both analogical and electronic. In our classes we use either tools: slides (and their xerox copies), computer driven presentations, videos, exercise bundles, calendar of the subject, syllabus, blackboard, detailed program of the subject... In the teaching/studying process there are to reference systems: the teacher’s and the students’. In the former, it is the teacher who knows the subject and has designed it, whereas in the latter the students should acquire the competences relative to the module, grade... To that end, the students should follow the teacher’s indications and use the materials we give them directly or indirectly. Unfortunately, the students, in their reference system, and due to the way teachers do our job, do not have any linear narrative threat facilitating the acquisition of the knowledge and competences. In this communication we present a tool, the electronic notes via Jupyter notebooks, which provides the students with a linear narrative threat based on a static initial schema but adaptable to each student, and modifiable and extensible by each student, being executable as well.

Paper Nr: 124
Title:

Internet of Things: Opportunities for Vocational Education and Training - Presentation of the Pilot Project

Authors:

Juha Vihervaara and Teemu Alapaholuoma

Abstract: In the Internet of Things (IoT), machines and devices are equipped with sensors and Internet connections that makes it possible to collect data and store this data to cloud services. In vocational education and training, the stored data can be used to improve decision-making processes. With the help of this data, a teacher can also get a more accurate picture of the current state of the education environment than before. IoT should be integrated into vocational education and training because IoT will help to achieve important educational objectives. IoT is able to promote students' preparation for working life, the safety of education environment, self-directed learning, and effective learning. It can also improve the efficient use of educational resources. In additional, IoT based solutions should be introduced so that students would have a vision of new types of IoT skill requirements before they enter the labour market. In this paper, we presents IoT related aspects that enable to meet the above-mentioned educational objectives. By implementing a pilot project, we aim to concretise IoT’s possibilities in the education sector.

Paper Nr: 133
Title:

Development of Gesture Recognition Sub-system for BELONG - Increasing the Sense of Immersion for Dinosaurian Environment Learning Support System

Authors:

Mikihiro Tokuoka, Haruya Tamaki, Tsugunosuke Sakai, Hiroshi Mizoguchi, Ryohei Egusa, Shigenori Inagaki, Mirei Kawabata, Fusako Kusunoki and Masanori Sugimoto

Abstract: We are developing an immersive learning support system for paleontological environments in museums. The system measures the body movement of the learner using a Kinect sensor, and provides a sense of immersion in the paleontological environment. Conventional systems are only able to recognize simple body movements, which is insufficient to completely immerse learners in the paleontological environment. On the other hand, when they need to perform complicated body movements, learners move their bodies eagerly while thinking. This emphasizes the importance of developing a sub-system capable of recognizing complicated body movements. In this paper, we describe a sub-system developed to recognize the body movement of the most important learner in the immersive learning support system.

Paper Nr: 140
Title:

New Didactic Models for MOOCs

Authors:

Léon Rothkrantz

Abstract: In recent years we observed an enormous rise of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). A problem of MOOCs is the high dropout rate. This caused by the lack of an appropriate didactic model, low interaction students teacher, poor feedback mechanism. In this paper we propose some improvements. Our proposed didactic model is a description of the learning interaction process in the course of the time. Emotions play an important role in this model. It proves that emotions have a great impact on the study behaviour of students. Some emotions as happiness, can stimulate students to go on with the study, other emotions as fear for exams, anger, disappointment about results of exams can block the study behaviour of students. Next we present some educational actions grounded on our model and proposed to decrease the dropout rates. One of the actions is based on verbal and nonverbal feedback of students about their emotional state. Our proposed actions are tested on a small scale using a MOOC implemented under Moodle.

Paper Nr: 145
Title:

Knowledge Tracking Variables in Intelligent Tutoring Systems

Authors:

Ani Grubišić, Slavomir Stankov, Branko Žitko, Ines Šarić, Suzana Tomaš, Emil Brajković, Tomislav Volarić, Daniel Vasić and Arta Dodaj

Abstract: In this research we propose a comprehensive set of knowledge indicators aimed to enhance learners’ self-reflection and awareness in the learning and testing process. Since examined intelligent tutoring systems do not include additional messaging features, the introduction of common set of knowledge indicators differentiates our approach from the previous studies. In order to investigate the relation between proposed knowledge indicators and learner performance, the correlation and regression analysis were performed for 3 different courses and each examined intelligent tutoring system. The results of correlation and regression analysis, as well as learners’ feedback, guided us in discussion about the introduction of knowledge indicators in dashboard-like visualizations of integrated intelligent tutoring system.

Paper Nr: 150
Title:

Graphicuss - Proposing a Graphical Discussion System

Authors:

Tenshi Hara, Kaijun Chen, Iris Braun and Felix Kapp

Abstract: In this position paper, we present an approach to a graphical discussion tool, namely Graphicuss. It combines known concepts of textual discussion systems (such as forums) and graphical feedback systems (such as virtual interactive whiteboards) into a single canvas-based application. Graphicuss aims at graphics-based or -enhanced discussions within a classroom setting. The goal is to allow all students to participate in such discussions, rather than only a selected few students at a physical blackboard/whiteboard presenting their work as a discussion base. The combination of text and graphics allows for better discussion of concepts through temporal correlation of text and graphics. Thus, Graphicuss applies known text-based discussion features (such as quoting) to the graphical level while adding temporal context. Rather than quoting/forwarding an invariable or only amendable image, Graphicuss enables quoting up until any point in time with changes/amendments thereafter. After presenting the conceptual ideas and a few comments on our prototype, we discuss a some preliminary findings with respect to interface design as well as storage requirements.

