CSEDU 2019 Abstracts


Area 1 - Artificial Intelligence in Education

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 32
Title:

Efficient Computing of the Bellman Equation in a POMDP-based Intelligent Tutoring System

Authors:

Fangju Wang

Abstract: The Bellman equation is a core component in the POMDP model, which is an effective tool for handling uncertainty in computer supported teaching. The equation is also a cost bottleneck in implementing a POMDP. The cost to compute it is typically exponential. To build a POMDP-based intelligent tutoring system (ITS) for practical tutoring, we must develop efficient techniques for computing the equation. In this paper, we first analyze the cost in computing the equation, identifying the major factors that contribute to the complexity. We then report our techniques for efficient computing of the Bellman equation. The techniques were developed on the basis of close examination of features of tutoring processes. They are especially suitable for building POMDP-based tutoring systems.

Paper Nr: 192
Title:

Ontology-based Analysis of Game Designs for Software Refactoring

Authors:

Thorsten Haendler and Gustaf Neumann

Abstract: Acquiring practical competences in computer programming and software engineering is challenging. Software refactoring, in particular, is considered an important and useful quality-assurance technique, but due to the perceived difficulties and risks of performing it, often neglected in practice. Still, it received little attention by software engineering education and training so far. Games are a popular means for fostering motivation as well as mediating and improving practical competences by providing an enjoyable and playful environment. However, for instructors it is challenging to develop and apply game designs that address certain learning objectives, which is important for integrating the game into existing or planned learning and training paths, e.g., in the framework of university courses or training units for (experienced) software developers. In this paper, we propose an ontology that aims to support the analysis and design of games in the field of software refactoring. We apply a structured process for creating a unifying domain ontology bridging core concepts from three related fields, i.e. game design (a), software refactoring (b), and competence management (c). The resulting ontology is then represented as a meta-model in terms of a UML class diagram and reflects concepts important for refactoring-game designs. We describe ontology-based options for game design and illustrate the use of the ontology by analyzing existing refactoring-gaming approaches. In addition, we reflect applying the ontology for reasoning about novel game designs and discuss further potential of the approach.

Paper Nr: 196
Title:

Generating Education in-Game Data: The Case of an Ancient Theatre Serious Game

Authors:

Nikolas Vidakis, Anastasios K. Barianos, Apostolos M. Trampas, Stamatios Papadakis, Michail Kalogiannakis and Kostas Vassilakis

Abstract: Learning Analytics have become an indispensable element of education, as digital mediums are increasingly used within formal and informal education. Integrating specifications for learning analytics in non-traditional educational mediums, such as serious games, has not yet reached the level of development necessary to fulfil their potential. Though much research has been conducted on the issue of managing and extracting value from learning analytics, the importance of specifications, methods and decisions for the initial creation of such data has been somewhat overlooked. To this end, we have developed a custom library that implements the Experience API specification within the Unity 3D game engine. In this paper, we present this library, as well as a representative scenario illustrating the procedure of generating and recording data. Through this work we aim to expand the reach of learning analytics into serious games, facilitate the generation of such data in commercially popular development tools and identify significant events, with educational value, to be recorded.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 10
Title:

Towards the Ranking of Web-pages for Educational Purposes

Authors:

Vladimir Estivill-Castro and Alessandro Marani

Abstract: The World-Wide-Web is a well-established source of resources for different applications and purposes including the support to learning and teaching tasks. The notion of Learning Object (LO) was specifically designed for sharing digital learning materials over web-applications enabling repositories of LOs. But, the extension of such repositories is rather small compared to the Web, and some of these repositories are domain-dependent. LOs typically provide some educational metadata describing the content. However, the WEB hosts hundreds of thousands of web-pages with educational content but with no educational metadata. Generic search engines provide the best current support to sieve such educational web-pages. But such present systems are not educational focused, so they may not pick instructional features that the users want or need for their educational task. We study a web-based retrieval method for using the Web as a repository of educational resources. Our proposal is a new structured scoring method named Educational Ranking Principle (ERP). ERP analyses the suitability of a web-page for teaching a concept in a specific educational context. Our approach shows a superior accuracy performance than Google, TFIDF and BM25F. The results of our experiment using MAP and P@1 undoubtedly confirm the improvement of ERP when compared to all the baselines (with a p-value less than 0.05). Moreover, ERP is the only method where our results have statistical support for higher accuracy than Google for all the four accuracy measures we use in this study.

Paper Nr: 56
Title:

Performance Evaluation of Universities and Colleges based on Method of Principal Component Analysis and Data Envelopment Analysis

Authors:

Yan Xia, Xinlin Wu and Hui Feng

Abstract: The implementation of performance evaluation on higher education is beneficial to optimize resource allocation and to promote sustainable development of higher education. It is challenging how to establish a scientific model of performance evaluation on universities and colleges objectively. This paper proposes a method of performance evaluation based on Data Envelopment Analysis with dimension reduction of performance evaluation indicators based on Principal Component Analysis. An automatic system is developed, implementing the method and analysing data from universities and colleges in Shanghai. It provides advice and guidance for performance evaluation, and establishes foundation for higher education development strategy.

Paper Nr: 75
Title:

Automated Feedback Generation for Argument-Based Intelligent Tutoring Systems

Authors:

Matej Guid, Matevž Pavlič and Martin Možina

Abstract: Argument-based machine learning provides the ability to develop interactive learning environments that are able to automatically select relevant examples and counter-examples to be explained by the students. However, in order to build successful argument-based intelligent tutoring systems, it is essential to provide useful feedback on students’ arguments and explanations. To this end, we propose three types of feedback for this purpose: (1) a set of relevant counter-examples, (2) a numerical evaluation of the quality of the argument, and (3) the generation of hints on how to refine the arguments. We have tested our approach in an application that allows students to learn by arguing with the aim of improving their understanding of financial statements.

Paper Nr: 95
Title:

Learning from an Adaptive Learning System: Student Profiling among Middle School Students

Authors:

Shuai Wang, Mingyu Feng, Marie Bienkowski, Claire Christensen and Wei Cui

Abstract: Individuals who use adaptive technology products will have different learning experiences due to differences in background knowledge. The Yixue intelligent learning system is a computer-based learning environment that adapts content and guidance to individualize learning. Using K-means clustering on data collected from 206 middle school students (72440 records) who interacted with the mathematics learning system, we created three clusters of students based on prior achievement: high, medium, and low. These three clusters were not significantly associated with students’ gain scores, which implies that the learning system was able to help students from different achievement levels learn equally well. We discuss implications for supporting mathematics learning using adaptive systems for Chinese students.

Paper Nr: 128
Title:

Optimized Social Explanation for Educational Platforms

Authors:

Italo Zoppis, Riccardo Dondi, Sara Manzoni, Giancarlo Mauri, Luca Marconi and Francesco Epifania

Abstract: Recommender Systems have became extremely appealing for all technology enhanced learning researches aimed to design, develop and test technical innovations which support and enhance learning and teaching practices of both individuals and organizations. In this scenario a new emerging paradigm of explainable Recommander Systems leverages social friend information to provide (social) explanations in order to supply users with his/her friends’ public interests as explained recommendation. In this paper we introduce our educational platform called “WhoTeach”, an innovative and original system to integrate knowledge discovery, social networks analysis, and educational services. In particular, we report here our work in progress for providing “WhoTeach” environment with optimized Social Explainable Recommandations oriented to design new teachers’ programmes and courses.

Paper Nr: 159
Title:

Gamify the Audiation: The CrazySquare Project

Authors:

Federica Caruso, Tania Di Mascio and Marco Pennese

Abstract: In a world in which a large amount of ICT game-based systems deal with the musical abilities without really supporting a high level of musical education, CrazySquare, initially implemented as educational instrument supporting the study of rhythm and its representation, currently represents a valid high level of musical education system for teachers who want to involve their students in learning guitar in a professional way, i.e., to be able to play what they hear in their brains (the audiation). CrazySquare has been inspired by the Gordon’s theory, which consists of using a more direct approach to sound instead of the musical notation alone (e.g., solfeggio). It is specifically indicated for young teenagers (10 - 13 years old) that approach music and a musical instrument at the same time and for the first time. It has been formalized after ten years of positive results, obtained using the paper-based CrazySquare procedure adopted in Italian middle schools that introduced gamified elements for the audiation. The reported expert-based evaluation, indeed, encourage us to go ahead in the taken direction.

Paper Nr: 174
Title:

Building Pedagogical Conversational Agents, Affectively Correct

Authors:

Michalis Feidakis, Panagiotis Kasnesis, Eva Giatraki, Christos Giannousis, Charalampos Patrikakis and Panagiotis Monachelis

Abstract: Despite the visionary tenders that emerging technologies bring to education, modern learning environments such as MOOCs or Webinars still suffer from adequate affective awareness and effective feedback mechanisms, often leading to low engagement or abandonment. Artificial Conversational Agents hold the premises to ease the modern learner’s isolation, due to the recent achievements of Machine Learning. Yet, a pedagogical approach that reflects both cognitive and affective skills still remains undelivered. The current paper moves towards this direction, suggesting a framework to build pedagogical driven conversational agents based on Reinforcement Learning combined with Sentiment Analysis, also inspired by the pedagogical learning theory of Core Cognitive Skills.

Paper Nr: 65
Title:

Convolutional Neural Network Applied to Code Assignment Grading

Authors:

Fábio D. Rezende Souza, Francisco A. Zampirolli and Guiou Kobayashi

Abstract: Thousands of students have their assignments evaluated by their teachers every day around the world while developing their studies in any branch of science. A fair evaluation of their schoolwork is a very challenging task. Here we present a method for validating the grades attributed by professors to students programming exercises in an undergraduate introductory course in computer programming. We collected 938 final exam exercises in Java Language developed during this course, evaluated by different professors, and trained a convolutional neural network over those assignments. First, we submit their codes to a cleaning process (by removing comments and anonymizing variables). Next, we generated an embedding representation of each source code produced by students. Finally, this representation is taken as the input of the neural network which classifies each label (corresponding to the possible grades A, B, C, D or F). An independent neural network is trained with source code solutions corresponding to each assignment. We obtained an average accuracy of 74.9% in a 10−fold cross validation for each grade. We believe that this method can be used to validate the grading process made by professors in order to detect errors that might happen during this process.

Area 2 - Information Technologies Supporting Learning

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 6
Title:

Smart Like a Fox: How Clever Students Trick Dumb Automated Programming Assignment Assessment Systems

Authors:

Nane Kratzke

Abstract: This case study reports on two first-semester programming courses with more than 190 students. Both courses made use of automated assessments. We observed how students trick these systems by analysing the version history of suspect submissions. By analysing more than 3300 submissions, we revealed four astonishingly simple tricks (overfitting, evasion) and cheat-patterns (redirection, and injection) that students used to trick automated programming assignment assessment systems (APAAS). Although not the main focus of this study, it discusses and proposes corresponding counter-measures where appropriate. Nevertheless, the primary intent of this paper is to raise problem awareness and to identify and systematise observable problem patterns in a more formal approach. The identified immaturity of existing APAAS solutions might have implications for courses that rely deeply on automation like MOOCs. Therefore, we conclude to look at APAAS solutions much more from a security point of view (code injection). Moreover, we identify the need to evolve existing unit testing frameworks into more evaluation-oriented teaching solutions that provide better trick and cheat detection capabilities and differentiated grading support.

Paper Nr: 12
Title:

Investigating the Affordances and Constraints of SimReal for Mathematical Learning: A Case Study in Teacher Education

Authors:

Said Hadjerrouit

Abstract: Visualizations tools are one of the most innovative technologies that emerged the last few years in educational settings. They provide new potentialities for mathematical learning by means of dynamic animations and representations, interactive simulations, and live streaming of lessons. Moreover, visualization tools have the potential to foster a visual, dynamic, distributed, and embodied mathematics rather than individual achievements and static representations. This paper uses the visualization tool SimReal in teacher education to explore the affordances of the tool for learning mathematics. It proposes a framework that captures the affordances of SimReal at a technological, pedagogical, and socio-cultural level. The aim of the article is to investigate the extent to which SimReal afford students’ mathematical learning in teacher education. Based on the results, recommendations for future work are proposed.

Paper Nr: 29
Title:

Analysing the Use of Worked Examples and Tutored and Untutored Problem-Solving in a Dispositional Learning Analytics Context

Authors:

Dirk T. Tempelaar, Bart Rienties and Quan Nguyen

Abstract: The identification of students’ learning strategies by using multi-modal data that combine trace data with self-report data is the prime aim of this study. Our context is an application of dispositional learning analytics in a large introductory course mathematics and statistics, based on blended learning. Building on previous studies in which we found marked differences in how students use worked examples as a learning strategy, we compare different profiles of learning strategies on learning dispositions and learning outcome. Our results cast a new light on the issue of efficiency of learning by worked examples, tutored and untutored problem-solving: in contexts where students can apply their own preferred learning strategy, we find that learning strategies depend on learning dispositions. As a result, learning dispositions will have a confounding effect when studying the efficiency of worked examples as a learning strategy in an ecologically valid context.

Paper Nr: 34
Title:

Panel of Attribute Selection Methods to Rank Features Drastically Improves Accuracy in Filtering Web-pages Suitable for Education

Authors:

Vladimir Estivill-Castro, Matteo Lombardi and Alessandro Marani

Abstract: Search engines and recommender system take advantage of user queries, characteristics, preferences or perceived needs for filtering results. In contexts such as education, considering the purpose of a resource is also fundamental. A document not suitable for learning, although well related to the query, should never be recommended to a student. However, users are currently obliged to spend additional time and effort for matching the machine-filtered results to their purpose. This paper presents a method for automatically filtering web-pages according to their educational usefulness. Our ground truth is a dataset where items are web-pages classified as relevant for education or not. Then, we present a new feature selection method for lowering the number of attributes of the items. We build a committee of feature selection methods, but do not use it as an ensemble. A comprehensive evaluation of our approach against current practices in feature selection and feature reduction demonstrates that our proposal 1) enables state-of-the-art classifiers to perform a significantly faster, yet very accurate, automatic filtering of educational resources, and 2) such filtering meaningfully considers the usefulness of the resource for educational tasks.

Paper Nr: 57
Title:

The Problem with Teaching Defence against the Dark Arts: A Review of Game-based Learning Applications and Serious Games for Cyber Security Education

Authors:

Rene Roepke and Ulrik Schroeder

Abstract: When it comes to game-based approaches for cyber security education for end-users, similarities can be drawn to the problem with teaching Defence against the Dark Arts at Hogwarts. While teachers do not last due to the position’s curse, game-based approaches in cyber security education for end-users often do not survive the prototype phase and hence, they are not available to the public. In this paper, we review game-based learning applications and serious games for cyber security education for end-users to respond to two hypotheses. First, we expect that not many games for end-users without prior knowledge and skills in Computer Science (CS) are available. Next, we hypothesize that available games do not teach sustainable knowledge or skills in CS to properly qualify end-users. For review, we use a two-fold approach including a systematic literature review and a product search. As a result, we falsified the first hypothesis and found indicators verifying the second. Future work includes a closer look on available games with respect to game mechanisms, technologies and design principles.

Paper Nr: 71
Title:

Towards Visual Explorations of Forums’ Collective Dynamics in Learning Management Systems

Authors:

Malik Koné, Madeth May, Sébastien Iksal and Souleyman Oumtanaga

Abstract: Discussion and exchange among peers have being hailed as an essential part of learning since at least, Vygotsky’s socio-constructivist theory. There, learning is presented as a subtle and dynamical collective process. Hence, despite numerous efforts to understand how learners engage and maintain inspiring discussions, researchers continue to question how to effectively reinforce the collective actions. In Learning Management Systems (LMSs) they propose Learning Dashboards (LDBs) to learners, tutors, and managers to help them monitor various learning indicators. But only recently have they employed Natural Language Processings (NLPs) and Social Network Analysis (SNA) techniques to display temporal indicators incorporating the forums’ content analysis and the learners’ behavioral patterns. In this study, we present our design efforts to model a scalable and portable indicator of collective actions. We aim to support tutors’ monitoring of forums’ activities through explorable visualizations. We review previous researches about visual explorations of Forums’ content and online collaboration’s measures. We expose in progress visualizations built from three different datasets and propose directions towards further development of indicators to monitor collective actions.

