CSEDU 2020 Abstracts


Area 1 - Artificial Intelligence in Education

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 21
Title:

Fairness in Learning Analytics: Student At-risk Prediction in Virtual Learning Environments

Authors:

Shirin Riazy, Katharina Simbeck and Vanessa Schreck

Abstract: While the current literature on algorithmic fairness has rapidly expanded over the past years, it has yet to fully arrive in educational contexts, namely, learning analytics. In the present paper, we examine possible forms of discrimination, as well as ways to measure and establish fairness in virtual learning environments. The prediction of students’ course outcome is conducted on a VLE dataset and analyzed with respect to fairness. Two measures are recommended for the prior investigation of learning data, to ensure their balance and fitness for further data analysis.

Paper Nr: 44
Title:

Deep Attentive Study Session Dropout Prediction in Mobile Learning Environment

Authors:

Youngnam Lee, Dongmin Shin, HyunBin Loh, Jaemin Lee, Piljae Chae, Junghyun Cho, Seoyon Park, Jinhwan Lee, Jineon Baek, Byungsoo Kim and Youngduck Choi

Abstract: Student dropout prediction provides an opportunity to improve student engagement, which maximizes the overall effectiveness of learning experiences. However, researches on student dropout were mainly conducted on school dropout or course dropout, and study session dropout in a mobile learning environment has not been considered thoroughly. In this paper, we investigate the study session dropout prediction problem in a mobile learning environment. First, we define the concept of the study session, study session dropout and study session dropout prediction task in a mobile learning environment. Based on the definitions, we propose a novel Transformer based model for predicting study session dropout, DAS: Deep Attentive Study Session Dropout Prediction in Mobile Learning Environment. DAS has an encoder-decoder structure which is composed of stacked multi-head attention and point-wise feed-forward networks. The deep attentive computations in DAS are capable of capturing complex relations among dynamic student interactions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to investigate study session dropout in a mobile learning environment. Empirical evaluations on a large-scale dataset show that DAS achieves the best performance with a significant improvement in area under the receiver operating characteristic curve compared to baseline models.

Paper Nr: 58
Title:

Classification of Students’ Conceptual Understanding in STEM Education using Their Visual Attention Distributions: A Comparison of Three Machine-Learning Approaches

Authors:

Stefan Küchemann, Pascal Klein, Sebastian Becker, Niharika Kumari and Jochen Kuhn

Abstract: Line-Graphs play a central role in STEM education, for instance, for the instruction of mathematical concepts or for analyzing measurement data. Consequently, they have been studied intensively in the past years. However, despite this wide and frequent use, little is known about students’ visual strategy when solving line-graph problems. In this work, we study two example line-graph problems addressing the slope and the area concept, and apply three supervised machine-learning approaches to classify the students performance using visual attention distributions measured via remote eye tracking. The results show the dominance of a large-margin classifier at small training data sets above random decision forests and a feed-forward artificial neural network. However, we observe a sensitivity of the large-margin classifier towards the discriminatory power of used features which provides a guide for a selection of machine learning algorithms for the optimization of adaptive learning environments.

Paper Nr: 75
Title:

Learner Performance Prediction Indicators based on Machine Learning

Authors:

Karim Sehaba

Abstract: This work is interested in the analysis of learners’ performances in order to define indicators to predict their results based on their interactions with a learning environment. These indicators should alert learners at risk, or their teachers, by highlighting their difficulties in order to help them get around them before it is too late. For this, we have defined a trace analysis approach based on the use of machine learning methods. This approach consists of preparing the plotted data automatically and manually, by selecting the attributes relevant to learning, then automatically extracting indicators explaining the learner’s results. Our work was applied to a data set resulting from a real training comprising 32593 learners producing 10 655 280 events. The accuracy of our predictions has reached around 80%. Rules extraction methods were also applied in order to explain the rules which govern the prediction indicator.

Paper Nr: 100
Title:

Using BERT and XLNET for the Automatic Short Answer Grading Task

Authors:

Hadi A. Ghavidel, Amal Zouaq and Michel C. Desmarais

Abstract: Over the last decade, there has been a considerable amount of research in automatic short answer grading (ASAG). The majority of previous experiments were based on a feature engineering approach and used manually-engineered statistical, lexical, grammatical and semantic features for ASAG. In this study, we aim for an approach that is free from manually-engineered features and propose an architecture for deep learning based on the newly-introduced BERT (Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers) and XLNET (Extra Long Network) classifiers. We report the results achieved over one of the most popular dataset for ASAG, SciEntBank. Compared to past works for the SemEval-2013 2-way, 3-way and 5-way tasks, we obtained better or competitive performance with BERT Base (cased and uncased) and XLNET Base (cased) using a reference-based approach (considering students and model answers) and without any type of hand-crafted features.

Paper Nr: 129
Title:

Reading Students’ Multiple Mental States in Conversation from Facial and Heart Rate Cues

Authors:

Shimeng Peng, Shigeki Ohira and Katashi Nagao

Abstract: Students’ mental states have been widely acknowledged as crucial components for inferring their learning processes and are closely linked with learning outcomes. Understanding students’ complex mental states including concentration, confusion, frustration, and boredom in teacher-student conversation could benefit a human teacher’s perceptual and real-time decision-making capability in providing personalized and adaptive support in coaching activities. Many lines of research have explored the automatic measurement of students’ mental states in pre-designed human-computer tasks. It still remains a challenge to detect the complex mental states of students in real teacher-student conversation. In this study, we made such an attempt by describing a system for predicting the complex mental states of students from multiple perspectives: facial and physiological (heart rate) cues in real student-teacher conversation scenarios. We developed an advanced multi-sensor-based system and applied it in small-scale meetings to collect students’ multimodal conversation data. We demonstrate a multimodal analysis framework. Machine learning models were built by using extracted interpretable proxy features at a fine-grained level to validate their predictive ability regarding students’ multiple mental states. Our results provide evidence of the potential value of fusing multimodal data to understand students’ multiple mental states in real-world student-teacher conversation.

Paper Nr: 165
Title:

Prediction Models for Automatic Assessment to Students’ Freely-written Comments

Authors:

Jihed Makhlouf and Tsunenori Mine

Abstract: Tracking students’ learning situations is taking a fundamental place in educational institutions. Thanks to the advances in educational technology, we are able to gather more and more data about students using educational software systems. Analyzing such data helped researchers build models that could predict students’ behaviors and scores. However, in classroom-based settings, teachers and professors find difficulties to perfectly grasp all their students’ learning attitudes. In an approach to address this issue, we asked the students to give freely-written comments answering predefined questions about their learning experience. Thereafter, professors read these comments and give feedback to each student. Nonetheless, professors find themselves overwhelmed by the number of comments which make this approach not scalable to multiple classes for the same professor. In this paper, we address this issue by building a model that can automatically assess the students’ comments. We use two different approaches. In the first approach, we treat all student comments the same way, regardless of which question they are related to. The second approach consists of building different individual models that analyze students’ comments depending on the question. Experimental results show that the prediction accuracy of assessment to student comments can reach 74%.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 54
Title:

Dropout through Extended Association Rule Netwoks: A Complementary View

Authors:

Maicon Dall’Agnol, Leandro Rondado de Souza, Renan de Padua, Veronica Oliveira de Carvalho and Solange O. Rezende

Abstract: Dropout is a critical problem that has been studied by data mining methods. The most widely used algorithm in this context is C4.5. However, the understanding of the reasons why a student dropout is a result of its representation. As C4.5 is a greedy algorithm, it is difficult to visualize, for example, items that are dominants and determinants with respect to a specific class. An alternative is to use association rules (ARs), since they exploit the search space more broadly. However, in the dropout context, few works use them. (Padua et al., 2018) proposed an approach, named ExARN, that structures, prunes and analyzes a set of ARs to build candidate hypotheses. Considering the above, the goal of this work is to treat the dropout problem through ExARN as it provides a complementary view to what is commonly used in the literature, i.e., classification through C4.5. As contributions we have: (a) complementary views are important and, therefore, should be used more often when the focus is to understand the domain, not only classify; (b) the use of ARs through ExARN may reveal interesting correlations that may help to understand the problem of dropping out.

Paper Nr: 93
Title:

Virtual Assistants for Learning: A Systematic Literature Review

Authors:

Regina Gubareva and Rui P. Lopes

Abstract: A problem of students’ motivation, engagement and declining interest in the learning process has always existed, contributing to increasing failures and dropouts. This is particularly important among first year students. Freshmen often have difficulties with time management, how to prioritize tasks, and how to study at the university. Because of the increasing number of higher education students, it is impossible to provide individual tutoring and support to every student, to help them manage this first-year indefiniteness and later difficulties. Recent developments in the area of information technology, software engineering, artificial intelligence, machine learning, and big data creates the opportunity for personalized, flexible and adaptable learning environment, accessible anytime, anywhere. One such example is a virtual assistant, a tool that provides assistance to usually boring or repetitive daily activities. In education, a virtual assistant can help organising the study process, manage time, increasing motivation and engagement in the study process. This paper performs a systematic literature review of the use of virtual assistants in higher education. It focuses on the technology that powers them, their features and their impact in the learning process, motivation and productivity, according to the authors.

Paper Nr: 122
Title:

Generating Content-Compliant Training Data in Big Data Education

Authors:

Robert Häusler, Daniel Staegemann, Matthias Volk, Sascha Bosse, Christian Bekel and Klaus Turowski

Abstract: In order to ensure adequate education and training in a statistics-driven field, large sets of content-compliant training data (CCTD) are required. Within the context of practical orientation, such data sets should be as realistic as possible concerning the content in order to improve the learning experience. While there are different data generators for special use cases, the approaches mostly aim at evaluating the performance of database systems. Therefore, they focus on the structure but not on the content. Based on formulated requirements, this paper designs a possible approach for generating CCTD in the context of Big Data education. For this purpose, different Machine Learning algorithms could be utilized. In future work, specific models will be designed, implemented and evaluated.

Paper Nr: 171
Title:

Identifying Gaps in Use of and Research on Adaptive Learning Systems

Authors:

Shuai Wang, Claire Christensen, Elizabeth McBride, Hannah Kelly, Wei Cui, Richard Tong, Linda Shear, Louise Yarnall and Mingyu Feng

Abstract: Adaptive learning systems have become increasingly common across age groups and content areas. Many adaptive learning systems personalize the learning experience based on students’ prior knowledge, preferences, learner profile, system usage, learning style, and/or learning perceptions. In addition, various learning algorithms have been developed over the years, such as item response theories, Markov modelling, recurrent neural networks, and Bayesian knowledge tracing (BKT). Although western countries have generated numerous efficacy studies, Chinese adaptive education is in its earliest stage, with few efficacy studies conducted in this context, which is a gap in this field. This position paper describes one Chinese adaptive learning system, Squirrel AI Learning, and invites further research on adaptive learning systems in China and other Asian countries.

Paper Nr: 179
Title:

Social Robots as Teaching Assistance System in Higher Education: Conceptual Framework for the Development of Use Cases

Authors:

Josef Guggemos, Michael Burkhard, Sabine Seufert and Stefan Sonderegger

Abstract: This paper provides an overview of the current state of research on social robots in higher education and the existing frameworks to categorize and develop social robot applications. Based on the existing work, we present our own framework to develop use cases for social robots in the education sector. Our framework is based on a heuristic and symbiotic design approach that serves as a guideline for developing use cases and views human-robot interaction as two complementary and mutually reinforcing roles. We illustrate our framework by means of a use case that we have conducted in 2019 during the initial lecture of the large-scale course ‘Introduction to academic writing’.