Paper Nr: 162
Title:

How Have Policy Makers Responded to the Current State of ICT in Schools in Saudi Arabia? A Qualitative Investigation

Authors:

Abdulwahab Alharbi

Abstract: Previous research into Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Saudi schools has not considered the role of the Ministry of Education or the Education Authority (EA). As a researcher, I decided to study their role in an attempt to understand the current state of ICT in Saudi schools from the perspectives of policy makers from both bodies. The aim of the study resulted in the generation of the following research question: What are the policy makers’ views about the current state of ICT in education in Saudi Arabia? As this research aims to discover and understand the current state of ICT in schools from the views and perspectives of policy makers, a qualitative methodology has been employed and interviews were used to collect the data. In total, five policy makers from both the Ministry of Education in KSA and the local education authority in Ar-Rass city participated. The findings show that the Ministry of Education and the education authority are significant factors in the failure of ICT in schools. The study concludes that, in order to handle issues that affect the successful use of ICT in education, departments of education need to develop their policies, strategies, plans and frameworks.

Area 3 - Learning/Teaching Methodologies and Assessment

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 38
Title:

Link Between Gaming Communities in YouTube and Computer Science

Authors:

Lassi Haaranen and Rodrigo Duran

Abstract: Playing games has become a permanent part of popular culture, and the number of players keeps increasing. Part of this phenomenon is the act of recording gameplay and sharing the videos creating online gaming communities. We describe different types of gaming videos that intersect with learning computer science (CS). In addition, we looked at the discussions those videos spurred and found a rich interaction with CS topics. Since games can act as an engaging environment for informal learning, we conclude that the gaming community has relevant connections to learning CS and we as the research community should pay more attention to this phenomenon.

Paper Nr: 42
Title:

Avoiding Failure in Modern Game Design with Academic Content - A Recipe, an Anti-Pattern and Applications Thereof

Authors:

Kay Berkling, Heiko Faller and Micha Piertzik

Abstract: Educational Games tend not to be designed by game engineers. They usually do not compare either in graphics or in addictiveness to small games that people have installed on their mobile devices. In order to understand why people play today, a survey was conducted to determine players’ explicit and implicit knowledge about motivators in addictive games. Based on the results of the questionnaire, we studied demographic preferences and commonalities in order to develop a recipe for the design that fits the general current market. An anti-pattern was a by-product of this process. Both are then applied towards an analysis of existing games and the design of a new one.

Paper Nr: 46
Title:

Student Groups as Tutors in Information Systems Education - Students’ Perspectives on Collaboration and Outcomes

Authors:

Antonis Natsis, Pantelis M. Papadopoulos and Nikolaus Obwegeser

Abstract: The study explores the potential of the research-teaching nexus in a peer-tutoring setting. During the Fall semester of 2016, students in an Information Systems course worked collaboratively on domain topics, assigned to them by the teacher and created educational material for their fellow students. Students’ tutoring role was concluding with a class presentation and a discussion session in each course lecture. The study focuses on students’ perspectives in the collaborating groups and the audience and analyzes how learning strategies in self-regulation, peer learning, and help seeking affect students’ experiences during group work. Analysis of student activity revealed four distinct patterns of collaboration. Findings suggest that students that rely more on group members for help were less satisfied by the communication among them. However, students were in general satisfied with their collaboration, being able to adapt the activity to their needs. Similarly, the teacher and the audience (students attending the student-tutoring sessions) evaluated positively students’ performance as teachers.

Paper Nr: 88
Title:

University Student Progressions and First Year Behaviour

Authors:

R. Campagni, D. Merlini and M. C. Verri

Abstract: Advanced mining techniques are used on educational data concerning university students. In particular, cluster analysis is used to predict the university careers of students starting from their first year performance and the results of the self assessment test. The analysis of the entire careers highlights three groups of students strongly affected by the results of the first year: high achieving students who start medium-high and increase their performance over the time, medium achieving students who maintain their performance throughout the entire course of study, low achieving students unable to improve their performance who often abandon their studies. This kind of knowledge can have practical implications on the involved laurea degree.

Paper Nr: 137
Title:

Reflections on Teaching Electrical and Computer Engineering Courses at the Bachelor Level

Authors:

Ottar L. Osen and Robin T. Bye

Abstract: This paper reflects on a number of observations the authors have made over many years of teaching courses in electrical and computer engineering bachelor programmes. We suggest various methods and tips for improving lectures, attendance, group work, and compulsory coursework, and discuss aspects of facilitating active learning, focussing on simple in-classroom activities and larger problem-based activities such as assignments, projects, and laboratory work. Moreover, we identify solving real-world problems by means of practical application of relevant theory as key to achieving intended learning outcomes. Our observations and reflections are then put into a theoretical context, including students’ approaches of learning, constructive alignment, active learning, and problem-based versus problem-solving learning. Finally, we present and discuss some recent results from a student evaluation survey and draw some conclusions.