Paper Nr: 76
Title:

Virtual Reality in Self-regulated Learning: Example in Art Domain

Authors:

Jean-Christophe Sakdavong, Morgane Burgues and Nathalie Huet

Abstract: In recent decades, learning devices using virtual reality (VR) environments have evolved rapidly. The potential positive impact of VR has been attributed to two characteristics: immersion, and control of interaction with objects in the environment. However, results from the literature have not always shown the presumed benefits and few of them have assessed the effects on self-regulation. This study aims to assess the impact of immersion and control on motivation, self-regulation, and performance. Participants had to acquire knowledge about sculptures by visiting a 3D virtual museum and then recall this knowledge. The participants were divided into four independent groups. They were: #1 In strong immersion (with VR headset) and active (control of interaction); #2 In strong (VR) and passive (non-interaction control) conditions; #3 In low immersion (tablet) and active conditions; #4 In low and passive immersion conditions. Intrinsic motivation and emotion were evaluated by a questionnaire, self-regulation was identified by behavioral indicators and performance was evaluated through a gap-fill exercise. Results showed that the "control" feature had a positive impact on performance, unlike immersion. Also, neither immersion nor control had an impact on motivation. However, immersion and control had a partial impact on self regulation. Educational implications will be discussed.

Paper Nr: 81
Title:

Investigating Interaction Patterns in Educational Forums: A Social Networks Analysis Approach

Authors:

O. Ferreira-Pires, M. E. Sousa-Vieira, J. C. López-Ardao and M. Fernández-Veiga

Abstract: Social networks analysis allows to study and understand the structural properties of a wide spectrum of natural or artificial systems. In the field of education, online social networks arise quite naturally in the virtual classrooms as an inherent part of the learning activities. In this work we focus in forums participation, modeling and investigating the social relationships taking place during an undergraduate course on computer networks. Our findings show significant correlations among the patterns of engagement and the structure of the networks and the students’ achievements.

Paper Nr: 87
Title:

Assistive Technology Applied in an Inclusive MOOC for the Blind

Authors:

Bertil P. Marques, Paula Escudeiro, Ana Barata, Piedade Carvalho, Ana de Sousa and Patrícia Queirós

Abstract: Considering the opportunity provided by Massive and Open Online Courses (MOOCs) to reach wide audiences, a new pedagogical model of the MOOC in Educational Technologies was implemented at Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto (ISEP) aiming at maximizing the MOOCs’ potential to provide educational offers to both deaf and blind communities. These communities face several and distinctive communication barriers, not allowing them to integrate within the larger intellectual communities as most tools used for information dissemination remain inaccessible to them. This paper’s main purpose is to present the innovative pedagogical model devised at ISEP/GILT to better enable the blind/visually impaired individuals to access digital educational content, hence being a contribution for the inclusion of these individuals in educational environments. This inclusive and innovating pedagogical model is a result of the wider research being conducted at ISEP/GILT concerning the development of assistive technology targeted at improving communication with and between the blind and the deaf, consequently fostering their inclusion. Although this paper highlights the pedagogical model proposal targeted at the blind/visually impaired, the model also integrates the deaf. Therefore, we present the complete API (BDC-API) architecture that supports the inclusive pedagogical model. This API translates digital educational content for the blind, grounded on the developed model used to translate written-text into sign language for the deaf.

Paper Nr: 107
Title:

In Search of Learning Indicators: A Study on Sensor Data and IAPS Emotional Pictures

Authors:

Haeseon Yun, Albrecht Fortenbacher, René Helbig and Niels Pinkwart

Abstract: The goal of our research presented in this paper is to relate emotions to sensor data (heart rate and skin conductivity), to interpret them in a learning context (academic emotions) and finally derive learning indicators. For this purpose, we collected sensor data from 27 participants during an emotional picture experiment provided by IAPS (International Affective Picture System). The collected data included EDA signals (electrodermal activity), heart rate and derived data such as skin conductance response, skin conductance level, heart rate variability and instantaneous heart rate labeled by IAPS reference rating and participants’ self ratings. The processed data were analyzed using qualitative and quantitative methods as well as machine learning. Furthermore, we applied a human-machine combined approach, namely fuzzy logic reasoning. Our results show that the change of EDA when emotion is induced may serve as a feature to distinguish the intensity of emotion (arousal). Also, classifying EDA signals using a random forest approach shows the best accuracy. In search of learning indicators, we have attempted various tracks of analysis in this study which revealed novel findings, limitations and future steps to consider.

Paper Nr: 133
Title:

How to Make Learning Visible through Technology: The eDia-Online Diagnostic Assessment System

Authors:

Gyöngyvér Molnár and Benő Csapó

Abstract: The aims of this paper are: to show how the use of technology and the power of regular feedback can support personalized learning. The paper outlines a three-dimensional model of knowledge, which forms the theoretical foundation of the eDia system, it summarizes how results from research on learning and instruction, cognitive sciences and technology-based assessment can be integrated into a comprehensive online system, and it shows how such assessment can be implemented and used in everyday school practice to make learning visible, especially in the fields of mathematics, reading and science. The eDia system contains almost 20,000 innovative (multimedia-supported) tasks in the fields of mathematics, reading and science. A three-dimensional approach distinguishes the content, application and reasoning aspects of learning. The sample for the experimental study was drawn from first-to sixth-grade students (aged 7 to 12) in Hungarian primary schools. There were 505 classes from 134 schools (N=10,737) in the sample. Results confirmed that technology-based assessment can be used to make students’ learning visible in the three main domains of schooling, independently of the grade measured. Item bank and scale-based assessment and detailed feedback can be used to support learning in a school context.

Paper Nr: 160
Title:

How Pupils Solve Online Problems: An Analytical View

Authors:

Carlo Bellettini, Violetta Lonati, Mattia Monga and Anna Morpurgo

Abstract: More and more assignments that were traditionally executed with paper and pencil are now carried out with the support of specific software applications or learning platforms. This opens the possibility to automatically collect a number of data concerning the way pupils interact with the system that administers the learning activity, and such information can help teachers monitor and understand how pupils engage with the assigned task. In the paper we propose a multidimensional model for describing the interactions of pupils with such systems, and we show how we apply it in the context of the Bebras Challenge, an international initiative aimed at introducing the fundamental concepts of informatics to a wide audience of pupils.

Paper Nr: 163
Title:

Easy Prototyping of Multimedia Interactive Educational Tools for Language Learning based on Block Programming

Authors:

Stefano Federici, Elisabetta Sergi and Elisabetta Gola

Abstract: Teaching in the new Digital Era is getting more and more difficult due to the expanding gap between what students and their teachers see as their media of election. Students would like to be engaged with multimedia educational tools and they need, for their future, to learn the basics of coding. In order to overcome the teachers’ difficulties in creating multimedia educational interactive tools for their students, and to start using coding even in non-scientific topics, an interactive environment based on the metaphor of building blocks, BlockLang, has been built. BlockLang is very similar to block-based programming languages such as Scratch but it has been designed to teach to elementary students English phrases and sentences from the food domain that, if correctly “coded”, will generate a corresponding picture on the tool’s “stage”. The tool, built by a student of a non-technical degree in just a few weeks, has shown to be effective when tested on 2nd grade students. It has been very well accepted by the students and, as a further bonus, it can be easily updated even by people that have no previous knowledge of computer programming.

Paper Nr: 166
Title:

OULAD MOOC Dropout and Result Prediction using Ensemble, Deep Learning and Regression Techniques

Authors:

Nikhil I. Jha, Ioana Ghergulescu and Arghir-Nicolae Moldovan

Abstract: Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have become increasingly popular since their start in the year 2008. Universities known worldwide for their traditional confined classroom education are also changing their practices by hosting MOOCs. These are Internet-based courses where students can learn at their own pace and follow their own schedule. Study materials and videos are provided that can be used in a blended learning program. Despite its many advantages, it suffers from problems such as high dropout and failure rates. Previous studies have mostly focused on predicting student dropout. This paper contributes to the body of research by investigating both student dropout and result prediction performance of machine learning models built based on different types of attributes such as demographic info, assessment info and interaction with the VLE. An analysis on the OULAD dataset showed that models based on student’s interaction with the VLE achieved the high performance in terms of AUC, of up to 0.91 for dropout prediction and 0.93 for result prediction in case of Gradient Boosting Machine.

Paper Nr: 179
Title:

Stereoscopic Interactive Objects: Acquisition, Generation and Evaluation

Authors:

Flávio E. Silva, Diogo R. Olsen, Lucas M. Pierin, Flávio Bortolozzi and Edson R. Justino

Abstract: Three-dimensional objects suffer from inaccuracies in the format of computational representation and artistic drawing, losing visual acuity. On the other hand, photographs offer visual acuity, but they are not interactive, that is, they do not offer the possibility of changing the perspective of visualization as a three-dimensional model does. Thus, we have created a device capable of scanning a real object, allowing for the production of interactive contents and visual acuity. In addition, the model created allows stereoscopic visualization, that is, with a notion of depth. We produced a learning object from the scans of a real object, assessed by teachers and students who work at medium, technical, and higher school levels. The interactive stereoscopic learning object with visual acuity seems promising for the responses to a questionnaire and interviews showed it motivated teachers and students due to its more realistic visualization and rich details. By allowing the visualization of the piece from several angles, it can foster and satisfy curiosities.

Paper Nr: 190
Title:

An Interactive Tutoring System for Training Software Refactoring

Authors:

Thorsten Haendler, Gustaf Neumann and Fiodor Smirnov

Abstract: Although considered useful and important, software refactoring is often neglected in practice because of the perceived risks and difficulties of performing it. A way to address these challenges can be seen in promoting developers’ practical competences. In this paper, we propose an approach for an interactive training environment for addressing practical competences in software refactoring. In particular, we present a tutoring system that provides interactive feedback to the users (e.g., university students or software developers) regarding the software-design quality and the functional correctness of the (modified) source code. After each code modification (refactoring step), the user can review the results of run-time regression tests and compare the actual software design (as-is) with the targeted design (to-be) in order to check quality improvement. For this purpose, structural and behavioral diagrams of the Unified Modeling Language (UML2) representing the as-is software design are automatically reverse-engineered from source code. The to-be design diagrams (also in UML) can be pre-specified by the instructor. We illustrate the usability of the approach for training competences in refactoring via short application scenarios and describe exemplary learning paths. Moreover, we provide a web-based software-technical implementation in Java (called refacTutor) to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the approach. Finally, limitations and further potential of the approach are discussed.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 9
Title:

Do Your Students Really Need that $200 Ebook? Predatory Publishers and Ethical Questions

Authors:

Tamara Powell

Abstract: Textbook costs have risen 1041% since 1977 (Popken, 2015). The internet allows educators to create and disseminate educational resources and to share the wealth and the creations using special licenses. The research is now in, and open educational resources, or OERs, have been shown to have just as good as, and sometimes better, learning outcomes than standard publisher materials. To keep profits flowing, publishers have designed impressive software packages marketed as superior to standard textbooks. For a hefty price tag, students are promised superior, adaptive, and even miraculous learning experiences while the instructor languishes in the background. This paper asks the question, what are we selling students, and what are we losing for ourselves as teachers in this educational material jungle.

Paper Nr: 27
Title:

Recursive Pedagogy: Automatic Question Generation using Real-time Learning Analytics

Authors:

Fatima A. Deeb and Timothy Hickey

Abstract: In this paper we introduce the notion of Recursive Pedagogy, which is a computer-supported approach to teaching and learning in which students solve problems assigned by an instructor using a Problem Solving Learning Environment, and their attempts to solve that problem are then used by the system to create new kinds of problems to help them build high level cognitive skills. The Recursive Pedagogy approach generalizes an approach we introduced earlier: the Solve-Then-Debug (STD) pedagogy to teach coding. In STD, students write a program given its description and, when their code passes all of the unit tests, they debug a sequence of incorrect programs submitted by their peers, starting with those with the most common errors. In this paper, we discuss two new Recursive Pedagogies that we have implemented in the Spinoza Python Tutor: Solve-Then-Critique-Correct-Solutions shows students correct programs from their peers and asks them to critique the code relative to a rubric; Solve-Then-Analyze-Unit-Tests shows students results of a set of unit tests and asks them to describe the probable error based on the unit test results. After students submit their Recursive Pedagogy analysis of a peer’s attempt, they are shown other students’ analyses of that attempt and are asked to select the best one. Recursive Pedagogies are designed to build skills in problem-solving, debugging, testing, and composing high quality solutions. Moreover, they can be used in a flipped class and they keep all students engaged in either problem solving or one of the other skills.

Paper Nr: 31
Title:

Usability Evaluation of an Educational Robot for STEM Areas

Authors:

Rolando Barradas, José A. Lencastre, Salviano Soares and António Valente

Abstract: This article describes the development cycle of an educational robot designed to act as an interdisciplinary teaching tool integrated into the curriculum of STEM areas (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics). We focused on the creation of the alpha version of the prototype and its heuristic evaluation by three experts, with the objective of appraising both usability and potential design problems. After all the issues and suggestions from the experts have been resolved and implemented, a beta version was developed and evaluated in its usability by five representatives of end-users with different age ranges and robotics knowledge. The System Usability Scale score of 92.5 points - Best Imaginable - show a very stable and satisfactory robot, with almost no usability problems detected.

Paper Nr: 33
Title:

Conceptual Framework to Support a Web Authoring Tool of Educational Games for Deaf Children

Authors:

Rafael P. Canteri, Laura S. García, Tanya A. Felipe, Ludmilla O. Galvão and Diego R. Antunes

Abstract: The Deaf people constitute minority communities that, for many years, suffered with the lack of tools for teaching and learning materials based on Sign Language - the natural language that define their social identity and culture. The Education Informatics presents great potential in development of tools for teaching support, but have not produced effective tools for Deaf people, especially to support the learning process of Deaf children. Educational Games have shown successful experiences when used in the learning process of different knowledge fields and the results tend to be more relevant when such games are used with children and teenagers. However, the development of an educational game requires several skills related to software engineering, programming, design, illustration, pedagogy, among others. This paper presents a framework for design of effective educational games for Deaf children based on Children Teaching Methodology and Educational Digital Games literature. The results include: the application of the framework in creating a web authoring tool that allows non-experts in game design, such as Deaf children teachers, to create educational games in a simple and semi-automatic way; and an example game generated by the tool.

Paper Nr: 41
Title:

Nudging by Predicting: A Case Study

Authors:

Niels Heller and François Bry

Abstract: Nudging students to a better learning is a common practice among teachers of small classes which is impossible in large classes. Indeed, no teacher has enough time for giving individual feedback to several tens or hundred students, let alone be sufficiently aware of the progress and difficulties of each of them. This article reports on a case study using computed individual predictions for sustaining the motivation of large class’ audiences thus nudging them to a better learning. More precisely, this article reports on a case study in which students are given individual predictions of their withdrawal, or “skipping”, and examination performances with the aim of increasing their participation to classes and to homework. A real-life evaluation of the approach in a computer sicence course points to both its effectiveness and its positive reception by students.

Paper Nr: 48
Title:

SMILE Goes Gaming: Gamification in a Classroom Response System for Academic Teaching

Authors:

Leonie Feldbusch, Felix Winterer, Johannes Gramsch, Linus Feiten and Bernd Becker

Abstract: The classroom response system SMILE (SMartphones In LEctures) is regularly used in academic lectures. Among other features, it enables lecturers to start quizzes that can be answered anonymously by students on their smartphones. This aims at both activating the students and giving them feedback about their understanding of the current content of the lecture. But even though many students use SMILE in the beginning of a course, the number of active participants tends to decrease as the term progresses. This paper reports the results of a study looking at incorporating gamification into SMILE to increase the students’ motivation and involvement. Game elements such as scores, badges and a leaderboard have been integrated paired with a post-processing feature enabling students to repeat SMILE quizzes outside of the lectures. The evaluations show that the gamification approach increased the participation in SMILE quizzes significantly.