Paper Nr: 139
Title:

Attentional Neural Mechanisms for Social Recommendations in Educational Platforms

Authors:

Italo Zoppis, Sara Manzoni, Giancarlo Mauri, Ricardo M. Aragon, Luca Marconi and Francesco Epifania

Abstract: Recent studies in the context of machine learning have shown the effectiveness of deep attentional mechanisms for identifying important communities and relationships within a given input network. These studies can be effectively applied in those contexts where capturing specific dependencies, while downloading useless content, is essential to take decisions and provide accurate inference. This is the case, for example, of current recommender systems that exploit social information as a clever source of recommendations and / or explanations. In this paper we extend the social engine of our educational platform “WhoTeach” to leverage social information for educational services. In particular, we report our work in progress for providing “WhoTeach” with an attentional-based recommander system oriented to the design of programmes and courses for new teachers.

Area 2 - Information Technologies Supporting Learning

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 18
Title:

I Learn. You Learn. We Learn? An Experiment in Collaborative Concept Mapping

Authors:

Claudia Picardi, Anna Goy, Daniele Gunetti, Giovanna Petrone, Marco Roberti and Walter Nuninger

Abstract: In this paper we present an experiment on digitally-supported collaborative Concept Maps focused on asynchronous and remote collaboration. We investigated the integration of multiple perspectives on the same topic, providing users with a tool allowing an individual perspective for each user plus a shared one for the group. Several user actions were made available, affecting one or both perspectives, depending on the context. Results show that integrating different perspectives in a way that everyone can relate to is indeed a complex task: users need to be supported not only in the production of a shared Concept Map, but also in the process of adapting their mental representations, in order to understand, compare and possibly integrate others’ points of view. Our experiment shows that both collaboration in concept mapping (emphasis on the process) and collaboration on a Concept Map (emphasis on the result) are needed, whereas most tools, including the one we experimented with, focus on the latter. The main challenge is allowing people to understand, compare and assess each other’s map, recognizing commonalities and differences through different representation styles and spatial organizations.

Paper Nr: 27
Title:

Investigating the Relationship between Learners' Cognitive Participation and Learning Outcome in Asynchronous Online Discussion Forums

Authors:

Zhi Liu, Shiqi Liu, Cuishuang Zhang, Zhu Su, Tianhui Hu and Sannyuya Liu

Abstract: In asynchronous forums of Blended Learning and E-learning, learners’ cognitive participation, such as knowledge construction and critical-thinking dialogues, is a crucial factor for their learning outcome, which has not yet been further exploited. This study investigated learners’ cognitive behaviors and implicit content derived from posts by using a mixed-method of text mining and statistical analysis. We adopted a content analysis approach to manual coding learners’ cognitive behaviors in a Blended Learning discussion forum. Then we proposed an improved topic model called Cognitive Behavior Topic Model (CBTM) to detect learner’s semantic content between three achievement groups (High/Medium/Low). Moreover, we performed a statistical analysis to investigate the relationship among cognitive behaviors, cognitive content, and learning outcome. The results showed that the high achievement group’s cognitive behavior frequency in all categories is higher than the other, and effective order of behaviors with the learning outcome is “constructive > active > interactive”. The “application practice” related topic is more effective for learning outcome than “theoretical discussions”. Specifically, when the cognitive content changes from "theoretical discussion" to "application practice", or the number of posts on the same cognitive content-related topic is large, the high-level cognitive behaviors bound to the topic content will increase significantly. Therefore, this study could provide new insights into theoretical and practical implications.

Paper Nr: 29
Title:

Investigating the Relationship among Students’ Interest, Flow and Their Learning Outcomes in a Blended Learning Asynchronous Forum

Authors:

Shanyu Tan, Zhi Liu, Shiqi Liu, Zhu Su, Huanyou Chai and Sannyuya Liu

Abstract: Blended learning environment provide an important platform for university student learning. The use of text data, generated from the asynchronous forum to explore students' intrinsic aspects of user posts in such communities, is critical for adjusting teaching strategies. Therefore, information about their interest and flow indicators has become important for educators to host online discussions. Flow experience is a sense of immer- sive and feeling enjoyable and can reflect a person’s inner feelings. In order to explore the influence of learning interest and flow on the learning outcome, our study uses temporal emotion-aspect model (TEAM) to mine student interest hidden in forum text data, and simultaneously uses a flow scale to measure the flow state of students during their learning process. The results show that: 1) Interest topics unrelated to teaching content are negatively related to learning outcomes. 2) Interest topics related to teaching content will provoke students’ ability to balance their skills and challenges, but have a negative effect on autotelic experience in the flow experience. Interest topics related to entertainment have a negative effect on students' skills to meet the challenge, concentration and autotelic experience in discussion-based learning. Students may tend to lose self-consciousness in the entertainment-centric discussion. 3) There influence factors between flow and learning outcomes are loss of self-consciousness and concentration.

Paper Nr: 35
Title:

Immersive Serious Game-style Virtual Environment for Training in Electrical Live Line Maintenance Activities

Authors:

Klaus de Geus, Rafael T. Beê, Vinícius M. Corrêa, Ricardo D. Santos, Alexandre D. Faria, Elton M. Sato, Vitoldo Swinka-Filho, Awdry F. Miquelin, Sergio Scheer, Paulo H. Siqueira, Walmor C. Godoi, Matheus Rosendo and Yuri Gruber

Abstract: This paper describes a virtual environment solution for the training of electricians in critical activities, namely, live-line maintenance, in electrical energy substations. The main concept of the virtual environment is the mapping between virtual reality technology and gamification methods with learning theories, in particular, Gagné’s cognitive model. In order to explore the benefits of gamification, the system uses concepts established by the Flow Theory, the Magic Circle concept as well as the Player Experience of Need Satisfaction (PENS) theory. User Experience (UX) is used to assess how the system is perceived by the user. Non-player characters are modelled to assist the trainee in the learning process. However, they may use misleading information in order to induce the trainee to make mistakes and thus provide a means of exercising decision making in adverse conditions, which is an important stage in the learning process, especially in the context of critical activities. Additionally, an automatic feedback system based on the visualization of error patterns highlights not only the mistakes made in the virtual experience, but also the strategy for solving the proposed problem. Tests were carried out aiming at measuring several aspects, ranging from usability, perception of benefits and learning effectiveness. A trainee classification process is proposed based on the analysis of human error patterns during the execution of a task. The modelling of knowledge is based on the literature on human reliability and results from the application of tools such as task analysis and knowledge extraction from expert users when interacting with the system (expert elicitation). Clustering techniques applied to error patterns allows for the identification of prototypes of performance classes and their visualization in the form of distinct groups. Results of different assessment processes, based on the view of potential users, are presented, analysed and discussed. Future work includes the conclusion of the automatic evaluation process, based on the analysis and visualization of human error.

Paper Nr: 41
Title:

Using Virtual Reality to Improve Visual Recognition Skills of First Year Architecture Students: A Comparative Study

Authors:

Salih Ceylan

Abstract: The use of virtual reality (VR) technologies is getting widespread throughout the world in the last years. Architecture as a prominent discipline in using digital technologies has a lot to promise about the use of VR in different areas of the profession. It can be used as a design or a representation instrument, as well as a tool in the construction processes. Accordingly, as architectural education needs to keep itself up-to-date about new technologies, the implementation of VR technologies into the architecture curriculum is supposed to be a subject to be studied by researchers working in the educational domain of architecture. This paper presents a comparative study on the use of VR technologies in the first year of architectural education to improve the visual and spatial recognition skills of students. The findings of the study indicate that VR technologies can be beneficial in various aspects like the perception of certain physical characteristics of a model, and students’ enthusiasm to participate in the design studio courses.

Paper Nr: 47
Title:

Evaluation of Learning Motivation within an Adaptive e-Learning Platform for Engineering Science

Authors:

Mathias Bauer, Jacqueline Schuldt and Heidi Krömker

Abstract: Learning motivation represents an important determinant for a successful learning process. Especially in the context of self-regulated learning with e-learning systems learning blocks or learning breaks occur increasingly when motivation is dropping. Creating appropriate learning experiences that respond to learners’ needs is important to maintain learning motivation. This supports continuous usage of e-learning systems at universities. Adaptive e-learning systems are a possibility to react profoundly to individual needs of the learners before or during the learning process. Therefore, an e-learning platform for micro- and nanotechnologies was transformed into an adaptive learning system to foster learning motivation at the Technische Universität Ilmenau within a multi-level development process. Results showed that the e-learning platform was well accepted but a significant benefit of the adaptive version compared to the non-adaptive version could not be identified.

Paper Nr: 60
Title:

Inducing the Learning of Ergonomics and Anthropometric Design using Motion Capture and Virtual Simulation in an Industrial Context

Authors:

Donovan Esqueda, Luis E. Villagómez, Yuliana Tónix and Ailin Velilla

Abstract: Through this paper, we present an approach that simplifies the understanding of ergonomics and anthropometric design to Mechatronics Engineering students at Tecnológico de Monterrey by presenting both the theory behind those topics and a practical approach using specialized software and hardware. The latter, carried out in an industrial context to avoid musculoskeletal diseases at work, assisted the sensitization of engineering students into designing products and workstations that would account for the needs of their users.

Paper Nr: 69
Title:

Users’ Learning Pathways on Cross-site Open Educational Resources

Authors:

Ayşe S. Sunar, Erik Novak and Dunja Mladenić

Abstract: The availability of open educational resources is growing at an increasingly fast pace since its first promotion by UNESCO in 2002. Today, large variability of opportunities for free and online educational resources are available and accessible by everyone from all around the world who has access to the Internet. An Internet user may exploit numbers of different platforms to find what they are looking for, where one platform may fit their study goal while another platform suits their learning approach. Finding the appropriate content and platform could be like searching for a needle in the haystack where users desperately need help from personalised recommendations. Many platforms aim to transform to a more personalised learning environment, mostly by recommending a content or a peer to study with, providing timely feedback, or a gamified learning environment within the platform. We expect that in the next decade it will be necessary to provide user guidance to the Open Educational Resources not only in a single domain but in cross-domain, cross-site, and cross-cultural nature of the Internet. In this paper, we investigate the users’ learning behaviour by analysing their clickstream data across different learning platforms. The results indicate that most of the users tend to stay on a website for a short duration. Also, the design of materials on different websites affect the number of clicks and the pattern of engagement.

Paper Nr: 98
Title:

Labour Market Information Driven, Personalized, OER Recommendation System for Lifelong Learners

Authors:

Mohammadreza Tavakoli, Stefan T. Mol and Gábor Kismihók

Abstract: In this paper, we suggest a novel method to aid lifelong learners to access relevant OER based learning content to master skills demanded on the labour market. Our software prototype 1) applies Text Classification and Text Mining methods on vacancy announcements to decompose jobs into meaningful skills components, which lifelong learners should target; and 2) creates a hybrid OER Recommender System to suggest personalized learning content for learners to progress towards their skill targets. For the first evaluation of this prototype we focused on two job areas: Data Scientist, and Mechanical Engineer. We applied our skill extractor approach and provided OER recommendations for learners targeting these jobs. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 12 subject matter experts to learn how our prototype performs in terms of its objectives, logic, and contribution to learning. More than 150 recommendations were generated, and 76.9% of these recommendations were treated as useful by the interviewees. Interviews revealed that a personalized OER recommender system, based on skills demanded by labour market, has the potential to improve the learning experience of lifelong learners.

Paper Nr: 101
Title:

PROGDASH: Lessons Learned from a Learning Dashboard In-the-wild

Authors:

Mohamed Ez-zaouia, Aurélien Tabard and Elise Lavoué

Abstract: Teachers mixing in-class and remote online learning activities face numerous challenges in monitoring learners’ online activity and progress, especially when preparing in-class interventions. We present a design study of PROGDASH, a dashboard enabling teachers to monitor learners’ activity on an online grammar and spelling learning platform. We designed PROGDASH based on interviews with seven teachers to understand their needs, and we collaboratively iterated on design prototypes. We conducted a three-month field deployment with 17 teachers, collecting logs, diaries, and interview data to evaluate how PROGDASH informed their practices. Our findings extend prior work on teachers’ practices using dashboards: teachers found PROGDASH actionable to devise informed pedagogical practices: monitoring, conducting assessments, planning interventions, sharing in-class, providing debriefing and feedback. Based on our findings, we suggest directions on how dashboards could effectively support teachers in schools using online learning platforms in authentic settings.