Paper Nr: 148
Title:

An Online Assessment and Feedback Approach in Project Management Learning

Authors:

Ana González-Marcos, Fernando Alba-Elías and Joaquín Ordieres-Meré

Abstract: This work presents an online system to facilitate the assessment and feedback in project management education. Students are involved in real-world engineering projects in order to promote professional project management learning. Thus, students share an experience in executing and managing projects and are able to put into practice different skills and competences that a project member should possess in the development of a project. The proposed system considers competence assessment through different pieces of evidence that are pertinent to each assessed competence. Information from the three main actors in learning activities (teacher, peer, and learner) is collected by means of specifically developed online forms. All the gathered evidences are considered in a weighted integration to yield a numerical assessment score of each competence that is developed for each student. Furthermore, three different types of feedback are implemented and provided several times in order to promote and improve students’ learning. Data analysis from a specific academic course suggest that the presented system has a positive impact on students’ academic performance.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 29
Title:

Digital Learning Game Scenario - A Pedagogical Pattern Applied to Serious Game Design

Authors:

Richard Hotte, Susan M. Ferreira, Saâd Abdessettar and Charles Gouin-Vallerand

Abstract: The design of educational Serious Games (SG) remains a difficult operation which requires a tight weave between practices in instructional design and game design to be effective. Despite excellent works in the domain, the balance problem increases more significantly in the mobile learning system development such as Kids Smart Mobile School (KSMS) as a SG. KSMS is a school that aims to provide learning from K to 12 in Math and English as a Second Language to children without access to school in developing countries. This paper proposes a solution by designing a pedagogical pattern of a Learning Game Scenario, based on the educational Montessori approach mixed up with instructional engineering technique. This pattern is applicable to the various learning phases, making up the structure cognitive and pedagogical of KSMS. Moreover, this paper indicates how this pedagogical pattern makes easier the communication between members of an interdisciplinary team in different phases of design and development.

Paper Nr: 45
Title:

Habituating Students to IPR Questions During Creative Project Work

Authors:

Ville Isomöttönen and Tommi Kärkkäinen

Abstract: Intellectual property rights (IPR) constitute a topic that is unavoidably encountered in digitalizing learning environments but that has received little attention as a separate educational research topic. In a project course context where students ideate and implement open data-themed projects, and hence IPR questions are highly relevant, we have learned that students readily perceive this matter as a side topic and tackle it without much deliberation. To improve students’ awareness of IPR questions, we modified our course arrangements. This article analyzes and discusses students’ responses to IPR in this setting. We found that students consider IPR a challenge, and we argue that they must be “habituated” to think over this matter. The temporariness, incompleteness, and potential humor of educational projects constrain students’ interest in IPR, while the perceived relevance of a project topic increases their interest. Students altogether appreciate that IPR questions are raised and need to be agreed on within teams.

Paper Nr: 55
Title:

Leveraging Robot Programming to Foster Computational Thinking

Authors:

Ilenia Fronza, Nabil El Ioini and Luis Corral

Abstract: In 2013, ACM recognized Computational Thinking (CT) as “one of the fundamental skills desired of all graduates”. This means that, especially in liberal education environments, one of the challenges of CT courses is to motivate students who are discouraged upfront as they perceive programming as a difficult task. Applications that have tangible results typically stimulate students’ interests. For instance, Educational Robotics (ER) is recognized as a tool to enhance higher order thinking skills and to facilitate teamwork. In this paper, we describe a course that has been designed to use ER (i.e., programming a maze-solving robot) to foster CT. Each activity of the course has been designed to foster specific CT skills and to contribute to CT assessment, which remains a challenge in CT research. We report the results of an experiment, in a liberal education environment, with a total of 13 ninth graders (15.4% M, 84.6% F).

Paper Nr: 60
Title:

Fostering Computational Thinking in Secondary School through Music - An Educational Experience based on Google Blockly

Authors:

Adriano Baratè, Andrea Formica, Luca A. Ludovico and Dario Malchiodi

Abstract: We propose a methodology especially conceived to exploit the musical media in order to vehiculate some aspects in the realm of computational thinking to pupils of the lower secondary school (6th to 8th grades). The related activities are based on a visual programming language whose execution generates a melody shown using both its traditionally-notated musical score and its audio reproduction. This language provides the basic programming tools, such as simple and structured variables, iterations and so on. The learning activities are based on challenging small groups of students to solve programming exercises of increasing difficulty.

Paper Nr: 92
Title:

How Do Mathematics Teachers in Higher Education Look at E-assessment with Multiple-Choice Questions

Authors:

Jose Manuel Azevedo, Ema Patrícia Oliveira and Patrícia Damas Beites

Abstract: This paper presents a part of a global proposal aimed to create and put forward an e–assessment strategy using tests with multiple–choice questions (MCQ) implemented in Moodle. This strategy was planned in order to allow the use of continuous summative assessment in mathematics’ courses in a higher education institution, in classes with a large number of students. The main goal of this work was to analyse how this procedure can affect the teaching and learning processes. Changes in educational practices were ascertained using interviews with teachers. It was found an improvement in the way teachers create questions as well as in teamwork promotion. Furthermore, teachers reported that they pay more attention now on how they teach. Thus, the implementation of this e–assessment approach can be considered successful, namely because it allowed an adequate response to the main needs initially identified.