Paper Nr: 50
Title:

Teaching Design Thinking through Gamified Learning

Authors:

Hariklia Tsalapatas, Olivier Heidmann, Kai Pata, Carlos Vaz de Carvalho, Merja Bauters, Spyros Papadopoulos, Costas Katsimendes, Christina Taka and Elias Houstis

Abstract: Entrepreneurial capacity has long been considered as a key transversal competency applicable in all subjects and educational levels. It empowers individuals to explore their talents, to introduce creative ideas, and to take action towards turning ideas into viable solutions that contribute to business growth and social wellbeing. Design thinking is a human-centered, solution-oriented approach to entrepreneurial innovation that aims at introducing solutions to business as well as social issues by better understanding how a user experiences a proposed service or product. This paper introduces the design and implementation of active learning digital services supported by gamification principles in learning contexts that facilitate the introduction of design thinking to higher education engineering students. The proposed learning intervention engages students in the design thinking processes of empathizing, ideating, designing, and validating through an on-line learning platform that promotes collaboration in and across teams, brainstorming, and peer reviews of designs allowing students to learn from experience through cases inspired by real world challenges.

Paper Nr: 67
Title:

An Intelligent Tutoring System for Procedural Training with Natural Language Interaction

Authors:

José Paladines and Jaime Ramírez

Abstract: In this paper we present a proposal of an Intelligent Tutoring Systems equipped with dialogue in natural language to facilitate student interaction with the learning environment, provide hints and answer students’ questions. This system is designed to be integrated with a 2D/3D virtual environment for procedural training, where it can maintain a dialogue with students adapted to the context. Our notion of context comprises: the specific features of the student; his/her progress in the development of the task; and the virtual environment where it is performed. The dialogue will be controlled by a dialogue manager, built on Watson Assistant, which has been chosen for its versatility. Additionally, we present an application example that describes the operation of the modules that constitute the proposed approach. Then, we provide some indications on how it will be evaluated with students shortly.

Paper Nr: 69
Title:

A Web Application for Aiding Tutors to Develop Course Outlines

Authors:

Nikolaos Spanoudakis, Evangelia Krassadaki, Aliki Pialoglou and Nikolaos Matsatsinis

Abstract: In 2011, the Hellenic Quality Assurance and Accreditation Agency prepared and distributed a course outline template, in paper format, to be filled in by the university tutors. This template contains details about learning outcomes, generic skills, teaching and assessment procedures for each course. The teaching staff, having little knowledge on the aforementioned topics, faced serious difficulties in filling it in. Thus, we developed a web-based information system for outlining courses in our institution. It guides the user (tutor) step-by-step to properly record, document and store every detail of a course, and export it to a pdf file. Additionally, by recording the information in a database, it allows any kind of queries, thus it offers various statistics in university/school/departmental level on the usage of verbs of the Bloom’s taxonomy, about the nurtured generic skills, about the students’ workload per course, etc. The system is user-friendly, according to the results of a short survey, and it is fully expandable. This paper focuses on the presentation of the web-based system application along with the benefits it introduces firstly for the tutors and secondly for the quality assurance team of the university.

Paper Nr: 73
Title:

Communicating Learning Analytics: Stakeholder Participation and Early Stage Requirement Analysis

Authors:

Filothei Chalvatza, Sokratis Karkalas and Manolis Mavrikis

Abstract: This paper reflects on a user-centered design methodology for requirements elicitation at early stages of a design process for Learning Analytics tools. This methodology may be used as a domain specific instrument to elicit user perspectives about the communicational aspects of learning analytics dashboards. The focus of this work is identifying ways to communicate the data analysis findings in a way that is easily perceptible and facilitates actionable decision making. We present the structure as well as the logic behind the design of this instrument. As a case study, the paper describes an implementation of this methodology in the context of school-wide analytics communicating to stakeholders quality indicators through summarising and visualising data collected through student and parent surveys. We provide high-level and transferable recommendations derived from the analysis of the workshop with key stakeholders and identify future improvements in our methodology.

Paper Nr: 84
Title:

Instrumentation of Learning Situation using Automated Speech Transcription: A Prototyping Approach

Authors:

Vincent Bettenfeld, Salima Mdhaffar, Christophe Choquet and Claudine Piau-Toffolon

Abstract: This paper presents the ongoing conception of a set of tools, based on live transcription of speech during lectures and designed to instrument traditional lectures as well as web conferences or hybrid learning situations. The toolset exploits speech and interactions taking place during courses, keeps track of them and facilitates their reuse both in students’ studies and in future iterations of the course delivered by the teacher. Its goal is to help students stay focused on the teacher’s explanations and offer them greater possibilities of interactions. The prototype was conceived with an approach based on the analysis of communicational and informational needs of the end users, especially in regard to the instrumentation possibilities offered by the innovative technologies considered in the project. In this paper, we detail the different tools produced in order to offer synchronous and asynchronous support to the learning activity. We describe a real-life test as well as changes brought to the device afterwards, and finally we describe the first experiment conducted with the device.

Paper Nr: 90
Title:

The ICT Literacy Skills of Secondary Education Teachers in Greece

Authors:

Vyron I. Michalakis, Michail Vaitis and Aikaterini Klonari

Abstract: This article discusses the ICT literacy of secondary education teachers in Greece. Regardless of their specialty, a representable sample of 700 in-service teachers from 283 secondary education schools throughout Greece, participated in our questionnaire survey that was conducted from December 2017 until June 2018. The teachers were questioned about their familiarity with personal computer and smartphone use, whether they use ICT devices in the classroom, while also reporting any obstacles they face in order to implement ICT in the educational process. The data collected enabled us to review the teachers’ ICT literacy. The ICT literacy definition we endorse is the one offered by ETS (Educational Testing Service) (2007); “ICT literacy is using digital technology, communications tools, and/or networks to access, manage, integrate, evaluate, and create information in order to function in a knowledge society”. The findings of the research showed that the majority of Greek teachers are skilled ICT users, embracing their implementation in their teaching interventions, although ICT related Greek policies are contradictory.

Paper Nr: 97
Title:

Understanding the Effect of Gamification on Learners with Different Personalities

Authors:

Wad Ghaban and Robert Hendley

Abstract: Gamification has been shown to enhance the motivation of learners in online courses. However, learners respond differently to gamification depending on their personalities. For this reason, it has been suggested to build a learner model that would enable a system to match gamification elements to learners’ personalities. To do this, we need to understand the relationship between gamification and personalities. Thus, two versions of a learning website have been built: one with gamification elements and the other without these elements. We measured learners’ motivation, knowledge gain, and satisfaction in both versions. The results confirm the benefit of gamification overall in enhancing learners’ motivation. However, the knowledge gain of learners was worse in the gamified version. The results vary between personalities. This finding may be explained by the optional nature of the chat and the learners’ tendency to take the initiative. Further study of more gamification elements and compulsory chat might be considered.

Paper Nr: 98
Title:

In the Dinosaur' Steps through IBL Scenario: A Way to Overcome Prejudice for Career in STEM

Authors:

Eliza Stefanova, Albena Antonova, Dafinka Miteva and Nikolina Nikolova

Abstract: The Inquiry-based learning (IBL) is a powerful learning approach, especially in the field of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). This paper presents the implementation of an IBL scenario for teachers’ competence development aiming to overcome students’ and their parents prejudice for scientists and scientist’s profession, and to encourage them to get interested in STEM career. In the Dinosaurs’ steps experiment students have to become researchers in a Paleontological museum, taking part in different training activities and sharing impression about the scientists’ profession. In parallel, observing actions of the students, teachers had to acquire professional competences for design of learning activities so to find a way to overcome the most popular bias and prejudices toward the career in STEM. How scenario succeed to convince future scientists to continue in Dinosaurs’ steps is presented through participants’ answers of the questions. The most valuable result of the experiment is the IBL scenario, developed by a teacher, who transferred her experience from the experiment into her own classroom. Finally, the paper summarizes some opportunities for applying IBL in STEM teaching – joining the efforts of educational, scientific and cultural institutions and bringing together teachers, parents, scientists and experts.

Paper Nr: 100
Title:

Integrate Confidence Ratings in Audience Response Systems in Order to Help Students to Self-regulate Their Learning Process

Authors:

Lucas Braeschke, Iris Braun, Felix Kapp and Tenshi Hara

Abstract: Learning questions are an adequate method to check the knowledge of students in university courses. With the help of audience response systems (ARS), the lecturers can use learning questions during the active lecture to get immediate feedback about the knowledge base of the students. This information can help them to modify the content of the lecture or the kind of presentation of the knowledge. They can discuss the answers with the students and make the lecture more interactive. For the students it is helpful to regulate their learning strategy in the self-regulated learning process (SRL). For a deeper understanding of their own failures in answering the questions it is very important to think about their confidence while answering. Did they only guess or were they sure to have the right answer? In this paper we present an approach to integrate different kinds of confidence ratings in an ARS as well as our results from first user studies.

Paper Nr: 108
Title:

Determinants Affecting Learner’s Behaviour in Music Education Applying Information Technology

Authors:

Jing Li, Chi-Hui Wu, Tung-Jung Lin and Reed-Joe Chang

Abstract: This article is to investigate the learner’s behaviour in music teaching applying information technology using ISM with Fuzzy and MICMAC approach. Since learner’s behaviour features multiple characteristics which are complicated and interact with each other, this article makes clear the relationships within characteristics of learning behaviour and provides education institutions with instruction on teaching strategies for music teaching applying information technology on activating learners’ learning behaviour. This research shows that music teaching applying information technology affects behaviour relating to learners’ online learning attitudes, music learning motivation, and learning engagement. Among them, the self-directed learning factor p most critical to the learning behaviour.

Paper Nr: 113
Title:

Requirements for Author Verification in Electronic Computer Science Exams

Authors:

Julia Opgen-Rhein, Bastian Küppers and Ulrik Schroeder

Abstract: Electronic exams are more and more adapted in institutions of higher education, but the problem of how to prevent cheating in those examinations is not yet solved. Electronic exams in theory allow for fraud beyond plagiarism and therefore require a possibility to detect impersonation and prohibited communication between the students on the spot and a-posteriori. This paper is an extension of our previous work on an application for detecting fraud attempts in electronic exams, in which we came to the conclusion that it is possible to extract features from source code submitted for tutorials and homework in a programming course. These can be used to train Random Forest, Linear Support Vector Machine, and Neural Network classifiers and assign the exams from the same course to their authors. The Proof of Concept was further developed and this paper outlines the experimentally determined requirements for the selection of training and test data and its pre-processing to achieve applicable results. We achieve an accuracy larger than 89% on a set of source code files from twelve students and found that material from all parts of a programming course is suitable for this approach as long as it provides enough instances for training and is free of code templates.

Paper Nr: 114
Title:

Investigation and Evaulation of a Virtual Reality Vocational Training System for General Lathe

Authors:

Jung-Min Shin, Kyoungbog Jin and Sang-Youn Kim

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of virtual reality (VR) vocational training content for lathe skills and to evaluate usability. A lathe is one of the most basic and important machines for conducting various mechanical operations including cutting, drilling, sanding, knurling, etc. Therefore, it is necessary to consider practice and repetition as a method for acquiring the skill to operate a lathe machine. How to further increase operation skill must also be addressed. Opportunities to repeatedly practice using a lathe are very limited in actual educational environments due to the expense of equipment and the risk of machine operation. In order to overcome these limitations, we have developed a VR lathe training system and evaluated its usability and effectiveness by working with vocational training teachers. As a result, similarity with an actual practice environment was confirmed, and the outlook for using this VR solution in classes is high. Furthermore, the teachers involved provided feedback to further improve the VR training system developed.

Paper Nr: 129
Title:

From Analytics to Cognition: Expanding the Reach of Data in Learning

Authors:

R. Tsoni, C. Samaras, E. Paxinou, C. Panagiotakopoulos and V. S. Verykios

Abstract: Education constitutes a rapidly changing and challenging environment, therefore, a shift from reporting to actionable interventions based on data is almost imperative. At the same time, Learning Analytics is incorporating increasingly advanced tools and methods. Artificial Intelligence and cognitive science allow us to study in depth the behavior of students, creating patterns and prediction models. All the above summarize the scope of the newly established Big Data Analytics and Anonymization Laboratory (BAT Lab) in the Hellenic Open University. This paper presents the vision and the work in progress of the BAT Lab in an attempt not only to produce interpretable results but also to organize and present these results in a highly usable way for non-experts. Additionally, PRIME-EDU software, which is the team’s latest work, is presented.

Paper Nr: 134
Title:

Teaching Computer Programming to Post-millennial Kids: Overview of Goals, Activities and Supporting Tools

Authors:

Christophe Ponsard

Abstract: Post-millennial kids have experienced Internet technologies from their early age both at home and at school. Although this familiarity can trigger interest in learning how to engineer software, the learning itself needs teaching instruments that are adapted to their generation. In this paper, we focus on early steps where the teenager is mainly in a discovery phase. Starting from key education goals and skills to develop as children of the 21st century, we look how they relate with computer programming and computational thinking. We also look how synergies can be established with other matters like Sciences, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Mathematics (STEAM). We analyse how such goals can be met using different kinds of activities and supporting tools. Our work is illustrated by practical experiences carried out in Belgium. Based on this, we also propose a general roadmap for setting up education programs targeting those kids.

Paper Nr: 139
Title:

Effects of Proactive Personality and Social Centrality on Learning Performance in SPOCs

Authors:

Sannyuya Liu, Huanyou Chai, Zhi Liu, Niels Pinkwart, Xue Han and Tianhui Hu

Abstract: Due to the adaptability and manageability in small-scale class teaching, Small Private Online Courses (SPOCs) have become a highly important learning apparatus in higher education. However, what psychological and social factors affect learning outcomes in SPOCs remains to be explored. This study aims to investigate the effects of proactive personality and social centrality on learning performance in the SPOCs context. On the one hand, we examine the independent effects of proactive personality and social centrality respectively. On the other hand, the combined effect of them is studied to gain a comprehensive understanding of the roles of psychological and social factors in students’ SPOCs learning process. Results from correlation analyses indicate that proactive personality and social centralities are significantly correlated with learning performance. Further regression and ANOVA analyses demonstrate the applicability of the two models of indirection and interaction effects respectively.

Paper Nr: 146
Title:

Classroom Mobile Devices: Evaluation about Existing Applications

Authors:

Fabiando S. Kuss, Marcos A. Castilho and Chee K. Looi

Abstract: Mobile devices are tools that provide resources for building a seamless teaching and learning process. Smartphones offer features such as sensors, interfaces, and wireless interfaces that are still little explored in classrooms. The identification of programs for mobile devices adapted to a new model of use of information technologies allows recognition on the current panorama of use of mobile devices in the modality of classroom teaching. Smartphones in schools present a new reality about the insertion of the technologies in the school environment in conflict with the ways of trying to use computers as an educational tool. In this work, it was sought to identify, in a database, applications for mobile devices products that may be adequate to support the teaching and learning process in the context of an educational ecosystem.

Paper Nr: 151
Title:

A Model and Its Tool to Assist the Scenarization of VR-oriented Pedagogical Activities

Authors:

Oussema Mahdi, Lahcen Oubahssi, Claudine Piau-Toffolon and Sebastien Iksal

Abstract: Human learning has become an emerging discipline for virtual reality. In this context, we are interested in VRLE (virtual reality learning environments), which aims at putting the learner of a pedagogical situation in a virtual reality environment. We have found in literature that VRLEs are dependent on a particular field or context and do not allow teachers to define or adapt their models of scenario to new pedagogical situations they might imagine. To help teachers in designing and generating VRLE adapted to their needs, our approach aims at defining a process for the design and production of VRLE that can be instantiated in different pedagogical situations. Our contributions focus on the definition of a scenario’s model and the development of an editor allowing the specification of scenarios and pedagogical activities based on VR-oriented pedagogical objects.

Paper Nr: 155
Title:

Vocabulary Mashup using Online Resources and Games for Vocabulary Training at School

Authors:

Georg J. Schneider and René Ackels

Abstract: This paper describes a general architecture and an implementation of a mobile system that helps teachers and pupils at school to learn vocabulary of a foreign language for specific lessons. The system can be setup in a flexible way that that either vocabulary from an arbitrary course book or individual vocabulary sets can be specified as input by a teacher. Accordingly it can be adapted to the curriculum of a class. Furthermore the system keeps user information at an own server for security reasons and it does not cause any additional costs, e.g. for additional vocabulary sets. Online resources like synonym and antonym services, definition services or pronunciation services are integrated into the system for providing further learning activities. Finally game based elements shall make the learning activities more attractive to the students. The progress of the learning process will be provided for pupils and teachers. The system is targeted to facilitate the processes in a German school environment.