Paper Nr: 103
Title:

Investigating Different Educational Blog Characteristics to Support Collaborative Learning based on Connectivism Learning Theory

Authors:

Ahmed F. Yousef, Radwa A. Salah and Eman M. Makram

Abstract: Higher education institutions have undertaken some approaches to increase learners’ collaboration skills for opening up opportunities for new forms of knowledge formation. The emergence of the social communications tools, particularly Web 2.0 technologies has provided access to the views and opinions of a wide range of learners. Blogs have become one of the most popular social communication tools in the context of Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL). Many educators are using blog for several reasons: the power of self-editorship, the free space provided for learners to present their ideas, the quick and simple updates, the open access to the learning topics and indexes. Connectivism learning theory emphasizes the importance and role of networks and connections between learners. Considering that, the aim of the present research was to investigate the relationship between different types of blog post characteristics (e.g. separate - sequential) and comments length (e.g. detailed - concise) in order to support collaborative connections among learners. The population of this research consists of blog posts and comments posted on CSlab platform that was designed to introduce and encourage interaction among learners in the “Introduction to Computers” course offered by Fayoum University, Egypt. The results of this study indicate that blogs have positive impact on increasing collaborative learning activities. Moreover, that sequential blogs with concise comments are more influential and facilitates interaction between peer and social communities of learners who received more comments.

Paper Nr: 112
Title:

Boosting Early Detection of Spring Semester Freshmen Attrition: A Preliminary Exploration

Authors:

Eitel M. Lauría, Eric Stenton and Edward Presutti

Abstract: We explore the use of a two-stage classification framework to improve predictions of freshmen attrition at the beginning of the Spring semester. The proposed framework builds a Fall semester classifier using machine learning algorithms and freshmen student data, and subsequently attempts to improve the predictions of Spring attrition by including as predictor of the Spring classifier an error measure resulting from the discrepancy between Fall predictions of attrition and actual attrition. The paper describes the proposed method and shows how to organize the data for training and testing and demonstrate how it can be used for prediction. Experimental tests are carried out using several classification algorithms, to explore the validity and potential of the approach and gauge the increase in predictive power it introduces.

Paper Nr: 137
Title:

Reading Fluency Training with Amazon Alexa

Authors:

Sara Durski, Wolfgang Müller, Sandra Rebholz and Ute Massler

Abstract: This paper presents the conception, development and evaluation of an Amazon Alexa application (Skill) for the training of reading fluency. This Skill takes on different roles in a multilingual Reader’s Theatre, a reading out loud method to train reading fluency. In this approach, children may choose and practice one or more roles in a script by reading out loud their dialogues with the reading partner Amazon Alexa. The student and Alexa take turns in reading. Alexa gives feedback to the student, acts as a reading model, and has the role of a cooperative reading partner. In an iterative process, the development of the prototype was continuously evaluated and adapted. The Skill was evaluated with three students who tried out the Skill and were interviewed about the acceptance, the fun factor and their future use. The evaluation focused on the functionality and usability of a possible technical implementation. Despite various technical limitations, a final evaluation showed that the Skill can be suitable as a co-partner for a Reader’s Theatre.

Paper Nr: 142
Title:

An Assessment of Statistical Classification for Socially Oriented Learning Methodologies

Authors:

O. Ferreira-Pires, M. E. Sousa-Vieira, J. C. López-Ardao and M. Fernández-Veiga

Abstract: Social networks based on mutual interest, affinity or leadership are spontaneously generated when the training activities are carried out through online learning systems wherein collaboration and interaction among participants is encouraged. The structure of those interactions, reflected in a network graph, is known to contain relevant statistical information about the dynamics of the learning process within the group, thus it should be possible to extract such knowledge and exploit it either for improving the quality of the learning outcomes or for driving the educational process toward the desired goals. In this work we focus on forums engagement, modeling forums’ interactions as social graphs and studying the power of some of the graphs properties for success/failure learning prediction. Our data source is a complete record of the activity of students in forums, collected over two consecutive academic years of a computer networks course at the undergraduate level. The results show that some of the measures under study are very good predictors of the students’ performance.

Paper Nr: 156
Title:

Developing Computational Thinking in Early Ages: A Review of the code.org Platform

Authors:

Rolando Barradas, José A. Lencastre, Salviano Soares and António Valente

Abstract: This article reports a pedagogical experience developed within the scope of a Ph.D. program in Electrical and Computer Engineering with application to Education. Starting with a contextualization on the evolution of computers and Computational Thinking, the article describes the platform used in this study - code.org -, highlighting the strengths that captivate the students. In the Case Study topic, we describe the study carried out, starting with a description of the students involved, followed by a description of the process and the analysis of the results, ending with the evaluation process performed by the students. The article ends concluding that code.org is a valid option to develop computational thinking at early-ages.

Paper Nr: 162
Title:

ReflectionScope: Scaffold Students to Articulate Reflection during Design-based Learning Processes

Authors:

Zhongya Zhang, Tilde Bekker, Helle M. Skovbjerg and Panos Markopoulos

Abstract: Supporting students to make their reflections visible and accessible during the inquiry-based process can enhance the learning outcomes and foster reflective thinking. This research examines how technology can play a role in scaffolding students to create contextualized reflection-in-action products which can contribute to reflection-on-action in design-based learning classroom. In this paper, we present the design of a multimedia tool called ReflectionScope, which offers contextualized scaffolding to prompt students to monitor their action and create reflective videos using the digital video-camera or visual “scope” attached. Twenty-one secondary school students (aged 13) used ReflectionScope in a two-weeks design-based learning class. An analysis of the reflective video’s students created during this class and the post-interview, shows that students articulate their reflection-in-action in a structured way with context-rich information. Students perceived that the videos are beneficial for retrieving and understanding the contextual reflection-in-action moments for reflection-on-action. Based on our findings, we propose design principles that can contribute to designing for reflection practices which can be enhanced by media-technology in real-world inquiry-based learning environments.

Paper Nr: 164
Title:

Mulsemedia in Education: A Case Study on Learner Experience, Motivation and Knowledge Gain

Authors:

Irina Tal, Longhao Zou, Margaret Farren and Gabriel-Miro Muntean

Abstract: Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) subjects are generally perceived to be quite challenging for students. Hence there are also challenges from the educators’ perspective as they need to find a solution to improve the engagement, motivation and the academic performance of their students in these subjects. Technology enhanced learning (TEL) methods could be the answer to these challenges. This paper presents a study on a novel TEL method, mulsemedia, and its impact on learner experience, motivation and learning outcome. The research study has been conducted in Ireland with postgraduate students from Dublin City University. The results of the study demonstrated that mulsemedia can be successfully employed as a TEL to improve the academic performance, the learning experience, the engagement and motivation of the students. More than 70% of the participants in the study stated they have enjoyed the mulsemedia-enhanced learning and agreed with the fact that mulsemedia is highly motivating for learning. 69.44% of the participants stated they would want to have more mulsemedia-enhanced learning experiences.

Paper Nr: 175
Title:

Investigating the Learning Impact of Autothinking Educational Game on Adults: A Case Study of France

Authors:

Nour El Mawas, Danial Hooshyar and Yeongwook Yang

Abstract: Adults have different needs for education and training throughout their lives in order to maintain and progress in their job or find a new one. Nowadays, Computational Thinking is one of the 21st century skills that adults must acquire and develop. In this context, some adults have difficulties to find new teaching and learning methodologies that help them learn Computational Thinking. Technology Enhance Learning and specifically Educational Games give the opportunity to learners to enhance their Computational Thinking skills and conceptual knowledge. This paper presents a research study on the learning impact of an adaptive educational game, called AutoThinking, developed for promoting Computational Thinking skills and conceptual knowledge. The game was used by adults in a Master class at the Université de Lille in France. Pre- and Post-tests results analysis has shown that the game helped the adults to acquire knowledge on the Computational Thinking: 92% of adults have answered correct at least 4 questions out of 7 in the post-test versus only 34% of learners in the pre-test.

Paper Nr: 177
Title:

The Effects of Augmented Reality: A Comparative Study in an Undergraduate Physics Laboratory Course

Authors:

Sebastian Kapp, Michael Thees, Fabian Beil, Thomas Weatherby, Jan-Philipp Burde, Thomas Wilhelm and Jochen Kuhn

Abstract: The use of augmented reality (AR) in inquiry-based learning has become of increasing interest to researchers. Recent studies highlight the benefits of AR in various instructional scenarios concerning knowledge acquisition and cognitive load compared to traditional settings. Particularly in the context of physics laboratory experiments, previous research examined the context of simple electrical circuits. However, results were limited to laboratory studies and showed contrasting impacts on knowledge acquisition. While one study reported a higher knowledge acquisition in a tablet-based AR setting, another study reported a higher knowledge acquisition and a reduction in extraneous cognitive load in a two-dimensional non-AR setting compared to a smartglasses-based AR setting. Consequently, the importance of context specific aspects must be considered more deeply. In this study we present a randomized controlled trial in a graded physics laboratory course evaluating the effects of a smartglasses-based AR environment on cognitive load and conceptual knowledge acquisition compared to a two-dimensional non-AR setting. The sample consists of a total of N = 56 students in two groups performing a set of eight traditional inquiry-based experiments exploring the relationships in basic circuit theory. While both groups reported low extraneous cognitive load and achieved a significant knowledge acquisition, no group differences were detected.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 3
Title:

Snap & Hear: Comic Book Analyst for Children Having Literacy and Visual Barriers

Authors:

R. D. Yapa, T. K. Arachchi, V. S. Suriyarachchi, U. D. Abegunasekara and S. Thelijjagoda

Abstract: Comic books are very popular across the world due to the unique experience they provide for all of us in the society without any age limitation. Because of this attraction, which comic books have received, it has proved that comic literature will be able to survive in the twenty first century, even with the existence of multidimensional movie theatres as its competitors. While the biggest global filmmakers are busy with making movies from comic books, many researchers have been investigating their time on digitizing the comic stories as it is, expecting to create a new era in the comic world. But most of them have focused only on one or few components of the story. This paper is based on a research which aims to give the full experience of enjoying the comic books for everyone in the world despite of visual and literacy barriers people are having. Proposed solution comes as a web application that translates input image of a comic story into a text format and delivers it as an audio story to the user. The story will be created using extracted components such as characters, objects, speech text and balloons and considering the association among them with the use of image processing and deep learning technologies.

Paper Nr: 16
Title:

Adult First-time User of Handheld Computer System: Challenges

Authors:

Guy Toko and Ernest Mnkandla

Abstract: Handheld computing systems or devices can be defined as exceptionally portable, independent information management and communication devices. Furthermore, handheld computing systems or devices can be seen as a small or pocket-sized computing device with a touch screen keyboard and input and output interface. According to the definition of handheld computing systems, numerous devices fit the description such as smartphones, personal digital assistants (PDAs) and pagers. However, adult first-time users of computer systems face different issues in adopting the device and the literature reviewed shows that most of them have difficulties with the design, such as the touch screen. The negative views of technology devices by adult first-time users can be attributed to the difficulty in adapting to new technology. Weakness, incapacity, distrust of technology, absence of perceived value and trouble in understanding how to utilise the device are largely the main problems observed by adult first-time users of handheld computer systems. However, they could accept the use of the devices provided their needs are taken into consideration by the developers. The limitation of the research was that only adults in the age range of 55 to 91 in Gauteng in South Africa were chosen for this research.