Paper Nr: 100
Title:

AquaGuardians - A Tutorial-based Education Game for Population Engagement in Water Management

Authors:

Marcelo Alves de Barros, Valéria Andrade, José Antão Beltrão Moura, José Irivaldo Alves Oliveira Silva, Hugo Morais de Alcântara, Fátima Vieira, Sandra Carla Pereira Barbosa, Arimarques Gonçalves, Gabriel Cintra Alves da Costa, Francisco Edeverton de Almeida Júnior, Rafaela Lacerda Araújo, Igor Matheus Castor Diniz Pinheiro, Diego Silva Patrício, Yggo Ramos de Farias Aires and Sophie Naviner

Abstract: Water management has mainly been dealt with by research institutions and governments with little engagement from schools, teachers and the population at large. This paper describes AQUAGUARDIANS (AG), an alternate reality, serious game for tutored education. The game offers a cultural environment to engage communities and, hopefully, crowds in water management by means of multimedia reading and writing experiences in virtual-real world scenarios. AG combines: a) gamified entertainment experiences; b) artistic production ‘coopetitions’ of individual or collective cultural representations of water by multimedia communications; and, c) effective actions to save, preserve and monitor community water resources. Applications of AG in two cities suffering from severe water crises in Northeastern Brazil provide preliminary evidence the game improves (learning and water management) success indicators defined by schools and water management agencies.

Paper Nr: 130
Title:

Development of Experiential Learning System based on the Connection between Object Models and Their Digital Contents - Collaboration between Tangible Interface and Computer Interaction

Authors:

Yosuke Ota, Mina Komiyama, Ryohei Egusa, Shigenori Inagaki, Fusako Kusunoki, Masanori Sugimoto and Hiroshi Mizoguchi

Abstract: Experiential learning is effective for educating children. However, there are many issues associated with this technique. In this study, we describe the development of a learning support system using which learners can experience touching and viewing in real and virtual environments. In the first stage of our study, we develop a larval mimesis experience system consisting of a Kinect sensor, larval models, and load sensors. The system is controlled using Arduino. Using the proposed system, learners can exercise full body interaction in the virtual environment; specifically, they can experience how larva models are observed in the real environment. The operation of this system was experimentally evaluated by learners from a primary school. The results indicate that the system is suitable for the use of children. In addition, the effectiveness of the learning support was evaluated by using a questionnaire. This paper summarizes the development of the proposed system and describes the evaluation results.

Paper Nr: 146
Title:

The Teaching-Learning-Lab - Digital Literacy and Computational Thinking for Everyone

Authors:

Heike Demarle-Meusel, Barbara Sabitzer and Julia Sylle

Abstract: As advancement of the already successful Informatics Lab in 2016 a Teaching-Learning-Lab (TLL) was implemented with the main aim of supporting all teacher education departments of our university to teach and practice digital literacy and computational thinking as “fundamental skill for everyone” (Wing, 2006) in different ways. Our support is based on three pillars: equipment, know-how and research. Scientists, (future) teachers and students can use the rooms (creative, experimental and observation lab), the technical equipment and instructional technology for planning, designing, holding and/or observing and analyzing teaching units. We offer workshops for digital literacy and computational thinking in and for different subjects. Our main research focuses on the connection of computational thinking to other disciplines and its impact on problem solving and text comprehension. Furthermore, the Teaching-Learning-Lab offers research possibilities for scientists and students in different areas concerning teaching and learning. We enhance cooperation between schools and university and give support in finding research questions for master or PhD-theses in didactics, conducting teaching experiments. The paper describes challenges and opportunities of the Teaching-Learning-Lab in fostering the digital literacy competences and computational thinking of the target groups.

Posters
Paper Nr: 13
Title:

Designing a Novel Educational Game for Teaching C# Programming

Authors:

Matthew Hinds, Nilufar Baghaei, Pedrito Ragon, Jonathon Lambert, Tharindu Rajakaruna, Travers Houghton, Simon Dacey and John Casey

Abstract: Learning to code can be a daunting experience for a lot of students. RunJumpCode is a novel 2D platformer video game, designed and developed in Unity, to teach players the fundamental concepts of C# programming. The game enhances the player’s programming knowledge by providing a fun range of challenges and puzzles to solve. We promoted the interaction of programming through a ‘Code Box’, allowing players to enter lines of predefined code that modifies in-game objects. This tool is essential in completing the challenges and puzzles we designed. To allow alterations of its properties, we made further manipulation of each object possible, which would give the player creative freedom to complete each level. Quizzes and journals were utilized to assess and collate their learnt material for future reference. In addition, we created a mobile application to track each player’s statistics throughout the game and compare their progress with other users. The results of a pilot study showed that users enjoyed playing the game and found it valuable for enhancing their programming knowledge.

Paper Nr: 53
Title:

Creativity in the Digital Forensics Curriculum

Authors:

Tom Drange, Alastair Irons and Kari Drange

Abstract: Creativity is defined in the Oxford Dictionary as "The use of imagination or original ideas to create something". This definition is easy for students studying topics commonly recognised as creative, such as animation, drawing, photography and design, to put in context and understand. However, when studying topics commonly recognised as technical, such as computer science and digital forensics, it's not as easy for students to relate to this definition. One of the affiliated universities offers bachelor programs in several disciplines and through the first course, the university is trying to establish a common ground of studying for all students regardless of the program they are attending. One of the modules in this first course is called “What is Creativity?” but the digital forensic students do not seem to relate creativity to the topics contained in their own study program, and it has been challenging to get these students to see the relationship between creativity and the work situation they might find themselves in after they graduate. This paper will discuss the challenges of teaching creativity to students in perceived technical programs – and try to highlight the challenges experienced from both students and staffs point of views.