Paper Nr: 161
Title:

Methods and Tools for Centres of Integrated Teaching Excellence Providing Training in Complementary Fields

Authors:

Jacek Marciniak

Abstract: The necessity of flexible adjustment of training programmes to the needs of various target groups is an inseparable component of vocational training. The need to introduce changes may be a result of various levels of competency and the requirements of various student groups. In the case of distance training, the changes may also be forced by the need to introduce a different schedule, and may be the result of adopting an another training model. The article presents solutions facilitating the adaptive development of training programmes for the needs of the Centers of Integrated Heritage Teaching Excellence. The goal of these centres is to provide training programmes on the protection of cultural and natural heritage. The article shows how the need for flexible construction and adjustment of training programmes affected the form of educational materials on the basis of which training is conducted, and what technical tools should be utilised in order to efficiently manage the process.

Paper Nr: 164
Title:

A Customized Educational Booster for Online Students in Cybersecurity Education

Authors:

Mohamed Rahouti and Kaiqi Xiong

Abstract: Real-world lab experiments have been an integral part of computer science and engineering curriculums. However, human and computing resources as well as financial support to courses may be limited at many universities ranging from small to large universities and from liberal arts colleges to top research universities as there is a dramatic increase of student enrollments in computer science and engineering for the past ten years. Nowadays, like many other universities nation wide, University of South Florida (USF) in collaboration with the Cyber Florida center offers online cyber security degrees as well as certificates. Throughout such programs, online students are expected to acquire knowledge via an interdisciplinary set of core courses prior to taking a deep dive into one of four following concentrations: cyber intelligence, digital forensics, information assurance and computer security fundamentals. However, when it comes to training student with real-world cyber security labs, both instructors and students face various challenges with regard to resources and virtual environment for exploring and running a broad range of security experiments and tests. In order to achieve the goal of our funded NSF project, in this paper we will discuss our teaching contributions to the development of a broad range of cyber security labs, facilitation of applied cryptography learning through experimental modules, and our customized virtual machine that fits the needs of various online computer networking and security courses. Specifically, we will first present our methodology for the design of our experimental modules and then present in details our pre-built Linux-based portable virtual machine. Those learning and experimental modules have been developed at different levels to meet the need of students with different academic and industrial backgrounds.

Paper Nr: 26
Title:

21st Century Skill Building with Web-based Games

Authors:

William DeRusha and Timothy Hickey

Abstract: Financial knowledge has a tangible impact on an individual’s ability to make positive financial decisions in their life. It has been estimated that the difference between the 75th and 25th percentile of the financial literacy index is equivalent to approximately an 80,000 euro difference in net worth and has significant impact on financial decisions made throughout one’s working life and into retirement. The need for quality financial education is clear, but many studies show that personal finance classes offered today do not seem to have significant impact on the financial literacy of the students who take them. One hypothesis of this paper is that traditional instruction methods, which do not force students to exercise the financial tools they need to be fluent with as adults, hinder their ability to improve their financial literacy. We also argue that analysis of game interactions may be a more effective assessment mechanism than traditional academic tests. There is a growing body of evidence that the immersive elements of particular styles of games can have a significant impact on learning outcomes. This paper offers a potential starting point from which an immersive game, which leverages real world financial decision-making as its main mechanic, can be born. We will discuss the underlying design of such a game and how it lays the foundation for a game that could achieve financial literacy outcomes. Such outcomes would empower students with the skills to make positive financial choices in their lives and better achieve personal financial goals.

Paper Nr: 30
Title:

Thinking about Thinking: The Relationship between Confidence, Attainment and Metacognition in Computer Science

Authors:

Chris Napier

Abstract: Thinking about thinking, or metacognition as it is better known, is something that cannot be easily taught but rather is developed and practised by an individual. It can be beneficial because students make connections between their learning experiences, discover their own learning preferences and can improve their understanding of interconnection between concepts that the current HE system of modularisation tends to undermine. It is a skill that an individual develops and practices over time based on a wide range of experiences and learning opportunities. We hope to develop teaching approaches that help to improve students’ awareness of their own metacognitive processes and learning strategies and by extension, their confidence in applying their previous experiences and knowledge to unfamiliar tasks and problems they encounter during their degree. This paper outlines a preliminary study that explores the impact of confidence on student attainment. The study involved reviewing three stages of student experience - (i) The level of experience and confidence of students when entering the first year of the degree, (ii) their attainment at the end of first year and (iii) their level of confidence before and after coursework submission in the second year of their degree. Our results show that there may be a direct relationship between confidence levels and student attainment. Our results show there is some link between metacognition and confidence, with further exploration we can identify this link further and create metacognitive learning strategies.

Paper Nr: 45
Title:

Assessing Software Quality of Agile Student Projects by Data-mining Software Repositories

Authors:

Falko Koetter, Monika Kochanowski, Maximilien Kintz, Benedikt Kersjes, Ivan Bogicevic and Stefan Wagner

Abstract: Group student software projects are important in computer science education. Students are encouraged to self-organize and learn technical skills, preparing them for real life software development. However, the projects contribute to multiple learning objectives, making coaching students a time consuming task. Thus, it is important to have a suitable best practice development process. For providing better insights for the students, the resulting software has to be of value and meet quality requirements, including maintainability, as in real life software development. Using source code quality metrics and by data mining repository data like commit history, we analyze six student projects, measuring their quality and identifying contributing factors to success or failure of a student project. Based on the findings, we formulate recommendations to improve future projects for students and researchers alike.

Paper Nr: 46
Title:

Conducting an Experiment for Validating the Combined Model of Immersion and Flow

Authors:

Ehm Kannegieser, Daniel Atorf and Josua Meier

Abstract: Detecting high intrinsic motivation and Flow states is key for successful adaptation processes that may be used to improve learning outcome in Simulations and Serious Games. Until now, the method of choice to measure Flow, is the usage of questionnaires. Because of the shortcomings of this method, the ultimate goal is, to establish an alternative measuring method through correlations of physiological sensor data. Beforehand, the theoretical model of Flow is enhanced with the more fine-grained model of immersion plus the design and implementation of an experiment to validate said model is introduced. In conclusion a perspective towards preliminary test results and upcoming data analysis is given.

Paper Nr: 47
Title:

User Centered Approach for Learning Analytics Dashboard Generation

Authors:

Dabbebi Ines, Gilliot Jean-Marie and Iksal Sebastien

Abstract: The use of learning dashboards with analytics might help users to gain insight into their learning process and then to make decision. However, designing meaningful Learning Analytics dashboard (LAD) is still a complex process that requires an explicit understanding of the user needs. For this reason, we carried out a user-centered design (UCD) approach with the aim to provide users with adapted LADs to support their decision-making. Hence, we develop a UCD process composed of 4 steps: (i) we propose a participatory-based design tool for capturing contextualized needs (ii) these identified needs will be described using an independent formalism and LAD models in order to capitalize on them (iii) to automate these models, we propose a LAD generation process (iv) finally, we carried out an evaluation phase with the aim to review and refine our models. During our process development, an iterative user needs refinement confirmed that decision is considered as a centered element for LAD generations.

Paper Nr: 59
Title:

An Ultra-high Definition and Interactive Simulator for Human Dissection in Anatomic Learning

Authors:

Andrei R. Brongel, William P. Brobouski, Lucas M. Pierin, Carlos Gomes, Manoel C. Almeida and Edson R. Justino

Abstract: This paper presents an ultra-high definition simulator for the teaching of human anatomy in class. The simulator in question consists of hardware and software specially developed for this purpose. The hardware seeks to meet the requirements of real-scale representation of models, visual acuity, color, texture, depth perception e touch-based interactivity. The software, in turn, offers a set of dissecting tools typically used in anatomical studies, in addition to allowing connectivity to educational environments and the Internet. The characteristic that stands out most in this simulator is the fact that it is not an anatomical atlas, but a dissecting table that uses models from real bodies, which differentiates it from most of the simulators and anatomical atlases developed to this end.

Paper Nr: 61
Title:

Arithmetic, Logic, Syntax and MathCheck

Authors:

Antti Valmari and Johanna Rantala

Abstract: MathCheck is a web-based tool for checking all steps of solutions to mathematics, logic and theoretical computer science problems, instead of checking just the final answers. It can currently deal with seven problem types related to arithmetic, logic, and syntax. Although MathCheck does have some ability to perform symbolic computation, checking is mostly based on testing with many combinations of the values of the variables in question. This introduces a small risk of failure of detection of errors, but also significantly widens the scope of problems that can be dealt with and facilitates providing a concrete counter-example when the student’s solution is incorrect. So MathCheck is primarily a feedback tool, not an assessment tool. MathCheck is more faithful to established mathematical notation than most programs. Special attention has been given to rigorous processing of undefined expressions, such as division by zero. To make this possible, in addition to the two truth values “false” and “true”, it uses a third truth value “undefined”.

Paper Nr: 62
Title:

Evaluating the Emotional Effects of Role-playing Software on Interactive Digital Storytelling from the Perspectives of User, Storyteller, Teammate and Audience

Authors:

Gloria Y. Kao and Xing-Yi Huang

Abstract: This paper discusses the applications of emotions in interactive digital storytelling. Emotion is one of the most important elements in digital storytelling. Participants were asked to design a story collaboratively and present it to the audience using the role-playing software, FaceRig. They were asked to fill out a questionnaire about their attitude toward this activity from the perspective of an audience member, a storyteller, a group member, and a software user. The findings indicated that most participants held a positive attitude toward this activity whether as an audience member or as a storyteller. Most participants thought that listening to and telling stories with FaceRig was a pleasant and appealing experience. They loved the idea of performing the facial expressions of the characters during both the preparation process and the performing process. We concluded that the application of emotions in storytelling is a way to improve the storytelling experience of both audience and storytellers. To further enhance user experience, we suggest that designers of such role-playing software could implement features such as voice changing functions and body movement detection.

Paper Nr: 68
Title:

Learning Analytics in Higher Education using Peer-feedback and Self-assessment: Use Case of an Academic Writing Course

Authors:

Sabine Seufert, Josef Guggemos and Stefan Sonderegger

Abstract: The growing prevalence of learner-centred forms of learning as well as an increase in the number of learners actively participating on a wide range of digital platforms and devices give rise to an ever-increasing stream of learning data. Learning analytics (LA) may enable learners, teachers, and their institutions to better understand and predict learning and performance. However, the pedagogical perspective and matters of learning design have been underrepresented in research thus far. We identify technology-supported peer-feedback and self-assessment as particularly promising from an educational point of view. We present a use case to demonstrate how these measures can be implemented. Using the technology acceptance model and a sample of 484 undergraduate students, we identify factors for a successful implementation of technology-supported peer-feedback and self-assessment.

Paper Nr: 72
Title:

Autisdata: Software to Help the Development of People with ASD based on TEACCH and PECS Methodologies

Authors:

Mariane S. Oliveira, Claudia P. Pereira, Kayo Costa de Santana and Kelly C. Rossinholli

Abstract: Through years, teaching and learning techniques have been studied a lot, trying to find better ways to make it more effective for people. Even with many studies, it is necessary to rethink a lot of our recent used methodologies, trying to make the educational process more accessible and inclusive. In this paper, we will present Autisdata, a mobile application solution developed to help children with Autism Spectrum Disorders to improve their cognitive and communicative skills, based on TEACCH and PECS methodologies, which are already used to help these people.

Paper Nr: 79
Title:

Active Problem-based Learning for Engineering Higher Education

Authors:

Hariklia Tsalapatas, Carlos Vaz de Carvalho, Olivier Heidmann and Elias Houstis

Abstract: The engineering sector today faces a shortage of technical personnel as a result of fast evolving technologies in innovation related sectors expected to drive economic growth. Engineering higher education is in need of modernization in order to link student skills to labour market needs. Skills necessary for supporting economic growth include both a sound theoretical background as well as transversal competencies such as problem-solving capacity, creativity, and analytical thinking. This work presents a problem-based learning framework that aims to more effectively develop students for transitioning into the world of work. This is pursued through active educational approaches supported by digital learning services that promote collaboration, innovative mindsets, autonomous, and self-relying work. The proposed platform facilitates learning experiences that integrate simulations and serious games linked to real world challenges in the context of wider, blended learning practices. The framework is being developed by a network of European and South Asian universities with the objective of integrating needs from diverse cultural, economic, and educational environments resulting into an educational platform with international relevance.

Paper Nr: 83
Title:

Eduportfolio: Complex Platform for Curriculum Management and Mapping

Authors:

Matěj Karolyi, Jakub Ščavnický, Vojtěch Bulhart, Petra Růžičková and Martin Komenda

Abstract: A lot of curriculum designers, teachers and faculty managers are involved in a curriculum development at higher education institutions. It is necessary to optimise this complicated process of curriculum optimisation and mapping using modern technologies and tools. Therefore, the EDUportfolio platform, which allows users to comfortably and safely create individual building blocks of the curriculum, is created in accordance with valid international standards. Our paper presents the origin platform from methodological and technical perspective. EDUportfolio offers a content creation module, a content browsing module as well as a reporting module that provides complex overview on created building blocks.

Paper Nr: 85
Title:

Utilizing Software Engineering Education Support System ALECSS at an Actual Software Development Experiment: A Case Study

Authors:

Mika Ohtsuki and Tetsuro Kakeshita

Abstract: We have proposed a software engineering education support system named ALECSS in our previous paper. ALECSS utilizes various DevOps tools such as Jenkins, Git, JUnit, Checkstyle and FindBugs to automatically check student’s programs from various viewpoints and to quickly provide feedbacks to the students. At the same time, ALECSS collects student’s log so that a teacher can easily observe the status of each student and/or each project team to improve software engineering education. In this paper, we utilize ALECSS at an actual software development experiment for self and peer review of the source code. Students are grouped into project teams and each student can view summary pages for the student or the team containing the messages generated by the DevOps tools integrated into ALECSS. We also collected feedback from the students and received many positive comments.

Paper Nr: 92
Title:

Understanding the Correlation between Teacher and Student Behavior in the Classroom and Its Consequent Academic Performance

Authors:

Adson P. Damasceno, Andressa O. Ferreira and Francisco B. Oliveira

Abstract: Education in Brazil has reflected in students’ poor academic performance. To reverse this scenario, we propose a technological ecosystem for classroom management which we call Classroom Management (GSA, acronym in Portuguese for Gestão de Sala de Aula). The technology focuses on increasing teenagers’ performance and reducing dropout rates. The GSA promotes student engagement in classroom activities; allows the monitoring of students while performing these activities; creates channels of communication between teacher and student; automatically addresses the level of understanding of the class; promotes student participation in class discussions. We tested the GSA and got promising results: 1) For more than seventy percent of the students, the use of technology made them understand the subject better; 2) 85% of them reported that the GSA increased their participation in the classroom activities; 3) For more than 90% of the students, the class has become more interesting, and; 4) 88% of them would like to use the system in all disciplines. For teachers, the GSA: 1) Has not become an object of distraction in the classroom (opinion, 92% of them); 2) It made the students more participative (89%); 3) It made the class more dynamic (82%) and 4) Would like to use the GSA in all their classes (81%).

Paper Nr: 102
Title:

Investigating How Social Elements Affect Learners with Different Personalities

Authors:

Wad Ghaban, Robert Hendley and Rowanne Fleck

Abstract: Social presence is an essential factor in preventing learners from feeling isolation in online courses and in keeping them connected. Some studies, however, point to the negative impact of the social elements in distracting learners from concentrating on a course’s content. In this study, we investigated the influence on learners of different personality types (using the big five model) of an optional chat added to an online learning platform. The results show that there is a variation in the response of the learners based on their personality. However, some personality classes spent the majority of time in the chat discussing off-topic subjects, such as fashion or travel. Thus, although they enjoyed the features in the system, it negatively affected their knowledge gain. We discuss the implications of our findings for adaptive online learning platforms in catering to learners with diverse personalities.