Paper Nr: 28
Title:

Can Blockchain Technology Facilitate the Unbundling of Higher Education

Authors:

Ira Sood, Henri Pirkkalainen and Anthony F. Camilleri

Abstract: Higher education is in dire need of reform in order keep up with the rapidly advancing technology and student needs surrounding it. Unbundling of higher education has been discussed as one of the potential directions of reform. Prior research has suggested that blockchain technology has the potential to play an essential role in facilitating such change in higher education. However, the ways in which blockchain can facilitate unbundling remains missing in literature. We specifically address this gap. This study reports on a qualitative study with 17 respondents in the field of higher education as well as blockchain technology. Our findings indicate three specific areas of unbundling that can be facilitated with blockchain technology, namely new governance model, modular student experience and enhanced faculty roles. We explain how four key characteristics of blockchain (i.e., decentralization, immutability, pseudonymity and self-sovereignty) facilitate those three areas of unbundling in specific. The findings of this study can aid both the universities and the blockchain community in understanding how the concept of blockchain can be embedded effectively in the unbundling of higher education.

Paper Nr: 30
Title:

A Study on Gamification Effectiveness

Authors:

Petar Cvetkovic, Charly Harbord and Helmut Hlavacs

Abstract: Studies have shown that gamification increases motivation and user experience when it comes to a certain behavior or completing a process. Gamification is often deeply associated with naíve animations and stylized text. This paper addresses the effect that visual representation has on the motivation of a subject by measuring their motivation after completing a mundane process, with both entertaining gamification elements as well as gamification elements presented in plain text. For the purposes of this study a within subject design was used to gather data. Participants completed the same mundane task three times, once without any gamification elements, once with pragmatic feedback and once with entertaining feedback. After completion, the participants filled out the same Likert scale survey. The results, evaluated using the Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks test method, indicated that there was not a significant difference in user motivation between the visually stylized and plain text feedback. If conducted on a larger scale, this discovery could lead to a reduction in both time and cost for gamification development.

Paper Nr: 39
Title:

Investigating the Differences of Student Interactions between Behavior- and Content-based Networks in Online Discussions

Authors:

Tianhui Hu, Huanyou Chai, Sannyuya Liu, Qian Zhang, Guanxian Yi, Zhi Liu and Zhu Su

Abstract: The online asynchronous forum provides a platform for learners to interact with their peers and furtherly improve their critical skills. Understanding the characteristics of student interactions is thus the key to acquiring some useful insights about how learning occurs in online learning environment. Social network analysis (SNA) as a useful tool is often used to analyze student interactions in behavior-based network, in which network tie is defined as the responsive or co-occurrence relation. However, effective student interactions usually rely on the communication of course content as a form of knowledge, not the behavior itself. To this end, this paper began with the word segmentation of every student’s posts, then constructed a network with ties defined as the relations between learners who have co-occurrence of course contents words in their posts, and finally examined the differences of group and individual indexes between behavior- and content-based networks. Results showed that there existed significant differences in the structural and statistical properties between these two networks, and the content-based network was more conducive to discovering the actual interactions between learners in online discussions.

Paper Nr: 48
Title:

Computer Usability: Interactive Challenges Faced by Less Experienced Computer Users in South Africa

Authors:

Guy Toko and Ernest Mnkandla

Abstract: The growing use of applications and access to the internet has increased the number of average computer users in South Africa, as people are using applications like WhatsApp, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and more. The goal of the study is to identify the challenges that most South African people face when they are interacting with computer applications, web applications, and mobile applications. The reason for conducting the study is that lately in South Africa we have seen an increase in South Africans who have access to computer systems, such as the use of smartphones, tablets or iPads, game consoles, and laptops. Most of the people who are using these devices or have access to them still face challenges as to how to use these devices or to use some of the applications that come with these devices. The paper will begin by introducing the topic. The paper will be followed by a literature review section, which will include four topics relating to the topic that helped the researcher to build a foundation for the research topic and to get ideas on how to do the research. The paper will then be followed by the research methodology, and the findings of, and discussions flowing from the study will then follow.

Paper Nr: 57
Title:

Cognitive and Social Aspects of Visualization in Algorithm Learning

Authors:

Luděk Kučera

Abstract: The present paper tries to point out two aspects of the computer supported education at the university level. The first aspect relates to cognition, in particular to methods of computer support of learning difficult concepts in natural sciences, computer science, and engineering, like mathematical notions and theorems, physical laws, and complex algorithms and their behavior. The second aspect is social - only few papers describe how the new educational methods are or have been accepted by the community, whether they finished as a single experiment at the authors’ institution or whether they are used in other schools, how difficult is spreading them out and what kind of obstacles the authors meet. We feel that even quite successful projects face certain inertia of the school system and the community of teachers that make the wider use of new methods complicated.

Paper Nr: 59
Title:

An Enterprise Information Model for Knowledge Transfer with Application Systems: The Current State of Enterprise GPS

Authors:

Hans-Jürgen Scheruhn, Elnur Bayramli and Johannes Hintsch

Abstract: The artifact presented in this paper contributes to enhanced knowledge transfer with a comprehensive, integrated online enterprise information model. It can improve knowledge and understanding of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems from different perspectives such as business and IT as well as enable recognition of the dependencies between the relevant information objects and information models. The authors develop the Enterprise Global Positioning System framework based on existing enterprise architecture frameworks with a special focus on the integration between the business and IT views in order to reduce the inherent complexity of cross-view corporate knowledge. The successful use of Enterprise GPS (EGPS) focusses on the university context in this paper at first, but also shows its utility in non-university environments. EGPS supports companies not only in terms of knowledge transfer between all parties being involved but also facilitates further phases of the process life cycle like controlling, implementation, and monitoring of processes. This paper shows the current state of development and highlights in detail the extensive validation of the artifact.

Paper Nr: 62
Title:

Evaluating the Learning Process: The “ThimelEdu” Educational Game Case Study

Authors:

Stamatios Papadakis, Apostolos M. Trampas, Anastasios K. Barianos, Michail Kalogiannakis and Nikolas Vidakis

Abstract: Digital games are an important part of most adolescent’s leisure lives nowadays and are expected to become the predominant form of popular culture interaction in our society. Many educators see digital games as powerful motivating digital environments, due to their potential to enhance student engagement and motivation in learning, as well as an effective way to create socially interactive, constructivist learning environments and educational processes based on each learner’s needs. The present work focuses on how students acquire knowledge about the subject of the Greek ancient theatre through an interactive 3D serious game, compared with the traditional teaching process.

Paper Nr: 73
Title:

Design of Learning Analytics Tool: The Experts’ Eyes View

Authors:

Dafinka Miteva and Eliza Stefanova

Abstract: Learning Analytics (LA) tools are supposed to retrieve relevant data from Learning Management Systems (LMS) and transform it into useful information for learners, trainers and education managers to increase academic achievement and effectiveness of teaching and learning. This study reveals the experts vision for LA tool features and design. The results of a survey conducted among professional pedagogues and education experts, teachers and university professors, bachelor's and PhD students are presented, with the main purpose of specifying what participants expect an LA tool to offer and how. Data analysis is discuss and visualized. The assumed categories of functionality are summarized and detailed with full list of reports each of them need to suggest for key LMS users roles: managers, teachers and students. Finally, some conclusions are drawn about the variety of users’ demands and future work is outlined in order to complete the preliminary preparation before being developed an expert LA tool and the effectiveness of education being improved.

Paper Nr: 80
Title:

Augmentation of Interactive Science Communication using Sign Language

Authors:

Miki Namatame and Masami Kitamura

Abstract: Learning outside of a school environment is important for us because much of our time is spent outside of school. Museums, in particular, are important for lifelong learning. To improve accessibility of information for science communication in museums based on the principles of “universal design” and “design for all,” we consider universal access for d/Deaf and hard-of-hearing visitors. This paper introduces the necessity of improving information accessibility for d/Deaf and hard-of-hearing visitors, followed by specific methods for them to learn freely and spontaneously in aquariums. Curators who were able to use sign language to provide scientific communications were trained, and then accessibility methods acceptable to d/Deaf and hard-of-hearing visitors to augment interactive science communication in aquariums were surveyed through a demonstration experiment. Four information guarantees were provided: distribution of explanations, explanations by sign language interpreters, sign language explanations with signboards, and face-to-face lectures in sign language. The merits and demerits of each type of information accessibility were assessed via a questionnaire.

Paper Nr: 85
Title:

Deterministic Factors Influencing Learners' Learning Behaviors and Outcomes by Applying Information Technology-assisted Music Curriculum

Authors:

Jing Li, Fang-Jie Shiu and Hsiu-Chin Huang

Abstract: Due to the tendency of complex relationship between learners' learning behaviors and learning outcomes, this research applies Fuzzy Delphi method and ISM with Fuzzy MICMAC to further understand deterministic factors influencing learners' learning behaviors and outcomes by applying information technology-assisted music curriculum. The results show that applying information technology-assisted music curriculum will affect learners' learning behaviors, such as online learning attitude, music learning motivation and learning engagement, as well as learning outcome factors such as learning satisfaction and learning effectiveness. In addition, self-directed learning is the crucial factor of learning behaviors and learning outcomes, and learning behaviors will affect learning outcome factors, such as learning effectiveness and learning satisfaction.

Paper Nr: 108
Title:

Recommendation of Educational Content to Improve Student Performance: An Approach based on Learning Styles

Authors:

Alana Oliveira, Mario M. Teixeira and Carlos S. Neto

Abstract: Virtual learning environments are a powerful tool in the teaching-learning process and can provide a variety of utilization data that can be explored by data mining techniques to improve the understanding of student behavior and performance. By using Learning Analytics, it is possible to identify potential problems, such as student dropout or failures before they become irreversible, and indicate corrective actions to be taken by teachers. In this context, content recommendation plays a prominent role since choosing the proper content for a certain audience may motivate them to become more involved in the learning process. However, in distance education settings nowadays, teachers do not know their students, thus it becomes difficult to select the content most suitable to their needs. In this paper, we propose a content recommendation architecture that takes into account the learning profile of students enrolled in an LMS to customize content recommendations to each learner’s style. A profile assessment tool, based on the Honey-Mumford learning style taxonomy was implemented and some preliminary data obtained. We devised a recommendation scheme that considers the euclidean distance between students’ learning styles when suggesting content to be studied. Our preliminary results indicate this approach may be beneficial to improve the teaching-learning process and student performance as a whole.

Paper Nr: 111
Title:

Evaluation of Low-threshold Programming Learning Environments for the Blind and Partially Sighted

Authors:

Shirin Riazy, Sabrina I. Weller and Katharina Simbeck

Abstract: Approximately 1.3 billion people worldwide live with visual impairments and are therefore dependent on the use of aids. With regard to the acute shortage of skilled workers in the IT sector, the question arises as to the extent to which people with visual impairments can enter the IT professions. While web-based programming environments have been used to introduce children to programming, their accessibility for the blind and visually impaired is questionable. This report introduces 17 web-based programming learning environments and examines their usability for blind and visually impaired people. In total, none of the 17 graphical programming environments were suitable for the usage by blind and visually impaired people.

Paper Nr: 114
Title:

Computational Logic in the First Semester of Computer Science: An Experience Report

Authors:

David M. Cerna, Martina Seidl, Wolfgang Schreiner, Wolfgang Windsteiger and Armin Biere

Abstract: Nowadays, logic plays an ever-increasing role in modern computer science, in theory as well as in practice. Logic forms the foundation of the symbolic branch of artificial intelligence and from an industrial perspective, logic-based verification technologies are crucial for major hardware and software companies to ensure the correctness of complex computing systems. The concepts of computational logic that are needed for such purposes are often avoided in early stages of computer science curricula. Instead, classical logic education mainly focuses on mathematical aspects of logic depriving students to see the practical relevance of this subject. In this paper we present our experiences with a novel design of a first-semester bachelor logic course attended by about 200 students. Our aim is to interlink both foundations and applications of logic within computer science. We report on our experiences and the feedback we got from the students through an extensive survey we performed at the end of the semester.