Paper Nr: 89
Title:

Towards Computer-based Exams in CS1

Authors:

Vesa Lappalainen, Antti-Jussi Lakanen and Harri Högmander

Abstract: Even though IDEs are often a central tool when learning to program in CS1, many teachers still lean on paper-based exams. In this study, we examine the “test mode effect” in CS1 exams using the Rainfall problem. The test mode was two-phased. Half of the participants started working on the problem with pen and paper, while the other half had access to an IDE. After submitting their solution, all students could rework their solution on an IDE. The experiment was repeated twice during subsequent course instances. The results were mixed. From the marking perspective, there was no statistically significant difference resulting from the mode. However, the students starting with the paper-based part tended to make more errors in their code, but after the computer-based reworking phase, they matched or exceeded the level of the students who started with the computer-based phase. We also discuss the reliability of automatic assessment that is based on a unit test suite that was developed for the purposes of this study.

Paper Nr: 132
Title:

Real Time Color Codes in a Classroom - Position Paper

Authors:

Laura Dzelzkaleja

Abstract: This paper is a next step after establishing a new system for real time classroom and virtual learning process evaluation. In a previous paper a theoretical system from three colour codes was established: red for "have a problem", yellow for "work in progress" and green for "job done". The hypothesis is that Colour code usage improves learning process evaluation, teacher’s reaction ability and learning pace. An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis and the Colour code method in a real learning environment. In this paper first experimental results in a real classroom are analysed and discussed. Experiments took part in the first grade (7-8 years old children) and in the fourth grade (10-11 years old children) in Latvia. The results suggest that there are less and lower implementation barriers for the children in these age groups as thought before, and children are eager to use the new tools and mostly aren’t bothered by the extra effort needed to remember to use the system tools. The biggest challenge seems to be in the teachers’ side - in adjusting the flow of the learning process and start using the system in advanced mode for data gathering. Another conclusion from this is that the colour code system is easier adopted in vocational education and for teachers and trainers that work with changing learner groups. Teachers and learners would benefit also because the colour code system serves as a good tool for changing teachers’ tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge which can benefit in knowledge sharing and operationalization. Another interesting conclusion was that the colours in the colour tool need to be complemented with graphical or other colour independent pattern to use with people with colour blindness. Overall it is now clear that the system works and the next step can be taken to test the method in the computer based learning environment.

Paper Nr: 159
Title:

An Integrated Platform for Blended Learning in Engineering Education

Authors:

Irina Makarova, Ksenia Shubenkova, Danila Tikhonov and Anton Pashkevich

Abstract: Educational system under development of technique and emergence of new technologies faces a problem of specialists’ competence, who should design, produce, maintain new technique and use advanced technologies. The analysis of applied forms of education shows that blended learning has advantages over traditional learning and e-learning. For its successful implementation the unified informational educational platform that allows developing educational content, managing the learning process and giving the opportunity of virtual communication is required. The introduction of such advanced educational technologies like a virtual and augmented reality, simulation and gamification will enhance quality of specialists’ training. The use of real-world experience of leading enterprises of an automobile industry, as well as the student's evaluation system based on the objective parameters are the main advantages of a proposed concept. At this stage, the development of the module of monitoring the learning process is proceeding.

Area 4 - Social Context and Learning Environments

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 39
Title:

University Teachers’ Conceptions of Their Role as Developers of Technology-Rich Learning Environments

Authors:

Kirsi Heinonen, Päivikki Jääskelä and Hannakaisa Isomaki

Abstract: This phenomenographic study examines how a diverse group of university teachers conceptualised their role as developers of technology-rich learning environments at one university in Finland. The research findings illustrate a variety of conceptions. Five qualitatively different ways of understanding teachers’ roles regarding the development of technology-rich learning environments were found: 1) innovator, 2) early adopter, 3) adaptive, 4) sceptic and 5) late adopter. In order to connect the whole set of interconnected roles to a theory of change, Everett Rogers’ innovation diffusion theory was exploited in the last phase of analysis. Finally, hierarchically structured categories were created along with five evolutionary themes of expanding intensity. These findings can be used as an assessment tool among teachers to identify their role in educational reform.

Paper Nr: 51
Title:

Characterizing Social Interactions in Online Social Networks: The Case of University Students

Authors:

M. E. Sousa-Vieira, J. C. López-Ardao and M. Fernández-Veiga

Abstract: The widespread use of computing and communications technologies has enabled the popularity of social networks oriented to learn. In a previous work, we studied the nature and strength of associations between undergraduate students of an introductory course on computer networks, using an online social network embedded in a learning management system. With datasets from two offerings of the same course, we mined the sequences of questions and answers posted by the students to identify structural properties of the social graph, patterns of collaboration among students and factors influencing the final achievements, concluding that the structural properties most correlated to the final academic results are robust measures of centrality (degree and eigenvector), which are already detectable since the first weeks of the course. In this work, we apply SNA to graduate engineering students enrolled in a master level course in computer networks. The results obtained show that quality participation in the social activities appears to be correlated with the final outcome of the course, and that good students tend to show denser egonetworks. Our analysis contributes to the understanding of the role of social learning among highly educated students.