Paper Nr: 121
Title:

On Possibility of Automatic Generation of Data Files and their Use in Tasks of Descriptive Statistics

Authors:

Mikuláš Gangur and Václav S. Martinovský

Abstract: The contribution deals with the use of automatic generation of parameterized tasks and the inclusion of automatically generated data files as useful feature of generator. This functionality of the generator is used, for example, in tasks of statistical data analysis. The contribution shows usage when generating a descriptive statistics tasks. The basic principles of preparation of statistical data in both sample and population files are described. Methods of integrating these data into the generated task for different output formats are also explained. Selected group of tasks illustrating the outputs of the application of the described methods are presented. The use of a generator for building a Question bank in LMS Moodle is shown as well as the preparation of writing tests. At the same time, various data files storage options and subsequent use with regard to their lifetime are discussed. In the following, a new solution for the implementation of the automatic generator of parameterized tasks in cloud is introduced. This approach will allow the involvement of more users of the automatic generator.

Paper Nr: 123
Title:

Does Replacing Face-to-face Lectures with Pre-recorded Video Lectures Affect Learning Outcomes?

Authors:

Nestori Syynimaa

Abstract: Videoing lectures have been popular during the past decade. The literature on the effect of video lectures is controversial. Some studies indicate that video lectures have a positive effect on learning outcomes and student satisfaction, while some state that there is no effect at all. In this paper, we share the results of a university undergraduate course, where half of the lectures were replaced by pre-recorded lectures. The results indicate that using pre-recorded lectures had a statistically significant positive effect on grades. Also, the students’ satisfaction levels were higher.

Paper Nr: 130
Title:

Algorithmization in a Computer Graphics Environment

Authors:

Zuzana Homanova and Tatiana Havlaskova

Abstract: Today’s digital age makes it possible for people to communicate via video or images. Therefore, computer graphics is part of the elementary school curriculum. The paper is aimed at updating computer science education at Czech elementary schools; it shows how pupils could develop their computational thinking when creating vector graphics based on basic geometric shapes such as a circle, ellipse, square, rectangle and others. The following methods were chosen to present the proposed processes: verbal expression for an algorithm, visual projection and a flowchart.

Paper Nr: 144
Title:

Learner Experience in Hybrid Virtual Worlds: Interacting with Pedagogical Agents

Authors:

Athanasios Christopoulos, Marc Conrad and Mitul Shukla

Abstract: Studies related to the Virtual Learning approach are conducted almost exclusively in Distance Learning contexts and focus on the development of frameworks or taxonomies that classify the different ways of teaching and learning. Researchers may be dealing with the topic of interactivity but mainly focusing on the interactions that take place within the virtual world. However, in non-distance learning contexts, where students not only share the virtual but also the physical space, different types of interplay can be observed. In this paper, we classify these ‘hybrid’ interactions and further correlate them with the impact that the instructional design decisions have on motivation and engagement. In particular, a series of experiments were conducted in the context of different Hybrid Virtual Learning units, with Computer Science and Technology students participating in the study, whilst, the chosen instructional design approach included the employment of different Pedagogical Agents who aimed at increasing the incentives for interaction and therefore, engagement. The conclusions provide suggestions and guidelines to educators and instructional designers who wish to offer interactive and engaging learning activities to their students.

Paper Nr: 150
Title:

Feedback on a Self-education Module for AutoCAD: Development of a Self-education Module for Civil Engineering

Authors:

Loreline Faugier, Patrick Pizette, Gaëlle Guigon and Mathieu Vermeulen

Abstract: This paper aims to present the work carried out to improve a self-education module for AutoCAD dedicated to a class of civil engineering students. The whole development and research about an evaluation method is led by students helped by researchers, in accordance with the principles of participatory design and user-centered design. After finding objective evaluation criteria such as utility, usability and acceptability, we translate them into subcriteria and questions applied to the module. Very few students took the survey and that is a major problem to draw conclusions and to get improvement lines for the module. Thus, all along the paper, we emphasize on the setup of the survey and focus is given to measuring the efficiency of the evaluation method itself.

Paper Nr: 168
Title:

Review of Cognitive Energy Flow Model Concept for Virtual Student

Authors:

Viktors Zagorskis and Atis Kapenieks

Abstract: Data analysis in Virtual Learning Environment deepens the understanding of cognition processes in real student’s brain. The challenge is the evaluation of the quality of e-learning courses before the large-scale implementation. With this aim, we formulate the concept for a computer model for Virtual Student’s evolution. We combine knowledge elements explored from learners behavior data and cognitive theories. We assume that some of the brains energy flow expenses in learning and memorization are due to energy extraction for applying existing skills, analysis of accumulated knowledge, and adaptation of newly available information. We argue that the proposed Virtual Student model can perform cognitive energy flow modeling by extracting energy from the environmental learning objects and losing the power in a tedious learning process. The research shows that Cognitive Energy Flow model can be computerized to produce synthetic data to improve e-learning courses and predict real student’s behavior.

Paper Nr: 176
Title:

Building an Interactive Mobile Application to Enhance Students’ Problem Solving Skills in Higher Education Physics

Authors:

Ehab Malkawi, Shaikha Alhadrami and Afaf Aljabri

Abstract: Problem solving is a major part of the learning process that students need to acquire in their university education as it combines several skills within, such as comprehension, memory recall, critical thinking, and mathematical skills. Even though instructors and students recognize the importance of problem solving, generally both groups fail to culminate this corner step in the learning process. Students fail to realize that it is not the final answer of an assignment that is the important outcome, but rather the learning process and skills that are gained through problem solving. Technology and mobile applications can harvest the students’ attention in the process of problem solving and make them more willing to learn. We discuss the case of building an interactive mobile application that fosters the major steps in problem solving. The application is built to guide, help, encourage, motivate the students, and create a more interactive and exciting environment. It is built on an algorithm that relies on the major steps of problem solving. The first version of the mobile (Android) application is produced.

Paper Nr: 180
Title:

A Creation Tool for Serious Puzzle Games

Authors:

Gaëlle Guigon, Mathieu Vermeulen and Jérémie Humeau

Abstract: This article aims to present a tool for designing serious games with riddles, such as escape games. This multilingual tool will be available online freely and presented as a form on a website with a database to save and share one’s projects. After completing the form, a graphic overview of the project is presented to the user. It is based on different Serious Escape Games and Serious Puzzle Games realized in the past three years and on several websites giving advice to create this type of activity. This tool is at its early stages and the prototype has been tested by a few Serious Escape Games designers on their previous projects. Feedback will be used to improve the tool. Following the validation of the prototype, computer development has begun: the tool meets the needs of the designers and fits to the different tested projects. Intended initially for teaching after a few requests, it is expected to be used by a wide audience and to respond to the various needs related to the creation of this type of activity.

Area 3 - Learning/Teaching Methodologies and Assessment

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 5
Title:

Learning with Educational Games: Adapting to Older Adult's Needs

Authors:

Louise Sauvé and David Kaufman

Abstract: Creating effective online educational games for seniors requires adapting these games to the target players and their specific educational objectives. To improve seniors’ quality of life with games, we must develop games that adapt to the cognitive and physical requirements of this audience. Using a user-centered design methodology, we considered ergonomic criteria (i.e., utility and usability) to design an online educational game for seniors. This paper presents the variables of the study, the way we adapted the design of the game Solitaire for older adults, and the results of the field test done with 42 seniors. The participants reported a high degree of satisfaction with the game's design and demonstrated learning. We present recommendations to guide the development of online educational games for older adults.

Paper Nr: 14
Title:

Improving Students’ Performance through the Use of Simulations and Modeling: The Case of Population Growth

Authors:

Kathy L. Malone and Anita Schuchardt

Abstract: Internationally, students have difficulty interpreting and drawing conclusions from data. These skills are essential components of scientific reasoning, an ability that has been shown to correlate with conceptual change. Providing greater opportunities for students to engage in scientific practices such as modelling in order to collect and reason with data has the potential to improve scientific reasoning skills. However, in some subdisciplines of biology, such as population growth, data collection needs to occur over time scales that are unfeasible in a classroom setting. Computer-based simulations of biological phenomena are one way to overcome this limitation, but their effect on scientific reasoning has been under investigated. This study researched the effect on scientific reasoning of computer-based simulations in a context that employed a specific type of model-based reasoning (Modelling Instruction). Students who used computer-based simulations in a Modelling Instruction context showed increased scientific reasoning post-instruction compared to a comparison group. Moreover, shifts were observed in the intervention group towards more formal reasoning whereas no such change was observed with the comparison group. This result suggests that computer-based simulations should be further explored as a way to improve student scientific reasoning, particularly in contexts where laboratory investigations are not feasible.

Paper Nr: 19
Title:

A Study of First Year Undergraduate Computing Students’ Experience of Learning Software Development in the Absence of a Software Development Process

Authors:

Catherine Higgins, Ciaran O’Leary, Claire McAvinia and Barry Ryan

Abstract: Despite the ever-growing demand for software development graduates, it is recognised that a significant barrier for increasing graduate numbers lies in the inherent difficulty in learning how to develop software. This paper presents a study that is part of a larger research project aimed at addressing the gap in the provision of educational software development processes for freshman, novice undergraduate learners, to improve proficiency levels. As a means of understanding how such learners problem solve in software development in the absence of a formal process, this study examines the experiences and depth of learning acquired by a sample set of novice, freshman university learners. The study finds that without the scaffolding of an appropriate structured development process tailored to novices, students are in danger of failing to engage with the problem solving skills necessary for software development, particularly the skill of designing solutions prior to coding.

Paper Nr: 21
Title:

Phased Classroom Instruction: A Case Study on Teaching Programming Languages

Authors:

Sebastian Mader and François Bry

Abstract: This article describes a novel educational format called “phased classroom instruction” and its enabling technology specially tuned to the effective learning of formal languages in tertiary STEM education. Like flipped classroom, phased classroom instruction aims at promoting active learning. In contrast to flipped classroom, phased classroom instruction scales to large classes thanks to its associated enabling technology. The article reports on a real-life evaluation of the proposed format and of its enabling technology pointing to their effectiveness.

Paper Nr: 25
Title:

Teaching Software Engineering Principles in Non-vocational Schools

Authors:

Ilenia Fronza and Claus Pahl

Abstract: Many activities, such as computational thinking courses, are nowadays proposed in K-12 to prepare students for the current labour market, where being able to creatively use technology to solve problems is becoming increasingly important, and where more and more people are engaged in programming activities. Thus, there is a need to equip students with the necessary means to improve software quality, including non-vocational schools, where the challenge is leveraging existing curricular, non-programming activities to this end. This work explores the possibility of fostering software engineering principles in non-vocational high schools through curricular, non-programming activities. We describe two didactic modules and report the results of a classroom experience (involving 16 high school first-year students) that has been carried out to understand the effectiveness of the proposed approach. During the didactic modules, the participants achieved the objectives of the curricular activity, and at the same time learned how to organize their work by applying software engineering principles. These results allow us to formulate hypotheses for further work, such as extending our approach to other activities and observe if and when students will develop a “software engineering mindset”.

Paper Nr: 28
Title:

Retrieval Practice, Enhancing Learning in Electrical Science

Authors:

James Eustace and Pramod Pathak

Abstract: After an initial learning period taking a practice test improves long-term retention compared with not taking a practice test. This testing effect finding has significant relevance for education, however, integrating retrieval practice effectively into teaching and learning activities presents challenges to educators in classroom situations. This paper extends previous research applying the Practice Testing Learning Framework (PTLF) to support teaching and learning using practice testing in the classroom with materials that range in complexity from understanding to problem-solving in electrical science. Findings from this study show the number of practice tests completed and overall engagement with practice tests had a significant impact on criterion test performance in the topics enhancing learning where practice tests were available and more effective than other techniques employed. The testing effect was evident with materials involving problem-solving and the authors recommend the PTLF to integrate retrieval practice into teaching and learning activities.

Paper Nr: 52
Title:

A Computer-based Approach to Teach Tonal Harmony to Young Students

Authors:

Marcella Mandanici, Adriano Baratè, Luca A. Ludovico and Federico Avanzini

Abstract: In this paper authors present Harmonic Touch, a web platform for the study and practice of tonal harmony. The application is a step-by-step wizard that leads users through 3 experiences towards the discovery of important features of tonal harmony. Leveraging on chord perception, gestural interaction and gamification techniques authors propose an easy and funny approach to a topic otherwise considered too abstract and difficult for young students or amateurs. Harmonic Touch has been presented in a workshop to primary and middle school teachers, obtaining a good interest and appreciation as a didactic tool. Feedback received from participants suggests further developments such us expanding the music database and providing teachers with tools to customize Harmonic Touch for their teaching needs.

Paper Nr: 82
Title:

MATE-BOOSTER: Design of an e-Learning Course to Boost Mathematical Competence

Authors:

Alice Barana, Marina Marchisio and Raffaella Miori

Abstract: In the transition from lower to upper secondary education, Italian students are expected to have achieved a level of competence which allows them to use knowledge and abilities to model and to understand scientific and technical disciplines. Gaps or misunderstandings in basic knowledge can hinder the effort of students who attend technical high schools, where the core subjects are based on Mathematics. This paper deals with the design of a project conceived to strengthen mathematical competences of students attending the first year of a technical upper secondary school through an online course named “MATE-BOOSTER”. The online activities on the web-based platform have been developed using didactic methodologies founded on constructivist assumptions, as problem posing and problem solving, collaborative learning, learning by doing, automatic and adaptive formative assessment. In this work the process of design of MATE-BOOSTER is shown, the methodologies chosen are discussed, and the online activities are analysed from a constructivist perspective.

Paper Nr: 115
Title:

Assessment of Computational Thinking in K-12 Context: Educational Practices, Limits and Possibilities - A Systematic Mapping Study

Authors:

Lúcia H. Martins-Pacheco, Christiane G. von Wangenheim and Nathalia C. Alves

Abstract: The computational thinking (CT) concept has been the basis for several studies in the K-12 educational context. However, there are many questions that need to be deepened to attend K-12 educational demands. One great challenge is concerning assessment. Aiming to contribute to understanding this issue we present a systematic mapping study. We found 46 articles that approach assessment in this context, and we extract this information. The vast majority are recent publications, there is no consensus in CT characteristics, block-based languages are the most commonly used tool, instruments for assessment that are more used are pre and post-tests/questionnaires/surveys; samples sizes are usually small, and there is some psychometric rigor in just a few studies. Generally, the CT approaches were an isolated course or application, and their length of time was very different. Pedagogical foundations concerning the cognitive development stages and principles of knowledge structuration were rare. In addition, questions as “what has to be taught to the youngster?” and “how to teach and to assess in alignment with K-12 goals?” were not appropriately answered. Therefore, there are many research opportunities for the further development of this field.

Paper Nr: 148
Title:

Water Cycle in Nature – An Innovative Virtual Reality and Virtual Lab: Improving Learning Experience of Primary School Students

Authors:

Diana Bogusevschi and Gabriel-Miro Muntean

Abstract: A technology-enhanced learning (TEL) application, “Water Cycle in Nature”, that focuses on the physics phenomena part of the natural water cycle and precipitation formation was employed in a small-scale educational pilot carried out in a primary school in Ireland, as part of the European Horizon 2020 NEWTON project. This application contains 3D immersive computer-based virtual reality and experimental laboratory simulations. 58 primary school children took part in this pilot, split in two groups, one control and one experimental, with 29 students in each. The goal of the study presented in this paper was to assess the benefits of the Water Cycle in Nature application both in learner experience and usability and knowledge gain. The results show good outcomes in usability and learner experience. In terms of knowledge gain it has been shown that the excitement of the experimental group students towards the game might have created a barrier in terms of learning improvement and the NEWTON application will serve better as a revision tool.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 7
Title:

Enhancing an Online Digital Storytelling Course for Older Adults through the Implementation of Andragogical Principles

Authors:

Robyn Schell, Diogo da Silva and David Kaufman

Abstract: In earlier research on face-to-face digital storytelling courses for older adults 65 years of age and over, findings showed that this activity provided an opportunity to forge social connections with others through story as well increase the technical proficiency of participants. A digital story is a type of movie that embeds multimedia such as narration, photographs, music and text. In these courses, participants created legacy digital stories that reflected significant events, people and places in their lives. To reach a wider audience, our original face-to-face course was transformed to a fully online course. In this paper, we describe the andragogical approach used for designing this course for older adults and the perceptions of their learning experience within the context of these principles. Our findings show that participants prefer the facilitator take a greater role in discussion forums and providing technical assistance.