Paper Nr: 117
Title:

Challenges with Teaching and Learning Theoretical Query Languages

Authors:

Jalal Kawash and Levi Meston

Abstract: Relational algebra and relational calculus are often taught as part of the topics of a typical database course in Computer Science and Engineering degrees. The teaching of these theoretical languages not only provide the students with the theoretical foundation for learning SQL, but also serve as a vehicle for students to sharpen their problem solving skills. SQL, the most commonly used database language, also serves as a substantial part of any course on databases. SQL was supposed to be an implementation of relational calculus; however, the language ended up being a hybrid implementation of both the calculus and the algebra. One challenge that faces students and educators alike is that unlike SQL where queries can be tested and validated with existing databases, the calculus and the algebra remain theoretical with very limited support for such testing or validation. In addition, not all theoretical constructs in both the algebra and the calculus have a straightforward implementation in SQL. After discussing these challenges, we make the case in this paper for the need to better computer tools that support the teaching and learning of these two theoretical query languages. We also present the features/objectives of such a tool that we are currently developing.

Paper Nr: 123
Title:

POI-based Recommender System for the Support of Academics in a Smart Campus

Authors:

Guilherme Xavier de Carvalho, Isabela Gasparini, Guilherme M. Machado, Leandro K. Wives and José P. M. de Oliveira

Abstract: Recommender Systems are software used to suggest user items in a personalized and automated way. When combined with Points of Interest (POI), they can set locations as referable items. This type of approach is useful when the amount of POI available for the user is large. In the context of Universities, students have different needs and have to look for different locations to experience the Universities’ resources. The goal of this paper is to present a POI-based Recommender System to improve student’s well-being and to support their academic journey in a Smart Campus. The recommender system was implemented by an application called AONDE, which was used by 110 students, where 63 answered a satisfaction questionnaire allowing the data collection needed for the the system evaluation. An accuracy of 61% in the recommendations of items to students was measured, as well as a high satisfaction rate, where 90.5% of respondents said they were satisfied or very satisfied with the locations suggested by the app. The purpose of this experience paper is demonstrate that the approach here described proved to be useful for students’ routine, impacting positively their academic journey.

Paper Nr: 136
Title:

Toward Sustainable Learning Economy through a Block-chain based Management System

Authors:

Masumi Hori, Seishi Ono, Kensuke Miyashita, Toshihiro Kita and Takao Terano

Abstract: This paper proposes Sustainable Learning Economy (SLE) based on market principles. SLE will utilize the blockchain technology in order to let learners trade their learning results in cryptocurrencies, which in turn gives the learners a strong motivation to acquire the knowledge independently to gain their rewards. The main challenge in SLE has been guaranteeing learning quality; however, this could be resolved using competency-based learning (CBL), an efficient learning method to prioritize acquired knowledge over knowledge acquisition. Unfortunately, due to social, corporate, and educational demands, competency models require significant time, manpower, and expertise. While Conventional Competency Management Systems (CMS) reduces costs by providing an integrated environment for CBL operations, it is not able to reduce development costs. Therefore, to reduce development costs, this paper developed a Smart CMS, which harnessed concepts of distributed artificial intelligence, the power of internet resources, and network analysis technology to automatically develop competencies tailored to the purpose, strengths, and characteristics of individual learners.

Paper Nr: 138
Title:

Mobile Apps for Teaching Physics: Situation in Latvia

Authors:

Loreta Juskaite, Laura Dzelzkaleja, Aleksandrs Ipatovs and Atis Kapenieks

Abstract: Mobile apps have immense potential for being used in Physics education as more innovative educational tools. They extend learning activities such as practice and application out of the classroom. The teacher needs to be guided to maximize the outcome of using the mobile apps and to reach the best results. When deciding to use mobile apps, the teacher should be sure to choose the most effective tool to reach the learning goal. This paper reflects current mobile app usage situation Latvian schools for teaching and learning Physics. The research was conducted using surveys, lesson observations, and focus group discussions. The number of participants were 1547 students and 67 teachers. Two main research questions for this study were: 1. How do Physics teachers utilize mobile apps in Physics education? 2. Which criteria do Physics teachers consider while selecting mobile apps for education? Study shows that almost all the teachers (n=64) agreed that mobile app integration into Physics subject activities could promote personalization. For students to develop content or educational product, teachers preferred apps such as Meter app (Sound meter, Light Meter, Lux Meter, atmospheric pressure), App Inventor, Scratch & Arduino.

Paper Nr: 141
Title:

Heuristics and Usability of a Video Assessment Evaluation Tool for Teachers

Authors:

Sara Cruz, Clara Coutinho and José A. Lencastre

Abstract: The article presents the design and development of an organized multimedia Web tool to help teachers evaluate videos produced by students according to the JuxtaLearn learning process. We use a development research methodology, fulfilling the following phases of the protocol: (1) preliminary investigation, (2) theoretical embedding, (3) empirical testing and (4) documentation, analysis and reflection on process and outcomes. We started with the exploratory analysis phase where it was intended identify scientificity and pedagogical potential of the video. Based on the data obtained in this phase, the tool was designed and further developed. Usability evaluation tests were carried out with experts and the target audience in order to adapt the product. Based on the results of usability testing, we can say that the prototype responded to the teachers' needs, arousing their interest in promoting video production with their students.

Paper Nr: 146
Title:

An Adaptive Learning System based on Tracking

Authors:

Insaf Tnazefti-Kerkeni, Henda Belaïd and Bénédicte Talon

Abstract: Success in training is an opportunity that must be offered to each student. However, many universities are experiencing high rates of failure and dropout, especially during the first year of higher studies. We believe that creating a process based on personalization of teaching can contribute to the decrease of failure rate during undergraduate studies. To achieve this goal, we are specifically interested in online learning supported by a Learning Management System (LMS). We have integrated, in a previous works, new tools using traces of learners’ activities during collaborative works on an LMS. We therefore propose a system based on intelligent agents. We are designing smart dashboards, automating detection of specific learners' difficulties in order to offer alternatives or solutions to their problems.

Paper Nr: 153
Title:

A Technology-enhanced Smart Learning Environment based on the Combination of Knowledge Graphs and Learning Paths

Authors:

Eleni Ilkou and Beat Signer

Abstract: In our position paper on a technology-enhanced smart learning environment, we propose the innovative combination of a knowledge graph representing what one has to learn and a learning path defining in which order things are going to be learned. In this way, we aim to identify students’ weak spots or knowledge gaps in order to individually assist them in reaching their goals. Based on the performance of different learning paths, one might further identify the characteristics of a learning system that leads to successful students. In addition, by studying assessments and the different ways a particular problem can be solved, new methods for a multi-dimensional classification of assessments can be developed. The theoretical findings on learning paths in combination with the classification of assessments will inform the design and development of a smart learning environment. By combining a knowledge graph with different learning paths and the corresponding practical assessments we enable the creation of a smart learning tool. While the proposed approach can be applied to different educational domains and should lead to more effective learning environments fostering deep learning in schools as well as in professional settings, in this paper we focus on the domain of mathematics in primary and high schools as the main use case.

Paper Nr: 170
Title:

Remote Pair Programming

Authors:

Janet Hughes, Ann Walshe, Bobby Law and Brendan Murphy

Abstract: Computing students often learn to program individually or in variously-sized groups whilst studying in computing laboratories and face-to-face classes. Previous research indicates that learning via pair programming can lead to students improving the quality of their programming, enhancing their programming skills and increasing their self-confidence when programming. Pair programming also is well established as a mechanism that supports peer learning and self-assessment for novice and more experienced students of programming. Observed benefits include increased self-efficacy, sharing of expertise, improved communication and team-working – all enhancing employability. A considerable amount of existing work has examined pair programming benefits as they relate to campus-based students pairing face-to-face in a laboratory class – but how can distance learning students experience such benefits? This paper describes the preliminary results from a pilot study to investigate the benefits to distance learning students of engaging in Remote Pair Programming in their learning. Our investigation goes beyond academic learning to explore community, social and employability benefits, all of which are relevant to national measures of student satisfaction.

Paper Nr: 178
Title:

Online Learning Challenges in Academia: The Case of Uganda

Authors:

Felix Bwire, Emily Bagarukayo and Paul B. Muyinda

Abstract: Online learning is the access of learning experiences by the use of technology and internet, making the learning experience more convenient and accessible. Despite the wide adoption of Information and Communication technologies (ICT) in teaching and learning, ICT integration in teaching is still ad hoc and a lot more work has to be done to realize the full potential of online learning. This study was carried to establish the challenges that were hindering the wide adoption of online learning in universities in Uganda. It was discovered that internet connectivity and power supply were not reliable most especially in universities situated in rural areas. Teachers also lacked the required skills for designing online courses even in universities where infrastructure was not a problem. Therefore, we argue that for online learning to be widely adopted, teachers need to be adequately trained in online course design and mechanisms put in place to motivate the teachers to teach online.

Paper Nr: 180
Title:

Improving Emotion Detection for Flow Measurement with a High Frame Rate Video based Approach

Authors:

Ehm Kannegieser, Daniel Atorf and Robert Matrai

Abstract: Achieving states of high focus (i.e., Flow, Immersion) in learning situations is linked with the motivation to learn. Developing a tool to measure such states could potentially be used to evaluate and improve learning system potential and thus learning effect. With this purpose in mind, correlations between physiological data and states of high focus were tried to be discovered in a prior study. Physiological data from over 40 participants was recorded and analyzed for correlations with states of high focus. However, no significant correlations between physiological data and elicited states of high focus have been found yet. Revisiting the results, it was concluded that especially the quality and density of emotion recognition data, elicited by a video-based approach might have potentially been insufficient. In this work in progress paper, a method with the intention of improving the quality and density of video data by way of implementing a high frame rate video approach is outlined, thus enabling the search for correlations of physiological data and states of high focus.

Paper Nr: 36
Title:

Immersion into the World of Gaming: An Approach of Introducing Gamification in an Educational Context

Authors:

Korbinian Otto, Corinna Kröhn and Barbara Sabitzer

Abstract: The use of game elements in the real world is part of a trending topic in science, called “gamification”. Game developers and companies are using gamification tools and the knowledge about player types and their characteristics, to successfully affect the behaviour of their players or customers. The success of apps like “Adidas Running” and “Pokemon Go” (Niantic) and their millions of constant players tell us, that gamification can work. But the potential of gamification goes beyond selling healthy lifestyles or marketing strategies, it also finds its way into the educational system. The paper takes a closer look at definitions of gamification and different player types. Furthermore, it investigates the topic in an educational context where the authors concentrate on motivational aspects of learning environments as well as downsides and risks of gamification. In a pilot study in two classes at a secondary school, the authors investigated different gamification tools to motivate students to increase the participation in class, do more off-school assignments and finally improve their grades.

Paper Nr: 68
Title:

Quality of Group Formation in CSCL Environments

Authors:

Naseebah Maqtary, Abdulqader Mohsen and Kamal Bechkoum

Abstract: Group Formation (GF) plays a vital role in groupwork performance, for it is the opening phase of the group development process. Many studies have been conducted to form groups in various scenarios to enhance collaborative learning. These studies used different clustering techniques, and therefore, the applied evaluation measures in each study depend on the context of the group formation process. However, there is a lack of an integrative framework to qualify the overall process of group formation. This paper proposes such a framework that is composed of layers to tackle each issue related to the GF process. The framework is called the framework of the Quality of Group Formation (QoGF). QoGF includes three different levels in which every level has its evaluation measures. These measures are group quality, group formation quality and empirical quality, which are totaled in an aggregative measure called Total Quality (TQ).