Paper Nr: 78
Title:

Digging into Game Design for Older Adults - Collaborative User-Centered Game Design with Postsecondary Students

Authors:

Simone Hausknecht, Fan Zhang, Julija Jeremic, Hollis Owens and David Kaufman

Abstract: A collaborative team of game design students, instructors, researchers, and older adults worked together to create educational digital games for older adults. A user-centered design approach was utilized in which the needs, desires, and limitations of the end users were taken into consideration at all stages. Collaboration occurred among researchers, instructors, student-designers, and older adults to create several enjoyable interactive learning games. The current paper examines one of the game development team’s process through the nine-month course. The data included team observations, feedback from older adults, and a focus group with the team members at the end of the project. The results suggest that the process of requiring young students in their 20s to design for older adults challenged them to think creatively and expand their understandings.

Paper Nr: 91
Title:

Multimedia Platform Development for Parental Involvement in Learning of Children Attending Kindergarten - Iterative Cicles of Development

Authors:

Dionisia Laranjeiro, Maria João Antunes and Paula Santos

Abstract: Several studies have shown the importance of parental involvement in learning and development of kindergarten children, but also mention existing barriers, such as lack of time. The proliferation of access to the Internet and use of web tools can facilitate communication between parents and educators, reduce barriers and promote parental involvement and participation in children’s learning. The study carried out is a design-based research, which aims to develop a multimedia platform that promotes communication and information sharing among educators, parents and children, facilitating parental involvement in learning. The design-based research methodology understands the development of products in iterative cycles of analysis, technological development, testing and evaluation with users, evolving towards an increasingly robust intervention. This paper presents the results of preliminary studies, the first cycle of development of the platform, composed of functional specifications, paper prototype and usability tests, ending with an introduction to the second cycle of development. This is the current development phase, consisting of a functional prototype, which is in use for evaluation by users in four kindergartens.

Paper Nr: 128
Title:

How to Promote Informal Learning in the Workplace? - The Need for Incremental Design Methods

Authors:

Carine Touré, Christine Michel and Jean-Charles Marty

Abstract: Informal Learning in the Workplace (ILW) is ensured by the everyday work activities in which workers are engaged. It accounts for over 75 per cent of learning in the workplace. Enterprise Social Media (ESM) are increasingly used as informal learning environments. According to the results of an implementation we have conducted in real context, we show that ESM are appropriate to promote ILW. Indeed, social features are adapted to stimulate use behaviors and support learning, particularly meta-cognitive aspects. Three adaptations must nevertheless be carried out: (1) Base the design on a precise and relatively exhaustive informational corpus and contextualize the access in the form of community of practice structured according to collaborative spaces; (2) Add indicators of judgment on the operational quality of information and the informational capital built, and (3) Define forms of moderation and control consistent with the hierarchical structures of the company. Our analysis also showed that an incremental and iterative approach of user-centered design had to be implemented to define how to adapt the design and to accompany change.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 17
Title:

Community Building among Older Adults in a Digital Game Environment

Authors:

Robyn Schell and David Kaufman

Abstract: This research study describes the social connections made by a group of older adults participating in a city wide Wii bowling tournament. Our results showed that participant’s experienced an increased level of social connectedness with not only those who played with them weekly but others where they lived, their friends and family members outside of the places where they lived. Overall, the participants found that playing Wii bowling in a tournament setting contributed to the expansion of their existing network and deepened relationships in the players’ community by extending the level of social connectedness both within the game environment and beyond the boundaries of the game space.

Paper Nr: 94
Title:

A Framework for Small Group Support in Online Collaborative Learning - Combining Collaboration Scripts and Online Tutoring

Authors:

Aleksandra Lazareva

Abstract: Many learners experience difficulties engaging in collaborative learning activities online. Computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) scripts have been implemented to support online learners. Collaboration scripts have shown much potential in facilitating students’ general collaboration skills. However, reported effects of collaboration scripts on domain-specific knowledge acquisition have been less positive. In this paper, I suggest an alternative framework for supporting CSCL learners by combining collaboration scripting and online tutoring. While collaboration scripts can facilitate the acquisition of general collaboration skills, the online tutor is capable of monitoring and assessing small groups’ progress and providing them with suitable content-specific prompts. The role of the online tutor is also important in terms of establishing social presence in the online learning environment. In order to develop the conceptual framework, I present experiences from an online collaborative learning course. I support the discussion by student insights collected through surveys and a focus group interview.

Paper Nr: 167
Title:

Inspired Learning - The Next Generation Digital Learning Environment (NGDLE)

Authors:

Ebba Ossiannilsson, Nick E. Eriksen and Nina Rung-Hoch

Abstract: With todays increased use of digitization in education and society there are needs for innovative educational strategies for enhancing learning and teaching. In addition, there are rising demands on embracing new digital learning and educational environments and integration of the social context, such as social interactions outside the formal institutional settings and social media to enhance new digital educational practices. This paper introduce the concept of next generation digital learning environment (NGDLE), and explore one inititave named Eurekos, from Mentorix, Denmark, but now from EUREKOS, which has been tested and in practical use for many learners and courses, especilly in the Netherlands, and Denmark. The architects behind EUREKOS follow the successful characteristic of a Personal learning environment (PLE), i.e. learn with other people, control of own learning resources, integrate learning from different institutions and sources, and manage activities. Eurekos provides course building facilities, learning teams, and a social hub integrated with social media. Eurekos can be likened to a LEGO baseplate. It integrates interoperability, personalization, learning analytics, collaboration, and a universal design with social media and the necessary software,

Posters
Paper Nr: 20
Title:

The Transformation Challenge of IT Education and Training in Higher Education and Industry

Authors:

Anne-Maarit Majanoja, Ville Taajamaa, Ville Leppänen and Erkki Sutinen

Abstract: Globally, several self-organized training arrangements are implemented in industry with varying outcomes. The target of these training initiatives is to achieve transformation. The practices and teaching methods during higher or academic education (HE) can impact on the industry training situations. However, few studies have dealt with the possible impact of academic technical and IT education and training practices on industry based training arrangements. We analysed two independent sets of interviews, one on industry-based global selective outsourcing environment (GSOE) training arrangements and another on IT education at a Finnish university. We found that the GSOE training arrangements heavily relied on the lecturing-based methods instead of hands-on practicing. Similarly, the IT education at the university also relied on theory-based lecturing. There is also a need to transform passive interaction to active where students and actors are responsible for their own learning and building their own skills and capabilities to succeed in working life.

Paper Nr: 85
Title:

Experiments in Education Supported by Computer Use: Teachers’ Attitudes towards Computers

Authors:

Jiří Dostál, Xiaojun Wang and Prasart Nuangchalerm

Abstract: The article focuses on solving problems based on innovation and technology, which are currently manifested in education. There is a range of experimental educational systems based on information technologies, mainly in the sciences. This is why the research team aimed to address the following questions: Why do teachers employ PCs to support experiments in teaching? To what extent do they use PCs? What are teachers’ motives for non-use of PCs? What are the differences between teachers of science, information science, mathematics and social science? What about primary school teachers? Do they employ PCs for experimentation to a lesser or greater extent? The answers to these questions were discovered through research conducted in 2016. The questionnaire was chosen by an explorative method involving 260 staff from 35 Czech schools as the sample. Based on the research findings, it was proven that in order to experiment in teaching, teachers employ PCs to a lesser extent. However, it is not possible to state this tendency as an unambiguous weakness. In the case of science, it is surprising that some teachers do not employ PCs despite the technological potential of computers today. The main reason for using computers for experimenting in teaching at both basic and secondary schools is higher pupil motivation.

Area 5 - Domain Applications and Case Studies

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 14
Title:

Effects of Personalized Learning on Kindergarten and First Grade Students’ Early Literacy Skills

Authors:

Haya Shamir, Kathryn Feehan and Erik Yoder

Abstract: The Waterford Early Reading Program is a computer-assisted instruction program that ensures individualized learning for kindergarten through second grade students. The Waterford curriculum was assigned to kindergarten, first grade, and second grade students in a school district in South Carolina for the 2015-2016 school year. The Developmental Reading Assessment was administered to students at the end of the fall, winter, and spring terms to assess reading skills. Analysis revealed statistically significant end of year scores made by kindergarten students and statistically significant gains made by first grade students with high usage of the Waterford Early Reading Program, indicating that Waterford curriculum improves early literacy skills.

Paper Nr: 35
Title:

A Case Study on the Importance of Peer Support for e-Learners

Authors:

Elizabeth Sinclair

Abstract: The purpose of this research is to examine the importance of peer support among a group of post-graduate students in an online programme. Surveys were administered and interviews conducted with Dominicans from a particular cohort; keeping cultural background and occupation as constants. Results showed that students place great emphasis on the importance of peer support; where more than half of the respondents explicitly stated that their peers are helpful to them regarding educational needs, such as finishing their degree and passing their courses. This case study emphasizes the importance of peer support and encourages administration to implement other methods of facilitating peer support between and among cohorts.

Paper Nr: 37
Title:

Does CAI Improve Early Math Skills?

Authors:

Haya Shamir, Kathryn Feehan and Erik Yoder

Abstract: The Waterford Early Math and Science Program is a computer-assisted instruction program that ensures individualized learning for kindergarten through first grade students. The Waterford curriculum was assigned to students in a school district in Indiana for the 2015-2016 school year. The Mobile Classroom: Math assessment was administered to students at the beginning, middle, and end of the school year to assess math skills across multiple strands. Analysis revealed statistically significant higher end of year scores on most assessment strands made by kindergarten and first grade students that used the Waterford Early Math and Science Program, indicating that Waterford curriculum improves early math skills.

Paper Nr: 58
Title:

Using Ozires, a Humanoid Robot, to Continuing Education of Healthcare Workers: A Pilot Study

Authors:

Bráulio Roberto Gonçalves Marinho Couto, André Luiz Silva Alvim, Isabela Lorena Alfenas da Silva, Mário Marcos Brito Horta, Joaquim José da Cunha Júnior and Carlos Ernesto Ferreira Starling

Abstract: Continuing education of health professionals in relation to hand hygiene practices or other issues is a challenge for health services. How to take a healthcare worker from his work sector, for example, Intensive Care Units (ICUs) or Operating Room, to give him classes and lectures? Here we investigated whether or not it is possible to adapt a toy robot as a tool to continuous education of healthcare workers in the context of hand hygiene compliance, a big problem for hospital infection. We got to adapt the MeccaNoid G15KS, a toy programmable robot named Ozires, as an instrument of health training to improve the compliance with hand hygiene. The robot was adapted with mini projector, spy camera, an automatic alcohol hand sanitizer dispenser, a cell phone and a cell phone support and an audio amplifier. Ozires, accompanied by infection control practitioners, performs short video-lecture presentations and own reports of the institution's data regarding infections and the hand hygiene rate, working from 10 to 15 minutes in each target sector. After the insertion of Ozires in three ICUs, the hand hygiene rate increased from about 36%, between January and July, to 65% in August-November/2016.