Paper Nr: 8
Title:

Understanding the Complexities of Chinese Word Acquisition within an Online Learning Platform

Authors:

Xiwen Lu, Korinn S. Ostrow and Neil T. Heffernan

Abstract: Because Chinese reading and writing systems are not phonetic, Mandarin Chinese learners must construct six-way mental connections in order to learn new words, linking characters, meanings, and sounds. Little research has focused on the difficulties inherent to each specific component involved in this process, especially within digital learning environments. The present work examines Chinese word acquisition within ASSISTments, an online learning platform traditionally known for mathematics education. Students were randomly assigned to one of three conditions in which researchers manipulated a learning assignment to exclude one of three bi-directional connections thought to be required for Chinese language acquisition (i.e., sound-meaning and meaning-sound). Researchers then examined whether students’ performance differed significantly when the learning assignment lacked sound-character, character-meaning, or meaning-sound connection pairs, and whether certain problem types were more difficult for students than others. Assessment of problems by component type (i.e., characters, meanings, and sounds) revealed support for the relative ease of problems that provided sounds, with students exhibiting higher accuracy with fewer attempts and less need for system feedback when sounds were included. However, analysis revealed no significant differences in word acquisition by condition, as evidenced by next-day post-test scores or pre-to post-test gain scores. Implications and suggestions for future work are discussed.

Paper Nr: 11
Title:

Educational Games as a Motivational Tool: Considerations on their Potential and Limitations

Authors:

Marcello Passarelli, Francesca M. Dagnino, Jeffrey Earp, Flavio Manganello, Donatella Persico, Francesca Pozzi, Chris Bailey, Carlo Perrotta, Thomas Buijtenweg and Mata Haggis

Abstract: There is considerable interest in leveraging video games to support students’ motivation. This involves employment of educational (serious) and entertainment games. However, while evidence indicates that games can enhance learning outcomes, doubts persist about whether they retain their enjoyable character in formal learning contexts. This study was carried out within the H2020 Gaming Horizons project, which involved a review of academic literature on the role of games in society, as well as 73 semi-structured interviews with relevant stakeholders, including players and educators, investigating their positions on game-related issues. The interviews suggested that players tend to view game-based learning – and specifically serious games at school – with scepticism. This is partly attributable to the perception that serious games have lower production values than entertainment games, and that gaming, as a voluntary, self-driven activity, clashes with the structured nature of school. Some educators reported individual and gender differences in the motivating power of games. However, the use of entertainment games to foster learning outcomes was seen favourably. Two focus groups devoted to the issue highlighted the need for carefully tailoring the gaming experience to both context and student, and the importance of developing a sustainable business model for enhancing serious games quality.

Paper Nr: 16
Title:

Online Learning in Schools of Business: Deans' Perspectives on Faculty Issues

Authors:

Maureen S. Andrade, Ronald M. Miller and Shaylana Davis

Abstract: The demand for higher education is increasing, thereby widening access and creating a more diverse student body. Institutions are implementing flexible learning strategies, such as online courses, to accommodate students’ responsibilities and time demands. This enables them to have choices in how, what, when, and where they learn, and extends opportunities to gain knowledge beyond a privileged few. Business schools in particular are embracing online degrees to meet demand as the programs they offer attract more students than any other course of study in many contexts. However, institutions face challenges when implementing organizational change, and particularly those that disrupt traditional practice. Deans of business schools must find ways to encourage faculty to redesign their courses for online delivery and teach online; they must also to take steps to ensure quality. The purpose of this study was to explore the current practices of business schools for online learning, particularly how deans are addressing faculty issues, and to determine the impact of these practices. Findings indicate that demand is outpacing offerings. Resistance, workload, and compensation are continuing issues. Quality assurance and training predicted the number of faculty teaching online but the former did not increase faculty confidence.

Paper Nr: 24
Title:

Online Generator and Corrector of Parametric Questions in Hard Copy Useful for the Elaboration of Thousands of Individualized Exams

Authors:

Francisco A. Zampirolli, Fernando Teubl and Valério R. Batista

Abstract: In this work we present a method to produce parametric questions, which can be useful for various classes and institutions. Our method generates exams with different texts but the same content, hence the same level of difficulty. We made several interfaces in order to gather information about institutions, programmers, courses, topics, classes, exams and questions. Our method makes questions belong to topics, which in their turn belong to courses. Hereby we detail our process of producing parametric questions, which utilizes a bit of LATEX and mainly some parts in Python. With this programming language we define the parameters inside the statement of the questions. The presented results show that we were able to build an efficient system even in its first version defined on web pages written in Django. Our system is free and it offers to teachers and professors the possibility of generating and correcting tests in an automatic and comfortable way. Since the exams are printed with different texts but the same content, then even for hundreds or thousands of students the method will be fast, effective and also efficient.

Paper Nr: 51
Title:

The Evaluation of a Teaching Maturity Model in the Context of University Teaching

Authors:

Elisa Reci and Andreas Bollin

Abstract: Maturity models are a way to address the quality of teaching. They are used either as self-assessment tools for teachers or as assessment tools for accrediting courses and institutions. By collecting best practices of computer science teachers in school, a Teaching Maturity model (TeaM) was developed. The paper evaluates this model in the context of university teaching. It investigates its applicability and presents hints for improvement. To do so, computer science lectures at Universität Klagenfurt were selected and assessed based on the TeaM Model. Additionally, the students’ feedback for these courses was collected, and the results were statistically compared. In this setting, it turned out that the TeaM model can be applied to university teaching, but it should also be improved in terms of regrouping the process areas.

Paper Nr: 111
Title:

Opening User Model Data for Motivation and Learning: The Case of an Adaptive Multiplication Game

Authors:

Angeliki Leonardou, Maria Rigou and John Garofalakis

Abstract: Multiplication table fluency is of core importance, as it consists a fundamental stage of mathematics education. It is a common phenomenon that pupils face difficulties in perceiving this knowledge and achieving multiplication skills. This paper presents an adaptive multiplication game for assessing and gradually improving multiplication skills. The game also incorporates Open Learner Model elements which expose parts of the learner model to the user through easily perceivable visualizations for improving self-reflection, fostering self-regulated learning and increasing user motivation. The game has been tested with a representative sample of primary school students and based on the data collected the game and the Open Learner Model’s features have been received positively.

Paper Nr: 122
Title:

Improving the Attitude towards Mathematics via an ICT Rearrangement of the 8th Grade Math Curriculum

Authors:

Borislav Lazarov

Abstract: Under consideration is an experimental teaching in mathematics of an eight-grade high abilities student, whose attitude towards mathematics initially was negative. The educational goal includes developing student’s competence of synthetic type, i.e. a package of knowledge, skills and attitudes, which are multifunctional and transferable. The European framework of key-competences is chosen to design an individual educational trajectory (IET). An original didactic model is adopted as theoretical base for this IET. The main issue in the IET was how to change the student’s attitude towards mathematics to positive. For resolving this issue, a rearrangement of the syllabus is done by incorporating ICT. A large part of the routine paper-and-pencil drills was replaced with dynamic-geometry-software exercises. Parallel to the compulsory lessons in math, the IET included two project-oriented initiatives. The goal of these initiatives were to reinforce the synthesis of the student’s analytical knowledge and skills, which were built separately in math, ICT and arts. On this stage of the IET, the informal learning served as an accelerator in turning attitude in positive direction. At the final stage of the experimental teaching, the student covers the general standard for positive attitude towards mathematics.

Paper Nr: 125
Title:

A Game-centric Approach to Teaching Artificial Intelligence

Authors:

Marc Pouly, Thomas Koller and Ruedi Arnold

Abstract: Man vs. machine competitions have always been attracting much public attention and the famous defeats of human champions in chess, Jeopardy!, Go or poker undoubtedly mark important milestones in the history of artificial intelligence. In this article we reflect on our experiences with a game-centric approach to teaching artificial intelligence that follows the historical development of algorithms by popping the hood of these champion bots. Moreover, we made available a server infrastructure for playing card games in perfect information and imperfect information playing mode, where students can evaluate their implementations of increasingly sophisticated game-playing algorithms in weekly online competitions, i.e. from rule-based systems to exhaustive and heuristic search in game trees to deep learning enhanced Monte Carlo methods and reinforcement learning completely freed of human domain knowledge. The evaluation of this particular course setting revealed enthusiastic feedback not only from students but also from the university authority. What started as an experiment became part of the standard computer science curriculum after just one implementation.

Paper Nr: 127
Title:

ZenHackAdemy: Ethical Hacking @ DIBRIS

Authors:

Luca Demetrio, Giovanni Lagorio, Marina Ribaudo, Enrico Russo and Andrea Valenza

Abstract: Cybersecurity attacks are on the rise, and the current response is not effective enough. The need for a competent workforce, able to face attackers, is increasing. At the moment, the gap between academia and real-world skills is huge and academia cannot provide students with skills that match those of an attacker. To pass on these skills, teachers have to train students in scenarios as close as possible to real-world ones. Capture the Flag (CTF) competitions are a great tool to achieve this goal, since they encourage students to think as an attacker does, thus creating more awareness on the modalities and consequences of an attack. We describe our experience in running an educational activity on ethical hacking, which we proposed to computer science and computer engineering students. We organized seminars, outside formal classes, and provided online support on the hands-on part of the training. We delivered different types of exercises and held a final CTF competition. These activities resulted in growing a community of students and researchers interested in cybersecurity, and some of them have formed ZenHack, an official CTF team.

Paper Nr: 131
Title:

Every University Should Have a Computer-Based Testing Facility

Authors:

Craig Zilles, Matthew West, Geoffrey Herman and Timothy Bretl

Abstract: For the past five years we have been operating a Computer-Based Testing Facility (CBTF) as the primary means of summative assessment in large-enrollment STEM-oriented classes. In each of the last three semesters, it has proctored over 50,000 exams for over 6,000 unique students in 25–30 classes. Our CBTF has simultaneously improved the quality of assessment, allowed the testing of computational skills, and reduced the recurring burden of performing assessment in a broad collection of STEM-oriented classes, but it does require an up-front investment to develop the digital exam content. We have found our CBTF to be secure, cost-effective, and well liked by our faculty, who choose to use it semester after semester. We believe that there are many institutions that would similarly benefit from having a Computer-Based Testing Facility.

Paper Nr: 132
Title:

Animal Observation Support System based on Body Movements: Hunting with Animals in Virtual Environment

Authors:

Takaya Iio, Yui Sasaki, Mikihiro Tokuoka, Ryohei Egusa, Fusako Kusunoki, Hiroshi Mizoguchi, Shigenori Inagaki and Tomoyuki Nogami

Abstract: We have developed a preliminary learning support system for zoos where children can learn about the ecologies of animals while moving their bodies. For children, the zoo is a place of learning, where they can observe live animals carefully and learn about ecology. However, some animals are exceptionally difficult to observe carefully, and the observers may find it challenging to learn in such scenarios. Therefore, in this research, we developed a learning support system that efficiently acquires knowledge about the ecologies of animals that are difficult to observe in zoos. This system uses a sensor to measure the body movements of the learner; certain animals also tend to respond based on these movements. By doing so, live animals can be carefully observed virtually, and ecological learning is achieved via touch. In this work, we describe the results of evaluating the usefulness of the current system by developing a prototype and evaluating experiments as the first step towards realizing a learning support system to achieve ecological learning of animal observations in zoos.

Paper Nr: 138
Title:

Toward a Model of Workforce Training and Development

Authors:

Maiju Tuomiranta, Sanna Varpukari and Nestori Syynimaa

Abstract: In the modern, ever-changing world, both employers and employees are struggling in keeping their competitive advantage. Previous studies have recognised that both formal instruction and informal learning are needed to gain and maintain competence. The famous 70-20-10 model states that only 10 per cent of learning occurs during the formal instruction. The challenge for the organisations is how the formal instruction can and should be provided to employees. In this paper, we constructed a model of Workforce Training and Development (WOTRA), based on the current learning theories, modes, methods, and models. WOTRA can be used by both employers and employees to choose an adequate mix of learning modes and methods to achieve their learning goals.

Paper Nr: 142
Title:

Direct Instruction and Its Extension with a Community of Inquiry: A Comparison of Mental Workload, Performance and Efficiency

Authors:

Giuliano Orru and Luca Longo

Abstract: This paper investigates the efficiency of two instructional design conditions: a traditional design based on the direct instruction approach to learning and its extension with a collaborative activity based upon the community of inquiry approach to learning. This activity was built upon a set of textual trigger questions to elicit cognitive abilities and support knowledge formation. A total of 115 students participated in the experiments and a number of third-level computer science classes where divided in two groups. A control group of learners received the former instructional design while an experimental group also received the latter design. Subsequently, learners of each group individually answered a multiple-choice questionnaire, from which a performance measure was extracted for the evaluation of the acquired factual, conceptual and procedural knowledge. Two measures of mental workload were acquired through self-reporting questionnaires: one unidimensional and one multidimensional. These, in conjunction with the performance measure, contributed to the definition of a measure of efficiency. Evidence showed the positive impact of the added collaborative activity on efficiency.

Paper Nr: 143
Title:

Are 21st Century Skills Evaluated in Robotics Competitions? The Case of First LEGO League Competition

Authors:

Mireia Usart, Despoina Schina, Vanessa Esteve-Gonzalez and Mercè Gisbert

Abstract: Citizens of the 21st century need to acquire skills related to collaboration and project design in order to be able to meet the current demands for the workplace. Challenge-based learning contexts such as FIRST LEGO League (FLL) Competition connect students with professionals and enable them to solve real-world problems and develop 21st century skills. Main aim of this study is to examine whether 21st century skills are evaluated in the context of FIRST LEGO League (FLL) Competition within Core Values, Project and Robot Design competition categories. Our study is based on an expert analysis of the 21st century skills as presented in the FIRST LEGO League (FLL) evaluation rubrics. Results show that the main 21st century skills are displayed at the FLL evaluation rubric, in particular communication and problem solving. This study could be helpful to FLL experts and coaches and could enable them to better target 21st century skills in the teams’ training and evaluation.

Paper Nr: 156
Title:

The Effect of Educational Game on Children Learning Experience in a Slovakian School

Authors:

Nour El Mawas, Peter Truchly, Pavol Podhradský and Cristina H. Muntean

Abstract: Preparing our children for the rapid economic, scientific and technological developments ahead is a top research aspect for many research communities and state institutions. In this context, STEM topics have an important role in the earlier educational stage and more specifically at primary school level. This paper investigates the learning impact of using Final Frontier, an immersive educational video game in a Slovak school for teaching concepts related to the solar system. The experimental study involved 44 children divided in two groups, a control group and an experimental group. The aim of this paper is to present an investigation on the effect of educational game on the learning outcome of the children when the Final Frontier game is used. The results show that Final Frontier game based learning brought better knowledge gain values. In addition, the majority of children perceived learning more entertaining and they believed that the game helped them to learn through problem solving tasks and interactive exploration of the planets virtual environment.

Paper Nr: 162
Title:

A (Technologically Enhanced) Sound Education: Implementation, Experimentation and Analysis of Raymond Murray Schafer’s Exercises

Authors:

Veronica Curioni, Luca A. Ludovico and Giorgio Presti

Abstract: Raymond Murray Schafer is considered one of the leading experts in the field of music ecology. In one of his works, he proposed specific exercises to encourage listening awareness in young students. This paper aims to describe an experimental activity in which three exercises extracted from Schafer’s work have been implemented in the form of computer-based tools, so as to be administered both in a traditional and in a technologically enhanced way. The experimentation has been conducted on 233 primary school students, showing to what extent the adoption of technology can be applied to listening attention and awareness.

Paper Nr: 167
Title:

Approach to Testing Many State Machine Models in Education

Authors:

Shinpei Ogata, Mizue Kayama and Kozo Okano

Abstract: In state machine modeling education, the effort required by instructors to test a large number of learner-created models should be reduced to concentrate on the following feedback activity. Although there are several methods for validating and verifying a state machine model, a considerable problem for instructors is the lack of tools to test multiple models at once. This study proposes a preliminary approach and a support tool to efficiently and promptly test multiple state machine models. A basic approach to solving this problem is creating test cases and then testing multiple state machine models simultaneously using these test cases. To reduce the instructors’ testing effort, the proposed approach includes three new concepts: (1) a logger extension to capture simulated data generated by an existing state machine simulation tool called SMart-Learning; (2) a method for creating test cases based on these logs; and (3) a feature to test many models using these test cases. As a result of a preliminary evaluation, it was confirmed that the proposed approach could be useful to test many answer models efficiently.