Paper Nr: 84
Title:

First Insights into Hybrid AI-Fuzzy Tutoring System for Boredom Identification

Authors:

Viktors Zagorskis, Ingrida Lavrinovica and Atis Kapenieks

Abstract: In this paper, we introduce the Hybrid AI-Fuzzy Intelligent Control (HAFiC) system prototype. The proposed model is the add-on to online learning-tutoring environments to proactively detect learners’ emotional states by measuring performance gaining or degradation in a game-like form. We introduce a system model and experimental results implementing recently proposed Simple Algorithm for Boredom Identification (SABI) (Zagorskis et al.,2019) along with the Fuzzy Intelligent control approach to evaluate whether proposed indirect data acquisition method allows retrieving performance data variability in correspondence to real user emotional states. In the proposed system, the AI part cares about Image Processing and Text Recognition gathered from mobile-handwriting devices. In contrast, Fuzzy Expert System part organises users’ performance data utilisation and decision making based on adaptive fuzzy inference approach. First experiment results described.

Paper Nr: 87
Title:

Learning Recursion: Insights from the ChiQat Intelligent Tutoring System

Authors:

Omar Alzoubi, Barbara Di Eugenio, Davide Fossati, Nicholas Green and Mehrdad Alizadeh

Abstract: Recursion is a difficult concept to teach, and novice programmers struggle Learning it. The reasons include unfamiliarity with activities associated with analyzing recursion, such as visualizing program execution and difficulty understanding its back flow of control. In this paper we discuss approaches to teaching recursion that includes conceptual and program visualization methods. We also describe the recursion module of our ChiQat-Tutor system which relies on ideas from both approaches. We designed several activities that allow students to work on recursive problems: answering questions, animations, code tracing, validation, and construction tasks. We conducted four evaluation experiments at two different institutions, with a total of 89 students taking introductory Computer Science courses. We hypothesized that ChiQat-Tutor can help novice Computer Science students learn recursion, develop accurate mental models of recursion, and serve as an effective visualization tool with which hidden features of recursion can become evident. Our results showed some evidence that the animation, answering questions, code tracing, and validation tasks exhibit a trend towards significant learning gains.

Paper Nr: 94
Title:

XEL Group Learning – A Socio-technical Framework for Self-regulated Learning

Authors:

Shereif Eid and Gábor Kismihók

Abstract: We describe XEL-Group Learning, a socio-technical framework for socially oriented e-learning. The aim of the presented framework is to address the lack of holistic pedagogical solutions that take into account motivational theories, socio–technical factors, and cultural elements in social learning networks. The presented framework provides initiatives for collaboration by providing a dynamic psycho-pedagogical recommendation mechanism with validation properties. In this paper, we begin by highlighting the socio-technical concept associated with socially-oriented e-learning. Next, we describe XEL-GL’s main mechanisms such as group formation and the semantic matching framework. Moreover, through semantic similarity measurements, we show how cultural elements, such as the learning subject, can enhance the quality of recommendations by allowing for more accurate predictions of friends networks.

Paper Nr: 97
Title:

Use of Learning Management System (LMS): A Study in a Brazilian and Portuguese Universities

Authors:

Roberta S. Leone, Cristina Mesquita and Rui P. Lopes

Abstract: Learning Management Systems (LMS) are mainly used as a didactic support for the presential classes. However, because of the tools they provide, they are also essential to support b-learning and e-learning process. Because of this, most universities rely on some LMS through many or all of the courses. This paper describes a study performed in two different universities regarding the students’ perception about the usefulness and the usability of two different LMS: Moodle and Sakai. Through a focus group, students shared their opinion and discussed about their experience. In addition, data from the log of the platforms was also analysed, to assess how teachers use the LMS tools. In general, it can be stated that when the teacher knows how to use the LMS, students feel more comfortable using it and have a better learning experience. Regarding the tools, teachers mostly rely on the repository of documents.

Paper Nr: 120
Title:

stARS: Proposing an Adaptable Collaborative Learning Environment to Support Communication in the Classroom

Authors:

Tommy Kubica, Ilja Shmelkin, Robert Peine, Lidia Roszko and Alexander Schill

Abstract: The usage of technology provides a powerful opportunity to support classic classroom scenarios. In addition to improve the presentation of a lecturer’s content, technical tools are able to increase the communication to the students or between students. Although many approaches exist that are able to support such interactions, the lecturer has to adjust his/her teaching strategy to the corresponding system. To overcome this problem, our goal is to allow lecturers to create their personal scenarios in an intuitive manner. As a solution, we propose an approach called stARS (scenario-tailored Audience Response System) that builds on top of a uniform (meta-)model. It provides a graphical editor as a user interface to create customized application models that represent teaching scenarios. In addition to classic Audience Response functions such as learning or survey questions, collaborative functionality is provided – specifically, group formations with associated interactions within these groups (e.g., discussion or voting functionalities) are examined. In order to evaluate our approach, in the first step, a user study was conducted to reason about the average user’s modeling abilities with the graphical editor. Next, we target to evaluate both the functionality and the opportunities of our created prototype in real-life scenarios.

Paper Nr: 126
Title:

The MATLAB Grader Test Generator: A Teacher’s Tool for Generating Autograding Tests of MATLAB Scripts

Authors:

Robin T. Bye

Abstract: MATLAB Grader is a relatively new addition to the MATLAB software family that enables autograding and immediate student feedback of coding assignments. However, manually configuring the assessment tests in MATLAB Grader can be a tedious task for a teacher, especially for larger assignments where more than 100 variables, say, need to be checked. In this paper, I present the MATLAB Grader Test Generator, a tool consisting of both a graphical app and an all-in-one test script that can aid the teacher in this process. The test generator tool attempts to circumvent inherent limitations in MATLAB Grader whilst being free, open-source, and relatively easy to customize for a technically skilled teacher. The tool is available on the MATLAB File Exchange, where it was awarded the File Exchange Pick of the Week in April, 2019.

Paper Nr: 128
Title:

Can You Tell by My Grades That I Am a Blogger? A Longitudinal Study of the Use of Blogging as a Pedagogical Tool and Effects on Expected Grades

Authors:

Tarjei A. Heggernes and Ole J. Bergfjord

Abstract: From 2009 to 2013 writing blog posts, and commenting on each other’s blog posts, was a mandatory course requirement for the students of the subject ØMF101 Administrative Informasjonssystemer (Management Information Systems) at the former Bergen University College (now Western Norway University of Applied Sciences). We have data from the students’ activity on the blog network, combined with grades and demographic data. This makes it possible to explore the effects of blogging, and on a higher level, digital based active learning, has had on the course outcome. The results show that older students are less active digitally and get lower grades than younger students, even when compared to average grades for the bachelor program. All other effects are small or non-existent – including the relation between blogging activity and exam results.

Paper Nr: 130
Title:

Rate Your Mate for Food for Thought: Elsewhere Use a Grader

Authors:

Pia Niemelä and Mikko Nurminen

Abstract: Finnish university pedagogues are keen on applying flipped learning techniques to improve education and learning outcomes. Flipped learning implies the transfer of assessment in a more formative direction and targeted feedback that is frequently delivered. On the contrary, teaching resources are decreasing. Increasing the portion of self-, peer- and automatic assessment partially helps solving this dilemma. Currently, Tampere University is in the midst of the process of combining two separate campuses together. Both campuses offer major-specific computer science studies. This paper presents a case study of merging basic level web technology courses, and in particular their different assessment practices together. The courses are targeted for the second- and third-year students, and the number of participants is about 200 in the studied course (enrolled N=324 / completed N=178). The merged course was run in two learning management systems (LMSs), called Plussa and WETO. The switch from one LMS to another happened in the middle of the course. LMSs employed different assessment practices for weekly exercises: Plussa assessed them automatically, whereas WETO exploited peer-reviews. This provided a unique opportunity to compare these two assessment methods and the study addresses the pedagogical opportunities and challenges of both.

Paper Nr: 163
Title:

ARLectio: An Augmented Reality Platform to Support Teachers in Producing Educational Resources

Authors:

Mariella Farella, Marco Arrigo, Davide Taibi, Giovanni Todaro, Giuseppe Chiazzese and Giovanni Fulantelli

Abstract: In this article we present a learning platform named ‘ARLectio’ based on Augmented Reality (AR) technology that aims at supporting teachers in promoting AR experience at school. The ARLectio platform has been developed in the framework of the FabLab SchoolNet project, funded by the European Commission under the Erasmus+ programme. With the use of Augmented Reality, Educational robotics and 3D printing, the objective of the project is to develop a new learning model based on the design and implementation of "objects" that can promote creativity and innovation, communication, collaboration, critical thinking and computational thinking skills in students.

Paper Nr: 183
Title:

Polemics about Computational Thinking: Digital Competence in Digital Zeitgeist – Continued Search for Answers

Authors:

Lúcia H. Martins-Pacheco, Christiane G. von Wangenheim and Nathalia C. Alves

Abstract: Human society is immersed in digital zeitgeist and information, and communications technology competences became fundamental for each citizen around the world in order to participate in the great benefits that this technological development promotes. In this zeitgeist, several questions appear related to the educational context because the way to deal with information, knowledge, and communications has changed drastically. For that reason, several proposals emerged to develop additional competences in youths. Among these possibilities, computational thinking – CT - arose as an approach to encourage ICT competence. However, the initial proposal appeared in a simple viewpoint article; that was just an opinion without any reference. Surprisingly, such an article reverberated around the world, and several proposals appeared trying to define “what is computational thinking?”. Parallel to this, some critics showed controversial aspects of CT, especially based on computer science (CS) educational, historical trajectory. But, many solid approaches of CT based on robust researches became popular, and several educational practices were successful. Thus, we analyze some criticism and show other points of view, aiming to clarify some questions and to give some answers. We believe that CT approaches are valuable inside of myriads of possibilities to promote ICT competences. Polemics and controversies used to make advances in each field, but fruitful initiatives must be acknowledged. K-12 educational system could not wait until there is a proper and unique consensus between researchers to start to teach ICT competences to our youths.

Paper Nr: 185
Title:

Knowledge Acquisition Data Visualization in eLearning Delivery

Authors:

Atis Kapenieks, Iveta Daugule, Kristaps Kapenieks, Viktors Zagorskis, Janis Kapenieks jun., Zanis Timsans and Ieva Vitolina

Abstract: The aim of the study is to create the complete landscape model for learner behavior and knowledge acquisition data, and mapping the real learner performance data on it. This paper reports on a TELECI approach for learner knowledge acquisition data visualization. We present the new metrics for determination the relevance of the e-course content and delivery approach to learners. This approach is based on the assumption that knowledge acquisition of real e-content can be quantified by superposition of the impact of learning “perfect” content, “too easy” content, and “too complicated” content. The user learning performance data are generated in the TELECI e-learning environment with additional short, easy-to-use multiple-choice questions before and after each content subunit. This approach was well accepted by learners. The learner knowledge acquisition data are visualized on knowledge acquisition surface. This surface is calculated from the set of artificial data. The experimental data are positioned in curves called “telecides”. The presented telcide of Basic Business course delivered for 61 students’ group describes the appropriateness of each course unit to the learning needs of student group. We present also the experimental data on the learning acquisition surface from individual students. Each point corresponds learning acquisition for one student.