Paper Nr: 108
Title:

How to Create and Sustain Meaningful Discussions in Online Courses?

Authors:

Ana-Paula Correia and Natalya Koehler

Abstract: While taking online courses students are required to participate in online discussions. These are often mandatory activities that count towards the course final grade. Even though, in many occasions, online students find this requirement dreadful and unproductive. A case study has been conducted with a postgraduate educational technology online course at a large university in the United States. This course offers two innovative strategies to overcome this issue and concomitant evidence of effectiveness.

Paper Nr: 118
Title:

Preliminary Evaluation of a System for Helping Children Observe the Anatomies and Behaviors of Animals in a Zoo

Authors:

Yui Tanaka, Ryohei Egusa, Yuuki Dobashi, Fusako Kusunoki, Etsuji Yamaguchi, Shigenori Inagaki and Tomoyuki Nogami

Abstract: In order to support children’s scientific observation in zoos, we developed a system for helping children to observe the anatomies and behaviors of animals. This system provides viewpoints for observation via animations. Observing the anatomies and behaviors of animals is related to scientific observation. As a case study, we developed a system for learning about penguins and held a workshop at Kobe Municipal Oji Zoo. At the workshop, 19 elementary students used the system and observed how penguins swim and walk along with the skeletons of their legs and flippers. We examined the evaluations of children’s enjoyment of this system. They responded to five items on their feelings about using this system on five-point scales. The number of affirmative responses was found to be more in number than neutral or negative responses. Children were able to enjoy using this system for observing the anatomies and behaviors of animals in a zoo.

Area 6 - Ubiquitous Learning

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 24
Title:

D-Move: Ten Years Experience with a Learning Environment for Digital Natives

Authors:

Otto Petrovic

Abstract: D-Move is a learning environment for Digital Natives, composed of different software modules and learning methods, mainly based on constructivist-connectivist learning theories. Digital Natives have the Internet as their mother tongue and probably require different learning approaches. D-Move started more than ten years ago with the aim to reach learning objectives in settings that are part of Digital Natives’ everyday life. The article shows the results of three different phases: Text messaging, multi-channel support and finally, expansion by a Delphi-based research environment.

Paper Nr: 165
Title:

Development of an Automatic Location-determining Function for Balloon-type Dialogue in a Puppet Show System for the Hearing Impaired

Authors:

Ryohei Egusa, Shuya Kawaguchi, Tsugunosuke Sakai, Fusako Kusunoki, Hiroshi Mizoguchi, Miki Namatame and Shigenori Inagaki

Abstract: People with hearing impairments have a tendency to experience difficulties in obtaining audio information. They have difficult to watch puppet shows. In this study, we have undertaken the development of a dialogue presentation function in a puppet show system for the hearing impaired. The dialogue presentation function that was developed is an automatic location-determination system for balloon-type dialogue. The balloon-type dialogue turns the lines of dialogue into text and displays it as balloons in the background animation of the puppet show. This function automatically places the balloon-type dialogue in the vicinity of the locations of the puppets. In the evaluation test, 24 college students with a hearing impairment were used as participants, and a comparison was made between a system that implemented the automatic location-determination function for balloon-type dialogue and a system that did not implement said function. These results indicate the effectiveness of the location tracking function for balloon-type dialogue as a means for ensuring access to audio information in puppet shows.

Posters
Paper Nr: 27
Title:

Motivational Factors that Influence the use of MOOCs: Learners’ Perspectives - A Systematic Literature Review

Authors:

Nada Hakami, Su White and Sepi Chakaveh

Abstract: Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have become an important environment for technology-enhanced learning (TEL) where massive numbers of users from around the world access free, online-based, open content generated by the world-class institutions. Understanding learner’s motivations for using MOOCs is essential for providing successful MOOC environments. This paper presents a comprehensive picture of the literature published between 2011-2016 and pertaining to the motivations that drive individuals to use MOOCs as learners. We examined the classifications of papers, theories used, data collection methods, motivational factors proposed and geographic distribution of participants. Findings demonstrate that the related literature is limited. Several papers adopted technology acceptance theories. Quantitative survey was the favoured method for researchers. Key motivational factors were learner-related (which are divided into personal, social and educational / professional development), institution and instructor-related, platform and course-related and perception of external control/facilitating conditions-related. The identified studies focused only on few geographic regions. Such findings are important for uncovering the directions in the literature and determining the current gaps that can be addressed in the future.

Paper Nr: 61
Title:

The Research on the Application of Plant Identification and Mobile Learning APP based on Expert System

Authors:

Cixiao Wang

Abstract: As the development of mobile internet and the improvement of software and hardware facilities, expert system expands its field in mobile applications. The identification and learning of plants is an important part of biology in middle school. Outdoor experiential teaching is an effective way to improve the students' learning effect. Based on the production rules expert systems, this study developed plant identification and learning mobile app based on Android platform. This study applied the app into the outdoor mobile learning and used the education experiment and classroom observation method to do research by the use of software, attitude of using software, learning satisfaction learning and attitude towards science four dimensions. And the analysis of the difference between the population statistics and the application of mobile learning experience, verify that the system has a positive effect on the students' learning attitude and the degree of satisfaction with the outdoor experiential teaching.