Paper Nr: 169
Title:

Game Jams: An Innovative Education Experience in Higher Education

Authors:

D. Gledhill and M. Novak

Abstract: Team based learning has been a significant component of games design/art and programming courses at the University of Huddersfield, but not without challenges. A solution that maintains the benefits of team based learning while solving some of the challenges was sought. Game Jams are a popular method for rapid game development. The Game Jam idea is refined for the higher education sector and details presented, with positive results mostly focused on student engagement but also includes more achievable scoping and improved communication.

Paper Nr: 175
Title:

A Flow Measurement Instrument to Test the Students’ Motivation in a Computer Science Course

Authors:

Nour El Mawas and Jean Heutte

Abstract: Motivate students is a top research aspect for many research communities, schools, universities, and institutions. In this context, motivation has an important role in the leaning process and particularly in the students’ success and the drop-out avoidance. This paper proposes a flow measurement instrument in order to test the students’ motivation in a Computer Science course. The experimental study involved 33 students that answer a same questionnaire twice in a period of one week. The temporal stability, internal consistency and convergent validity of the first English version of the Flow in education scale (EduFlow) were examined. The results show that autotelic experience (well-being provided by the activity itself) is significantly positively correlated with academic achievement. This research work is dedicated to Education and Computer Science active communities and more specifically to directors of learning centres / pedagogy departments, and the service of information technology and communication for education (pedagogical engineers) who meet difficulties in evaluate students’ motivation in a specific course.

Paper Nr: 13
Title:

Reach to Teach: Preparing Cybersecurity Experts as Adjunct Community College Faculty

Authors:

Rachelle Heller, Costis Toregas and Lance Hoffman

Abstract: While the nation should maintain and expand the educational capabilities in cybersecurity given the current high demand for this sector, currently there exists a capacity issue: students cannot readily be added to the education system, especially at the Community Colleges level, because trained faculty to accommodate expanded academic demand are scarce. Cybersecurity experts in the workforce have the potential to fill the need for part-time cybersecurity faculty at the Community College level. The challenge is to prepare these technology-savvy individuals with classroom pedagogical insights and skills which not usually part of a cybersecurity experts skillset. A research question for this development project is “Can we use an online environment to provide pedagogy training for potential adjunct community college faculty.” Currently, the Reach To Teach project is exploring this possibility through a research effort engaging current faculty, as well as education experts, and a pilot Reach To Teach online course that is being made available to these cybersecurity experts. The Reach to Teach pilot is a set of six sessions, each of which includes the following: introduction to Community Colleges, ethics, and ideas for classroom pedagogy (e.g. the general structure of a course, crafting goals and objectives, techniques for moving explanations from the concreate to the abstract, using group work using case studies, and using discussions in classes). The team hosted a content review with community college educators and the pilot has been evaluated by 12 members of the target population. Their suggestions for improvement included. In addition to addressing these concerns, the revised pilot includes a modified interactive experience, Viewers are now able leave comments that can be read and replied to by course leaders or other individuals viewing the material.

Paper Nr: 78
Title:

Assessing the Participatory Design of a Project-based Course on Computer Network Applications

Authors:

Felix Freitag, Ruben Tous and Leandro Navarro

Abstract: New teaching methodologies which foster student involvement, such as project-based learning, are nowadays part of the study curriculum of many engineering schools. Project-based learning courses, however, often build upon other previously taught technical courses, where the technical content for the project to be developed is studied. That type of course design focuses on building the transversal capabilities of students, and the technical challenges of the project are the mean to acquire these non-technical skills. In this paper, we present and assess a project-based course on computer network applications of a computer science school, which has been designed to improve within the same course both the transversal and technical skills of the students. The proposition of interest is that the course not only aims to train the students’ transversal skills by a group work project, but also to practise new technical topics and technologies. We argue that the key element of the proposed course design is that each student project group defines with the instructor the project they would like to develop in the course. We present first the design of the course and then an assessment with questionnaires, which were conducted over two semesters with the students enrolled in the course. The obtained results indicate that the students achieved both technical and transversal skills, while the instructors need to be flexible to adapt to diverse technical topics of the proposed projects.

Paper Nr: 109
Title:

Determinants Affecting Online Learning Behaviour and Learning Effectiveness

Authors:

Chi-Hui Wu, Jing Li, Reed-Joe Chang and Tung-Jung Lin

Abstract: Using Fuzzy DEMATEL, this article investigates the learner’s behaviour of online learning that features multiple characteristics which are complicated and interacting with each other, and between them clears the relationships to provide or benefit schools with teaching strategies, courses design and planning activating learners’ learning behaviour and achieving learning effectiveness. With respect to the dimensions, music learning motivation, self-directed learning are the determinant dimensions of learners’ behaviour and learning effectiveness that affecting other four dimensions; and to the criteria, they are preference and use on computers and smart phones, online learning affecting other 31 factors

Paper Nr: 145
Title:

Enhancing the Teaching of Informatics through Engaging Experience

Authors:

Martin Cápay

Abstract: There are plenty of learning approaches today, which are based on well-known educational theories, and which try to encourage students to active participation in the educational process. Educational activities designed to acquire knowledge from experience lead students to make own abstract or mental models. This paper describes a set of experiments being conducted in the delivery of computer science courses using the experience to supplement or replace the traditional model of the lectures. Using physical computing concepts allows students to develop concrete, tangible products. According to our experience, we should conclude that children really learn from their attempts and errors even in computer science classes. Our vision is closest to the experimental learning model do – reflect – apply supported by using well-designed questioning. Abstraction and conceptualization are preceded by the visualization and manipulation of the objects or commands. The great benefit of “getting physical“ is a holistic view of computer science which encourages creativity, promotes learning by doing and even engaging the whole mind and body. We conclude that relatively simple teaching aid, mobile devices, special hardware, and well-designed online programming activities could help to explain even abstract computer science underlying concepts through the experience sometimes more effectively than through instructional model.

Paper Nr: 152
Title:

Can Digital Footprints Save the Physical Lecture?

Authors:

Tarjei Heggernes and Ole J. Bergfjord

Abstract: We argue that better use of “digital footprints” (data generated from students’ learning activities) could be used to improve the traditional lecture. We point out some potentially important data sources, and briefly discuss how data from each of these sources can contribute to better learning. Finally, we argue that even if this development is possible, it will require changes – certainly changed priorities among faculty, but also probably recruitment of new types of expertise, for instance data scientists.

Paper Nr: 194
Title:

Gamification and Coding to Engage Primary School Students in Learning Mathematics: A Case Study

Authors:

Raffaella Folgieri, Maria E. Vanutelli, Paola V. Galbiati and Claudio Lucchiari

Abstract: This paper describes a pilot educational project made in a Primary School in Italy (Scuola Primaria Alessandro Manzoni at Mulazzano, Milan) implemented in 2016 and 2017. The project was born from a specific request: the school aimed at improving the results achieved by students aged 7 during the National Tests for Mathematics since they registered performances lower than the National Average. In this context, we supported teachers providing information tools and methods to improve performances. Our aim was to develop new game-oriented approaches to problem-solving, mixing our different experiences and competences (organization design, information technologies, psychology). We provided a broader spectrum of parameters tools and keys to understand how to achieve an inclusive approach personalized on students, involving them and their teachers in the project. This cooperative approach allowed us to collect interesting observations about learning styles, pointing out the negative impact that standardized processes and instruments can have on self-esteem and consequently on the performance of pupils. We argue that addressing pupils in considering mathematics as continuous research and development can increase their performances in National Tests execution. Children free to realize their own experiments and observations dramatically improve their involvement and curiosity about Mathematics.

Area 4 - Social Context and Learning Environments

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 93
Title:

OurKidsCode: Facilitating Families to Be Creative with Computing

Authors:

Nina Bresnihan, Glenn Strong, Lorraine Fisher, Richard Millwood and Áine Lynch

Abstract: OurKidsCode is a joint project between Trinity College Dublin and the Irish National Parents’ Council (Primary) which aims to promote and support families’ interest and activity in computing through the delivery of family creative-coding workshops at a national scale in Ireland. There is evidence that parents highly value computer science education, and are interested in supporting and encouraging their children’s engagement with it. However because of their lack of knowledge and skills, they find this challenging. We present a rationale for the project, and report on the design, development and evaluation of family creative coding workshops delivered in non formal settings which engage families as computational co-creators. The evaluation of the pilot workshops show promising results for parents’ attitude to learning with their families and significant increases in their confidence to do so. They also provide evidence that the workshops succeed in promoting and supporting families’ interest and creative activity in computing and the learning collaboration between parent and child.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 20
Title:

Skill Confidence Ratings in a MOOC: Examining the Link between Skill Confidence and Learner Development

Authors:

Karen von Schmieden, Thomas Staubitz, Lena Mayer and Christoph Meinel

Abstract: This paper explores the development of perceived learner skill confidence in a programming MOOC by applying and analyzing a new Skill Confidence Rating (SCR) survey. After cleaning datasets, we analyze a sample of n = 1689 for the first course module and n = 1147 for the second course module. Results show that on average, learners perceive their skills more confidently after taking a module. The initial confidence per module differs. We could not find a correlation between perceived learner confidence and learner performance in this course.

Paper Nr: 39
Title:

Digital Competence of Educators (DigCompEdu): Development and Evaluation of a Self-assessment Instrument for Teachers' Digital Competence

Authors:

Mina Ghomi and Christine Redecker

Abstract: Based on the European Framework for the Digital Competence of Educators (DigCompEdu), a self-assessment tool was developed to measure teachers’ digital competence. This paper describes the DigCompEdu reference framework, the development and the evaluation of the instrument, and analyses the results of the study with 335 participants in Germany in view of the reliability and validity of the tool. To determine internal consistency, Cronbach's alpha is considered for the entire instrument as well as separately for the six competence areas. To investigate the validity, hypotheses based on groups with known attributes are tested using the Mann-Whitney-U test and the Spearman rank correlation. As predicted, there is a significant, albeit small, difference between STEM and non-STEM teachers, and computer science and non-computer science teachers. Furthermore, there is also a significant difference between teachers with negative attitudes to the benefits of technologies compared to those with neutral or positive attitudes. Teachers who are experienced in using technologies in class have significantly higher scores, which further confirms the validity of the instrument. In sum, the results of the analysis suggest that the survey is a reliable and valid instrument to measure teachers’ digital competence.

Paper Nr: 99
Title:

Social Robots in Collaborative Learning: Consequences of the Design on Students’ Perception

Authors:

Alix Gonnot, Christine Michel, Jean-Charles Marty and Amélie Cordier

Abstract: The interest in using social robots in education is growing as it appears that they could add a social dimension that enhances learning. However, there is little use of robotics in collaborative learning contexts. This shows a lack of knowledge about students’ perception of social robots and their use for education purposes. This paper aims to fill this gap by analyzing, with experimental methods: (1) the influence of specific ways of interaction (facial expressions, voice and text) on the students’ perception of the robot and, (2) students’ acceptability criteria for using robots in a classroom. The target objective is to help the design of future learning situations. The study shows that the ways used to interact produce significant differences in the perception of the animation, the likeability, the attractiveness, the safety and the usability of the robot. The study also shows that major improvements must be made on the design of the hedonic characteristics of the interactions, especially identification and stimulation, to favor the student’s acceptance of this kind of learning support tools.

Paper Nr: 157
Title:

Promoting Talents for Computer Science

Authors:

Sara Hinterplattner, Barbara Sabitzer, Heike Demarle-Meusel and Hanspeter Mössenböck

Abstract: In the field of computer science there is a lack of qualified staff. Hence, more talents are needed, and universities try to attract students by launching different programs. The Johannes Kepler University Linz is very engaged in talent promotion and offers programs for all age groups from preschool up to higher education. The goal of these programs is to support gifted students throughout the grades in computer science as well as in their personal development. For this purpose, the students are challenged with creative interdisciplinary problem-based projects, all in connection with computer science. To achieve this goal all programs are based on the three pillars of honors education: creating community, enhancing academic competence and offering bounded freedom. In this paper we give an overview of all talent programs at the Johannes Kepler University Linz for different levels of education, some of them already proven and others in their first year respectively in their pilot phase with some unique selling points. We describe the three pillars of honors education applied in the activities as well as the planned evaluation.

Paper Nr: 172
Title:

Ines&Us: Endless Love Alternate Reality Game to Build Utopic New Worlds

Authors:

Valéria Andrade, Marcelo Alves de Barros, Fátima Vieira, Rafael Barros de Sousa and Leandro S. Almeida

Abstract: The eternal challenge of teaching-learning literature is to delight educators and learners by reading and make them agents multipliers of the experience of reading perceived as a process of transformation of people and creation of utopian and possible worlds. This work explores the concept of endless love of Pedro and Inês praised in the Inezian myth, together with a gamified technological platform accessible to the population through the cell phone, to create a serious game of performative reading and production of multimodal texts to creation of social entrepreneurship projects. The initial application of IU Endless Love game indicates that it may influence teen students and adults be changed from conventional literature readers to be builders of utopic worlds who use their available resources to 1) to train readers on a large scale, 2) to spread the Inezian myth in Brazil and Portugal, 3) to facilitate the understanding and definition of reading objectives, 4) to incentive social entrepreneurship and 5) to fight the two critical social scenarios in their region concerning violence against women and hunger.

Paper Nr: 193
Title:

Towards a Functional and Technical Architecture for e-Exams

Authors:

Nour El Mawas, Jean-Marie Gilliot, Maria S. Montesinos, Marine Karmann and Serge Garlatti

Abstract: In the context of lifelong learning, student learning is online or computer-mediated. However, schools and universities are still using the traditional style of paper-based evaluations even if technological environments and learning management systems are used during lectures and exercises. This paper proposes a functional and technical e-exam solution in order to allow learners and students to do e-exam in universities’ classrooms and dedicated centres. We evaluate our approach in an object-oriented programming and databases course. The experimental study involved students from the first and second year of a Master degree in an engineering school. The results show that (1) Students' knowledge is better assessed during the e-exam, (2) the technical environment is easier to master than the paper environment, and (3) students are able to apply the competencies developed during the lessons in the e-exam. This research work is dedicated to Education and Computer Science active communities and more specifically to directors of learning centres / Universities’ departments, and the service of information technology and communication for education (pedagogical engineers) who meet difficulties in evaluating students’ in a secure environment.

Area 5 - Domain Applications and Case Studies

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 43
Title:

Augmented Reality and QR Codes for Teaching Music to Preschoolers and Kindergarteners: Educational Intervention and Evaluation

Authors:

Garyfallia Preka and Maria Rangoussi

Abstract: This research focuses on the use of Quick Response (QR) codes, as a part of the Augmented Reality (AR) technology, in an educational intervention for early childhood education in Music. The educational methods employed are game-based and collaborative learning within a framework that uses Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and mobile devices in indoors and outdoors activities. A modified form of the ‘treasure hunt’ game is the canvas of the intervention carried out; the learning contents implicitly taught through the game are elements of the curriculum for Music in Kindergarten. Research questions address the learning outcomes achieved as well as the development of pupils’ collaborative skills through the implemented learning method and ICT tools, given the pupils’ age and their as yet limited reading/writing skills. Evaluation results indicate that the AR-QR technology is a powerful tool that triggers and sustains children’s interest during the learning process and can enhance their cognitive skills, their collaborative skills and their social interaction. Verification of the persistence of these results over time would require a longitudinal study on the same pupils; the findings of this case study, however, indicate the strong potential of AR-QR tools for the cognitive and socio-emotional development of children.