Area 3 - Learning/Teaching Methodologies and Assessment

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 9
Title:

Innovative Approaches in Teaching Programming: A Systematic Literature Review

Authors:

Simone C. Santos, Patricia A. Tedesco, Matheus Borba and Matheus Brito

Abstract: One of the main challenges of computing education is the teaching of computer programming. Technical skills related to algorithm logic, programming language syntax, and computational platforms are required to program. In addition, several non-technical skills are required, enabling the student to understand and to interpret real problems, to work in groups and to strive for effective and efficient solutions. To meet these challenges, innovative teaching methodologies have been applied in teaching programming, building learning environments that are more conducive to the development of these skills. In order to understand how these methodologies are being used, this work presents the result of a systematic literature review, motivated by the following research question: "What are the innovative teaching and learning approaches to programming, how are they applied and what are the main results of their application? In this study, we considered three digital libraries and found 24 primary studies, following the Kitchenham methodology. These studies were categorized into 6 groups and highlighted challenges related to the problems addressed, teaching environment, content, human capital involved and assessment process. The studies also showed evidence of success cases, as well as open paths for new research.

Paper Nr: 38
Title:

The Creative Process in the Development of Computational Thinking in Higher Education

Authors:

Tatyane S. C. da Silva, Jeane C. B. de Melo and Patricia Tedesco

Abstract: Today's society, differentiated by knowledge, is characterized by structural changes that require individuals to act in an innovative, interdisciplinary way and linked to Computational Thinking. This skill stands out for its relevance, included in the list of skills and competencies required of 21st-century professionals. Computational thinking encompasses problem-solving using models, abstractions, organization and decomposition of these elements in an algorithmic way. These elements, in turn, impose on subjects a skill that is not widely explored in traditional teaching-learning processes: creativity. Given this panorama, this article presents a study whose objective is to understand the relationship of the Creative Process in the development of Computational Thinking, to assist the teaching and learning of programming. For this, a Conceptual Model was created, relating the pillars of the Creative Process to solve problems using programming and later applied in a class in the Digital Games course, in the Programming discipline. The results point to the relevance of using the Conceptual Model in the cognitive process, indicating that it positively influenced the learning of programming by students, which is reflected in the students' solutions and reports.

Paper Nr: 50
Title:

Enabling Stakeholders to Change: Development of a Change Management Guideline for Flipped Classroom Implementations

Authors:

Linda Blömer, Alena Droit and Uwe Hoppe

Abstract: The successful introduction of the popular blended learning method Flipped Classroom (FC) is a major challenge because many stakeholders are affected. However, the transformation is dependent on the commitment of engaged individuals, who rarely have access to institutionalized support. Repeatable descriptions of strategic approaches and recommendations for how to manage a successful change in Higher Education Institutions are rare. This paper aims to synthesize research findings concerning Change Management (CM) approaches in a flipped learning context. Based on a systematic literature review, we develop a Guideline with specific recommendations for successful CM to develop and implement FC courses.

Paper Nr: 63
Title:

Design Recommendations for Successful Cross-university Collaborative Group Work: Two Best Practices Cases

Authors:

Alexander Clauss and Helge Fischer

Abstract: The ability to work in decentralised, location-independent, international teams using collaborative information and communication technology (ICT) has become an essential key competence for the vocational capability of knowledge workers all over the world. Nevertheless, curricular contents in higher education do not yet reflect the development of these key competencies to an extent commensurate with their crucial importance. Concrete best practice application cases and design recommendations are lacking, especially in a cross-university context. The aim of this paper is therefore to introduce the concept of virtual collaborative learning (VCL) and compare two concrete application cases of cross-university VCL-arrangements in formal learning settings in order to create a design framework and to derive concrete design recommendations. The multi-perspective evaluations of the presented cases show that successful cross-university VCL concepts are characterized by the e-tutorial support of group work, transparent learning objectives and evaluation criteria, the selection of relevant, realistic and job related topics and assignments, the intensive participation of the learners, formative feedback as well as learning analytics. Based on lessons learned during the cross-university online collaborations concrete design measures for the implementation of cross university VCL courses are derived.

Paper Nr: 65
Title:

TAEP4.0: Teacher Assistance Educational Process to Promote 21st Century Skills in the Context of Education 4.0

Authors:

Deivid E. Silva, Marialina C. Sobrinho and Natasha M. Valentim

Abstract: Today's professionals need to be enabled to be fit for Industry 4.0. Thus, it is the school's role to prepare the student to be a professional who has the skills and competencies required in the 21st Century. This practice redefines Education, known as Education 4.0. Based on the literature, we perceived that most studies in the context of Education 4.0 are interested in student development, but few propose teacher support in this new challenge. In this sense, this paper presents the Teacher Assistance Educational Process (TAEP4.0) to support teachers in activities related to Education 4.0. TAEP4.0 can help to prepare student-centered classes and train students for life in the 21st Century with hands-on and interactive activities. TAEP4.0 was evaluated by 6 Education professionals to check the ease of use, usefulness, and intention of future use, using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) indicators. After this exploratory study, quantitative and qualitative data analysis was performed. The results showed that TAEP4.0 can broaden teachers' knowledge and interaction with Education 4.0, as well as support them in preparing their classes.

Paper Nr: 95
Title:

Towards a Tailored Hybrid Recommendation-based System for Computerized Adaptive Testing through Clustering and IRT

Authors:

Wesley Silva, Marcos Spalenza, Jean-Rémi Bourguet and Elias de Oliveira

Abstract: Creating a student individualized evaluation path composed by a sequence of activities is a hard task and requires efforts and time for teachers. In such cases, the activities have to be well adjusted to the latent knowledge of specific students groups. In this paper, we propose a hybrid system that automatically selects and recommends activities based on a historical evolution of past students during the teaching-learning process. Our system is supported by the hybrid usage of Item Response Theory and techniques of clustering to output different kinds of recommendations as filters to select activities and build the tailored evaluation path.

Paper Nr: 140
Title:

Design and Management of an Objective Structured Clinical Examination using the SIMUportfolio Platform

Authors:

Matěj Karolyi, Jakub Ščavnický, Petra Růžičková, Lenka Šnajdrová and Martin Komenda

Abstract: An objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) is a modern and effective way of examination and evaluation of students in terms of clinical practice. Despite its high demands as regards both staff and time, it is certainly worthwhile to test students’ skills in this way, and the Faculty of Medicine of the Masaryk University is currently aiming to introduce this modern examination method. Apart from a proper training of employees responsible for the preparation and the process itself of the examinations, much effort has also been made to develop the faculty’s own platform which will provide support in various stages of OSCE. The SIMUportfolio is an online platform which, among others, integrates curriculum description, study materials and functions serving to define OSCE stations and examinations, their field evaluation as well as a module summing up the students’ results. In this paper, we have described our motivation for the platform development in the context of a simulation centre which is currently under construction, the platform’s maintenance and further development. Furthermore, we have presented the finished components of the platform, which have been designed in accordance with processes occurring during an OSCE.

Paper Nr: 157
Title:

The Children’s Congress: Creative Computational Thinking to Promote Gifted Pupils

Authors:

Sara Hinterplattner, Barbara Sabitzer, Heike Demarle-Meusel and Simon Schneiderbauer

Abstract: The Children’s Congress is an event, developed to meet a demand for strengthening computational thinking and increasing the interest in STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Mathematics) subjects. This congress brings teachers, university students and pupils together to work on interdisciplinary real-life problems. During these proceedings, the pupils slip into the role of researchers and scientists. The Children’s Congress aims at inspiring pupils, students and teachers to work with computational thinking in different subjects, as well as promoting the concept of working in an inter- or transdisciplinary way. It is a core value of the Children’s Congress that the project should challenge and benefit everyone involved. At university it was shown that students need special requirements in talent promotion to be successful: creating community, offering freedom and enhancing academic competence. In this paper we want to find out if the project offers these requirements and their effects. The findings show that the Children’s Congress includes all pillars of gifted education and moreover that the pupils enjoyed these pedagogical approaches. Besides, the Children’s Congress helps to detect new talents and trains all participants in computational thinking and cross-curricular project-based learning.

Paper Nr: 158
Title:

From Standardized Assessment to Automatic Formative Assessment for Adaptive Teaching

Authors:

Alice Barana, Cecilia Fissore and Marina Marchisio

Abstract: The use of technology in education is constantly growing and can integrate the experience of school learning allowing an adaptive teaching. One of the teaching practices in which technology can play a fundamental role is the assessment: standardized, summative and formative. An Automatic Assessment System can offer fundamental support to teachers and to students, and it allows adaptive teaching: promoting practices of formative assessment, providing effective and interactive feedback, and promoting self-regulated learning. Our university has successfully developed and tested a model for automatic formative assessment and interactive feedback for STEM through the use of an Automatic Assessment System. This article presents a training course for teachers focused on the adaptation of questions designed for standardized assessment to questions for formative assessment to develop mathematical skills, problem solving and preparation for INVALSI (national standardized tests). The teachers created questions with automatic formative assessment, reflecting on how to adapt the requests to the different needs of students and how to create guided learning paths. The activities created by the teachers, their reflections on the training module and on the activity carried out with students are analyzed and discussed.

Paper Nr: 168
Title:

Improvements in bASES21: 21st-Century Skills Assessment Model to K12

Authors:

Lúcia H. Martins-Pacheco, Leonardo P. Degering, Fernanda Mioto, Christiane G. von Wangenheim, Adriano F. Borgato and Giani Petri

Abstract: Digital age has been impacted worldwide economy, human communication, knowledge access, democracy and days by day citizen lives. Consequently, several international entities make strategies for educational system and to empower people to labour market. One strategy has been to define what skills are important develop in 21st-century. To introduce educational systems approaches that aim to develop 21st-century skills it is necessary encompass how to teach, how to learn, and how to assess this personal development. Some practices have been indicated that teaching computing in basic education could act synergistically with 21st-century skills learning. So that, bASES21 is an instrument created to assess such skills. The first version was tested with a group of 148 high school students. Statistical studies pointed out the need of expand the sample size. Then in a second study sample size reach 560 students. New statistical analyses were done, and it was proposed several changes in first model. The instrument upgraded can assess such skills with 56 questions instead of 82, that were originally taken. These results can be very useful to ensure to attain necessary reliability and validity and to make possible popularization in using this instrument in K12 school setting.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 2
Title:

A Perspective on a New Digital Art Game: The Approach of Research and Knowledge Transfer

Authors:

Ieva Gintere

Abstract: This study proposes a new methodological approach for digital art game creation focused on research and knowledge transfer. The author is carrying out research into the aesthetics of contemporary games in order to transfer the results of the research to the game’s players. The trend of kitsch/camp is presented as an example of the contemporary aesthetics of art games. The author reveals the absence of knowledge transfer and educational focus in the area of art games. There are many examples of a research-based game creation, but the capacity for knowledge transfer in the art game area is underestimated at present. This article explores the project related to the new game Art Space which is based on the respective methodological approach. The new game is a research-based educational game of contemporary audio-visual aesthetics that serves as a knowledge bearer. It will teach the player to recognize the current trends in digital art, as well as the antecedents of aesthetics in art games. Art Space will be a new creative and educational platform for the general public which hopes to increase acceptance of art games as educational games.

Paper Nr: 6
Title:

The Design and Implementation of Secure Program Design Education Tool

Authors:

Qinrui Yu, Jinsheng Xu, Huiming Yu and Xiaohong Yuan

Abstract: Designing and implementing secure software is becoming very critical because various types of attacks take advantage of software vulnerabilities. In order to effectively teach students how to develop secure applications, we developed a Secure Program Design Education Tool to assist students in learning how to design and implement secure programs. This tool consists of three sections to help students understand what input flaws and buffer overflow are and how to prevent them. This tool is designed and implemented with a user friendly environment and uses examples to demonstrate the results of unsecure code and the purpose of secure program design. This tool has been used for an undergraduate Data Structures class fall 2019 in the Department of Computer Science at North Carolina A&T State University. Our experience exhibits that using this tool helped students not only better understand the concepts of input flaws and buffer overflow, but also gained significant skills to develop secure software. Students’ survey and feedback reflected this tool is very valuable in their education experience. This tool could also be used in other sophomore level related courses.