Paper Nr: 60
Title:

Development of Diagnostic Skills in Dentistry Students using Gamified Virtual Patients

Authors:

Sneyder S. M., Juan E. Gómez-Morantes, Carlos Parra, Angela Carrillo-Ramos, Adriana I. Camacho and Gloria C. Moreno

Abstract: The use of serious games, virtual patients, and other forms of digital learning technologies are starting to emerge in dentistry schools around the world. However, because of their novelty, there is still a need for literature discussing the different challenges of computer-supported education in this field. This paper presents the design, development, and pilot validation of a serious game for the development of diagnostic skills in dentistry students. Called RealTeeth, this game puts the student in a job interview context and asks him to diagnose 10 endondontic cases. Each case allows the student to follow 5 different diagnostic routes with different information and resources. At the end of the 10 cases, the student will receive a job offer in accordance with his or her performance on the cases. This game was tested with a cohort of student of the pre-clinic course of endodontics in the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana in Bogotá, Colombia. The results of this pilot validation were positive in terms of user acceptance and attitude, reinforcing the potential of computer supported education in the field of dentistry.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 22
Title:

Progress Monitoring in Primary Education using Levumi: A Case Study

Authors:

Andreas Mühling, Jana Jungjohann and Markus Gebhardt

Abstract: We present, as a case study, the web-based platform Levumi that enables teachers to easily monitor learning progressions of children with a focus on elementary skills in reading, writing, and mathematics. Curriculum-based measurements are used that can be administered economically in short time and - in many parts - in parallel for multiple children. The system is built around exchanging data between schools and educational research, such that data with high ecological validity can be collected anonymously in order to gain insights into learning processes and in turn offer improved tests for teachers. For this case study, the acceptance and use of the platform over the last years is evaluated with a focus on tests for reading abilities. The results show how that many users are integrating the system in their daily teaching, learning progressions can be assessed and that the data is even usable for validation purposes.

Paper Nr: 37
Title:

A Systematic Review on the Use of Educational Technologies for Medical Education

Authors:

Dalmaris Lima, Victor Sotero, Diego Dermeval, Jorge Artur and Francisco Passos

Abstract: Educational technologies have been increasingly used in medical education to promote innovative pedagogical strategies in classroom. However, the medical scientific community still lacks a comprehensive understanding on how educational technologies are used in medical education. The objective of this work is to explore what types of technologies are employed in medical education, aiming to identify in which domains they have been applied and the reported evidence of using educational technologies in medical education. We conducted a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) to identify the primary studies on the use of educational technologies in medical education, following a pre-defined review protocol. One hundred sixty-eight papers were selected, covering nine types of education technologies, which were applied in more than 40 medical domains. Moreover, our SLR results also show that most of the papers included in this SLR reported positive evidence about the benefits of using these technologies in medical domain.

Paper Nr: 55
Title:

Cadenza: The Evolution of a Digital Music Education Tool

Authors:

Rena Upitis and Philip C. Abrami

Abstract: This paper describes the evolution of Cadenza, a digital music tool designed to inspire and assist students with practising between music lessons. Cadenza was developed using an evidence-based research and design model, supported by funding for both the research and software design. The focus of the present case study is on how Cadenza has continued to thrive after the research funding period ended, through a community-based not-for-profit organizational structure housed within the auspices of the host research institution. In an era where technology transfer has become a goal for many post-secondary institutions, this case study illuminates both the advantages and pitfalls of creating a start-up enterprise under the umbrella of an established university.

Paper Nr: 124
Title:

Designing and Evaluating Learning Technology: An African Dilemma and Approach

Authors:

Muhammad S. Adamu

Abstract: This position paper is concerned with understanding, evaluating and designing technologies to support learning in African higher education. Its central focus is on epistemological and methodological issues and commitments – specifically whether stereotypical and established Western methodological approaches are suited for investigating African contexts. Considering various ideas about ‘indigenous knowledge’ and sensitivities, an eclectic approach is adopted and deployed. The resulting ‘method’ presented can be adopted by those interested in finding indigeneity in conventional forms of investigation, and those that wish to engage in having a rather eclectic standpoint in research. This perspective has important implications for those investigating ‘technology acceptance and adoption’ in Africa; the use and development of learning technologies and the idea of ‘blended learning’ and those considering ‘post-colonial’ computing.

Paper Nr: 188
Title:

Teaching Modern Greek Literature to Teenagers through a Collaborative Webquest: Design, Implementation, Evaluation

Authors:

Aikaterini Maragkou and Maria Rangoussi

Abstract: This paper presents the design, implementation and evaluation of an innovative, collaborative learning approach to the teaching of Modern Greek Literature to teenage students of Junior High School. The proposed method is based on a WebQuest especially designed for this study and aimed to motivate students, increase their collaborative skills, achieve enhanced learning outcomes and change their attitude towards the subject of Literature to the positive. An educational intervention is designed and implemented in a Model Junior High School in Athens, Greece, for comparative evaluation purposes. Two 2nd grade cohorts of students are taught in parallel the same material with (experimental group) or without (control group) the use of the WebQuest. Research questions comparatively evaluate ICT ‘integration’ through the WebQuest as compared to ICT ‘addition’ of more conventional ICT-based assistive tools, along the axes of student motivation, collaborative skills, learning outcomes and attitude towards a ‘difficult’, unpopular school subject such as Literature. Experimental results show that the proposed approach of ICT integration using the WebQuest effectively promotes student motivation, collaborative skills and attitude towards the subject; no significant improvement is detected, though, as to the learning outcomes achieved – an issue that deserves further research, as discussed in the conclusions.

Paper Nr: 35
Title:

Analysis on the Influencing Factors of MOOC Adoption Behaviour of Faculty: Cross-Case Study based on a Chinese University

Authors:

Jingxin Wang and Yu Wang

Abstract: From the perspective of technology adoption theory, this study focused on how their educational orientation of MOOC affects their MOOC adoption willingness through in-depth interviews with five college teachers in a Chinese university. The results show that different college teachers have significant differences in the educational function understanding and attribute positioning of MOOC, which mainly reflected in the differences of education and communication attribute positioning of MOOC. In addition, the matching degree of their positioning of MOOC and their own education concept determine the willingness and behaviour of college teacher to adopt MOOC. Furthermore, four typical MOOC orientations were summarized based on the differences of attribute judgment, and the research cases was divided into three typical types of practice according to the matching degree of concepts and the behaviour orientation adopted in practice.

Paper Nr: 80
Title:

The Use of Interactive Whiteboards for English Foreign Language Education

Authors:

Xiaojun Wang, Jiří Dostál and Hana Bučková

Abstract: This paper highlights the usefulness of interactive whiteboards in improving teaching and learning English as a foreign language. For language learning, it is important to develop learners’ communicative competence as language is a vehicle for communication. It is not uncommon that learners who master grammar principles nevertheless fail to speak confidently in real situations. Interaction, which involves input and output, is critical in developing communicative competence in a language. The interactive whiteboard, as implied by the name, can increase interaction between teachers and learners and among learners, as opposed to a plain whiteboard, since the main function of interactive whiteboards is its interactivity. Thus it can be an effective tool for English education. This paper explains from both the theoretical and the practical viewpoint the advantages and techniques involved in the use of interactive whiteboards in teaching English as a foreign language in order to encourage educators and English foreign language teachers to implement interactive whiteboards in teaching so as to improve the outcomes of English education, and it also points out common pitfalls the teachers should avoid.

Paper Nr: 89
Title:

An Analysis of Current Language Learning Software

Authors:

Laura Vawter and Alke Martens

Abstract: To start the development of an optimal digital learning environment for language learning we have started with the first question: What current language learning software is available to users? To answer this question an analysis of current computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) software is necessary. This paper expounds on the systematic analysis of 69 current language software. Based on this structured analysis, we have developed a first framework of requirements for an digital language learning environment. For this purpose, control, user input, software feedback and theoretical educational frameworks were analysed within this investigation. The analysis demonstrates a lack of constructivist frameworks and a higher prevalence of behaviourist educational frameworks in current language software.

Paper Nr: 136
Title:

Assessment of Computational Thinking (CT) in Scratch Fractal Projects: Towards CT-HCI Scaffolds for Analogical-fractal Thinking

Authors:

Chien-Sing Lee and Bo Jiang

Abstract: Learning from patterns and everyday creativity are two key trends in creative education. However, it is not easy to learn from or to create meaningful patterns. Fractals are repetitive patterns, which can result in interesting outcomes. Patterns can be based on a recursive whole or recursive modifications of decomposable parts of the patterns. However, developing fractals or relating fractals to real-life applications or creative innovations is not that easy. Since pattern recognition, recursion and relation to real-life applications are part of computational thinking (CT), we find potential in assessing CT skills. We scope our research to fractal projects at the Scratch website. We aim to identify correlations between the respective scores for each project’s constructs corresponding to the respective total CT scores and to identify important human-computer interaction principles in scaffolding CT/fractal/fractal thinking development. Significance lies in identification of HCI design factors, possibility of using these findings as guides to better predict a student’s performance/mastery and to identify areas and strategies for improvement. Future work within a Restorative Innovation Framework concludes.

Area 6 - Ubiquitous Learning

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 44
Title:

Minimizing the Number of Dropouts in University Pedagogy Online Courses

Authors:

Samuli Laato, Emilia Lipponen, Heidi Salmento, Henna Vilppu and Mari Murtonen

Abstract: Students’ engagement and retention in online courses have been found to be in general significantly lower than in contact teaching. Multiple reasons for this exist, but improving student retention is ubiquitously seen as a beneficial improvement. We take a look at student engagement in online courses aimed specifically for university teachers and doctoral students, and use a mixed methods approach to obtain a holistic understanding of student engagement in our domain. We analyse quantitative data from two cases (n=346 and n=271) collected from students of three university pedagogy online modules over the course of years 2016-2017. We identify key moments in our modules where students drop out and, for example, differences in dropout rates between various demographics (i.e. faculty and whether the student is a university staff member or not). The main moment where students drop out is found to be in the very beginning of the courses, and the introduction of a pre- and post-test to the courses improved retention. This study suggests that when all other factors affecting student engagement are in order, additional focus should be paid to the very beginning of the course and get as many students to do the first couple tasks as possible in order to reduce the dropout rate.

Paper Nr: 70
Title:

Towards Culturally Inclusive MOOCs: A Design-based Approach

Authors:

Mana Taheri, Katharina Hölzle and Christoph Meinel

Abstract: Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have become one of the most popular ways of acquiring new knowledge and skills. One of the unique characteristics of MOOCs is their learner diversity. MOOC learners vary in age, gender, cultural background, language and discipline. This poses a great challenge for MOOC designers to create learning experiences that resonate with their diverse global audience. This paper reports instructional strategies that were applied to create culturally inclusive MOOCs. We applied a design-based approach to experiment, test, and evaluate these strategies over the course of three MOOCs on the topic of Design Thinking. The study uses in-depth qualitative interviews with international participants, pre-and post-course surveys, as well as observations from the discussion forums, in order to gain insights into learners’ perspectives. As a result, the authors offer instructional strategies that may accommodate the needs of MOOC learners from diverse cultural backgrounds. Considering that MOOCs promise opportunities for life-long learning to learners around the globe, it is of utmost importance to design learning experiences that are culturally inclusive.

Paper Nr: 165
Title:

Atomic Structure Interactive Personalised Virtual Lab: Results from an Evaluation Study in Secondary Schools

Authors:

Ioana Ghergulescu, Arghir-Nicolae Moldovan, Cristina H. Muntean and Gabriel-Miro Muntean

Abstract: Virtual labs are increasingly used both as an alternative to physical labs or as a complementary technology enhanced (TEL) solution for STEM education. Virtual labs enable students to conduct experiments in a controlled environment at their own pace. However, despite much research on personalisation and adaptation in the TEL area, most virtual labs that have been developed lack personalisation features. This paper presents results from a study with 78 secondary school students, aimed at evaluating an interactive personalised virtual lab called Atomic Structure. The virtual lab integrates personalisation, interactive experimentation, videos, e-assessment and gamification, to provide an engaging environment for learning chemistry concepts related to atoms, isotopes and molecules. The evaluation study followed a multi-dimensional methodology to assess the effectiveness of the virtual lab in terms of knowledge achievement, learner motivation and usability. The results show that the experimental group that learned with the virtual lab achieved statistically significant higher knowledge than the control group that attended a traditional teacher led session. The experimental group also had higher increase than the control group for different motivation dimensions between the pre and post questionnaires. The usability results showed that most students found the virtual lab useful, easy to use and liked/loved its features such as videos, quizzes and interactive atom builder.

Paper Nr: 191
Title:

A Review of Location-based Games: Do They All Support Exercise, Social Interaction and Cartographical Training?

Authors:

Samuli Laato, Tarja Pietarinen, Sampsa Rauti, Mauri Paloheimo, Nobufumi Inaba and Erkki Sutinen

Abstract: Studies on location-based games ubiquitously report positive learning outcomes for the players. Particularly these games are shown to promote exercise, encourage to social interaction and increase geographical and cartographical knowledge. To find out whether these positive effects are game-specific or characteristic to all location-based games, we conduct a software search for available location-based games on iOS and Android platforms and evaluate if and how exercise, cartographical training and social interaction are supported. Based on our results we were able to identify six sub-genres of location-based games, and the positive effects associated with each genre. The most popular category in terms of number of games was scavenger hunts and the most popular category in terms of active installs on Android and iOS was location-based MMORPG’s. Presence of factors associated with immersion and mixed reality were paired with the popularity and positive outcomes of the games. Cartographical practise, social interaction and exercise were supported the most in the location-based MMORPG sub-genre, to which, for example, Pokémon GO belongs to.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 23
Title:

Different Approaches to Designing Online Courses at the Post-secondary Level

Authors:

Nicole Racette, Bruno Poellhuber and Marie-Pierre Bourdages-Sylvain

Abstract: This research aims to identify the approaches used in online courses and their impact on the task of online teaching in three post-secondary institutions in Quebec. From 32 individual interviews and 6 group interviews, results show that courses are offered for continuous enrollment in two institutions, and in cohort for the third. In each of these institutions, these courses are offered asynchronously and are mainly focused on independent learning. The teaching task usually found in the classroom is subdivided, for online courses, into a design task and a student supervisory task that are not performed by the same people. In two institutions, course design is done by external staff and course management is done by specialists rather than the designers. In the third institution, regular teachers design the courses; they also manage their courses after they have been put online, as well as managing the student support staff. Following these results, we present the advantages and disadvantages of elearning on the task of teaching in Quebec.

Paper Nr: 101
Title:

Start@unito: Open Online Courses for Improving Access and for Enhancing Success in Higher Education

Authors:

Marina Marchisio, Lorenza Operti, Sergio Rabellino and Matteo Sacchet

Abstract: Digital Education, in particular open online courses, plays an important role in providing free education to people who wants to learn. The University of Turin, with the financial support of the bank foundation Compagnia di San Paolo, has developed the project “start@unito”: a selection of university modules in a broad range of topics, administered through open online courses freely available. These courses could be also used to facilitate the transition between secondary and tertiary education and to enhance the success in Higher Education. In this paper we discuss the project, focusing on the adaptive solutions adopted in the preparation of the online resources and describing some results after the first nine months of courses availability.

Paper Nr: 103
Title:

Mobile Application as Support of English on-Line Learning

Authors:

Ales Berger, Blanka Klimova and Petra Poulova

Abstract: Currently, mobile devices, respectively smartphones, are an inseparable part of everyday human activities, including education. The purpose of this article is to compare available language learning mobile apps on the market and discuss their pros and cons. In addition, the authors describe a newly developed mobile app focused on learning and practicing of English language vocabulary and phrases, tailored to the needs of its users. The findings show that this mobile app is user-friendly and students appreciate its interactivity.

Paper Nr: 195
Title:

The VTT-BOX, Pedagogical and Quality Considerations

Authors:

Ebba Ossiannilsson, Maria Ampartzaki, Michail Kalogiannakis and Peter Mazohl

Abstract: The Virtual Teachers’ Toolbox’s (VTT-BOX.EU) aims to create a special virtual and sophisticated tool for teachers to guide them in developing open, online, flexible and technology enhanced education and learning (OOFAT). The paper presents the pedagogical and quality framework which embeds the Toolbox which refers to international frameworks that need to permute e-learning. Quality in pedagogy and technological provision focuses today more on developing the learner’s autonomy, collaborative skills and self-evaluation. Technology is expected to create a well-fitting “learning offer” tailored to the typical behaviour and needs of the modern students.