Paper Nr: 8
Title:

An Analysis of Students’ Perception towards User Involvement in a Software Engineering Undergraduate Curriculum

Authors:

Rafael Chanin, Jorge Melegati, Mariana Detoni, Xiaofeng Wang, Rafael Prikladnicki and Afonso Sales

Abstract: Developing soft skills as well as other non-technical issues is essential for a successful career in software engineering. Educators, practitioners and researchers are paying more attention to this matter as they understand its importance to a software development context. Even the IEEE/ACM software engineering guidelines has already pointed out the importance of working with real-world projects in order to develop such skills. Being technically competent is not enough; students should have opportunities to go beyond coding and experience interactions with real users in order to better prepare themselves for their future. In this sense, this paper presents a software engineering undergraduate program that connects students with real projects throughout its curriculum. In order to evaluate whether this program helps students into understanding the importance of connecting and interacting with real stakeholders, we performed a survey with 111 students from this program. Our results indicate that providing a structure throughout the program in which students actually work on real projects is beneficial for their soft skills development.

Paper Nr: 15
Title:

A Practical Methodology to Learn Computer Architecture, Assembly Language, and Operating System

Authors:

Hiroaki Fukuda, Paul Leger and Ismael Figueroa

Abstract: System-level details, such as assembly language and operating systems, are important to develop/debug embedded systems and analyze malware. Therefore it is recommended to teach every topic of these subjects. However, their learning cost has been significantly increased due to current system complexities. To solve this problem, several visualization techniques have been proposed to help students in their learning process. However, observing only the computer system behaviors may be insufficient to apply it to real systems due to the lack of practical experiences and a comprehensive understanding of system-level details. To address these issues, we propose a novel methodology where students implement a virtual machine instead of using existing ones. This virtual machine needs to execute binary programs that can be run on a real operating system. Through implementing this virtual machine, students improve by experience their understanding of computer architecture, assembly languages, instruction sets, and the role of operating systems. We also provide MMVM that is a virtual machine implementation reference, and can execute the binary programs while showing the internal states of CPU (registers & flags) to users (students) to support their implementation. Finally, this paper reports the education results applying this methodology to 15 students that consist of 3rd-year students and 1st year of master students.

Paper Nr: 26
Title:

A Study of Common Concerns Inhibiting Teacher Enactment of Computational Thinking into Project-based Mathematics and Career Technical Education

Authors:

Subhrajit Majumder, Kiyan Khaloozadeh, Charlene M. Czerniak, Jared Oluoch, Tod Shockey, Ahmad Javaid, Gale Mentzer, Ryan Ducket and Thehazhnan Ponnaiyan

Abstract: Recent studies have shown that US high school students are not as prolific as other countries in terms of their performance in mathematics. One of the most effective solutions can be a change in the way mathematics subjects is taught in high school. The NSF-funded “Understanding How Integrated Computational Thinking, Engineering Design, and Mathematics Can Help Students Solve Scientific and Technical Problems in Career Technical Education (INITIATE) project is a collaboration of The University of Toledo and high schools in Toledo that aims to improve mathematics teaching. Project-based learning (PBL) and integrating math with career technology education (CTE) have been established as efficient ways to improve high school students’ understanding of mathematics. Nevertheless, implementation of new ways of teaching is not always easy for the teachers, and many factors may inhibit the teachers from implementing PBL methods. This research analyzes common concerns teachers experienced regarding enacting new teaching methodologies in their classroom. The Stages of Concern Questionnaire (SoCQ) was used to measure the teachers’ perceptions of and comfort with implementing computational thinking (CT) concepts PBL lessons. Possible relationships between teachers’ SoCQ CBAM score and other variables such as their understanding of PBL and CTE are examined and discussed.

Paper Nr: 31
Title:

Teaching Software Engineering Principles in Middle Schools by Combining Robotics and Blogging

Authors:

Ilenia Fronza, Claus Pahl and Boris Sušanj

Abstract: In the current labor market, a large number of people engage in programming activities, even without being trained developers. Fostering Software Engineering (SE) principles at the K-12 level can increase the quality of the code that students will write in their future careers. Middle school students usually learn Computer Science (CS) as part of other disciplines; thus, the challenge is achieving the CS learning objectives and foster SE principles while fulfilling the curricular objectives. In this work, we describe a didactic module and its assessment framework; moreover, we report the results of a classroom experience that shows the effectiveness of the proposed approach. This work provides educators with a practical example of how to cover several areas of technology in a way for middle school students to be engaged and to spark future interest. The results encourage us to work on the development of the next modules dedicated to middle schools.

Paper Nr: 32
Title:

Comparison of Electronic Examinations using Adaptive Multiple-choice Questions and Constructed-response Questions

Authors:

Peter J. Stavroulakis, Panagiotis Photopoulos, Errikos Ventouras and Dimos Triantis

Abstract: The use of computer-based examination systems offers advantages related to the reduction of human resource allocation and to gains in objectivity for the scoring process. Multiple-choice questions (MCQs) are widely used in such systems; one of the main reasons that hamper their effectiveness, in comparison with constructed response questions (CRQ), is the influence of guessing. Considering limitations within previously proposed MCQs examination methods and scoring rules, in the present work a novel MCQs examination method is presented, termed ‘adaptive’ MCQs method. MCQs are divided into 3 categories, per difficulty level. The ‘path’ that an examinee will follow is constituted by 3 phases, wherein a set of questions belonging to one of the three difficulty-categories, is appointed. The exact path followed is selected per the success level of the examinee in the preceding phase. The scoring provided by the adaptive MCQs examination method produced results that were statistically indistinguishable to the scoring produced by a traditional CRQ examination method. At the same time, both the scoring results of the adaptive MCQs examination and the scoring results of the CRQ examination differed significantly from those obtained by a generic ‘non-adaptive’ MCQs examination.

Paper Nr: 51
Title:

Using Affordances and Constraints to Evaluate the Use of a Formative e-Assessment System in Mathematics Education

Authors:

Said Hadjerrouit

Abstract: e-Assessment systems provide affordances for learning mathematics by means of formative feedback. However, there is a lack of research on affordances of e-assessment systems, and work remains to be done before evaluating their effect on mathematical learning. This paper uses the e-assessment system Numbas and proposes a framework to capture the affordances and constraints of the system at the technological, student, classroom, mathematics subject, and assessment level. The aim of the paper is to explore affordances and constraints that emerge at these levels, and the effect of formative feedback on mathematical learning. Based on the results, some concluding remarks and recommendations for future work are proposed.

Paper Nr: 53
Title:

A New Programming Environment for Teaching Secure C Programming and Assessment

Authors:

Dieter Pawelczak

Abstract: Learning programming is a barrier for many students enrolled in engineering degree programs. In addition, students need to develop an awareness of security aspects in programming, especially with respect to robustness and correctness. Professional integrated development environments might overwhelm students with many options and features and distract them from learning. In order to lower the burden for novice programmers, we developed the Virtual-C IDE, a programming environment designed for programming beginners, which embeds some rules of the CERT secure C coding standard, provides memory visualizations to foster the students’ understanding of the memory model of C and integrates a testing framework that enables programming exercises and automated assessment. The paper shows the benefits of learning and teaching with the Virtual-C IDE, describes our experience with integrating secure coding in an introductory course and presents the students’ evaluation of that course.

Paper Nr: 56
Title:

Weighted Scoring of Multiple-choice Questions based Exams: Expert and Empirical Weighting Factors

Authors:

Panagiotis Photopoulos, Odysseus Tsakiridis, Ilias Stavrakas and Dimos Triantis

Abstract: The increasing number of students per class and the limited teaching resources are important factors for increasing the popularity of multiple-choice questions based (MCQ) exams amongst the academic tutors. Weighted grading of MCQ items is compatible with a wide range of options, therefore it can reward those students who have successfully answered the most demanding items. In the case of weighted scoring of a MCQ based exam, the weighting factor of each item can be obtained a priori from an expert of the domain, usually the lecturer, or a posteriori by some empirical method. The overall score of a student is calculated as the weighted average of the items successfully answered. This publication presents an iterative method for scoring MCQ based examinations. The proposed method attempts to achieve the best possible congruence of the overall student scores calculated as the weighted average based on expert and empirical weighting.

Paper Nr: 71
Title:

Information System Design and Development and Project-based Learning

Authors:

Sanja Candrlic, Mile Pavlic and Martina A. Katic

Abstract: Teaching the topics from the field of information system design and development presents a specific challenge for the teacher. It is hard to simulate real-life circumstances of complex information system design and development in educational environment. In this paper we present an educational model in which topics from this field are taught using project-based learning. This method is used continuously during the entire study, through a number of interconnected project assignments. Each assignment presents a phase or activity of information system design or development, and approaches students to real-life problems. We propose to implement this model through several courses in undergraduate and graduate study, because assignments require different levels of maturity and knowledge from students. The model follows a basic idea to give a theoretic overview of information system design and development phases in one course and then to teach each phase and its activities in a separate course in detail. In the basic course on information systems special attention should be focused on digital innovations and on students’ awareness on application of technology to improve business effectiveness.

Paper Nr: 90
Title:

Using Student-created Instructional Videos in CS Upper-level Courses: A Successful Strategy in a Functional Programming Course

Authors:

Pedro G. Feijóo-García and Christina Gardner-McCune

Abstract: In this paper we present findings on a pedagogical approach we designed to enhance students' understanding of Functional Programming, in which they were required to create two video-tutorials. The first video-tutorial assignment asked the students to develop explanations of Functional Programming concepts. The second video-tutorial required them to explain their solutions while completing coding exercises using Haskell. We present a detailed description of the activities, their evaluation, and their impact on students' learning, motivation, and performance. Our findings suggest that the use of a student-created video-tutorial approach can be effective for increasing students’ understanding, performance, and engagement on Functional Programming assessments. This suggests that using student-created video tutorials may be a promising strategy to implement in other computing courses.

Paper Nr: 91
Title:

A Technological Storytelling Approach to Nurture Mathematical Argumentation

Authors:

Giovannina Albano, Umberto D. Iacono and Giuseppe Fiorentino

Abstract: This research deals with how to foster the attitude of the mathematician facing a problem. In this regard, we identified some fundamental steps, from the initial understanding to its solution, and some key attitudes, such as critical thinking and insight. The steps have been translated into the phases of a digital interactive storytelling in mathematics (DIST-M), while the attitudes have been embodied as characters/roles within the story. The whole didactic design is based on collaborative scripts, and evolves according to the interactions between the characters and the stimuli coming from the expert. In the paper we briefly report the design, it’s implementation using ICT tools, a taste of the analysis conducted and the results arising from a DIST-M trial involving 26 first-year high school students.

Paper Nr: 102
Title:

Learning Support Game System for Sustainable Development Goals Education: Effects of Improved User Interface on Satoyama Forest Management Learning

Authors:

Yukiya Shingai, Ryota Aoki, Yoshiaki Takeda, Fusako Kusunoki, Hiroshi Mizoguchi, Masanori Sugimoto, Hideo Funaoi, Etsuji Yamaguchi and Shigenori Inagaki

Abstract: Educational efforts focused on biodiversity and forest environmental conservation have become increasingly important, given the objective of achieving the sustainable development goals established by the United Nations. In Japan, Satochi-satoyama is a place to learn about biodiversity and forest environmental conservation. However, an increasing number of forests cannot be maintained due to changes in the industrial structure and population decline. Furthermore, the harmony between people and nature is being lost. Therefore, it is necessary to learn about the management of Satochi-satoyama. Experiential learning focused on field surveys has been conducted as a means of teaching Satoyama management. However, it is difficult for learners to develop a true understanding via this approach because the Satoyama vegetation succession occurs on a large time scale. Numerous simulation games have been developed to teach Satoyama vegetation successions and management methods using Satochi-satoyama as a theme. The authors are currently improving one such game, called the "Satoyama management game". In this paper, we describe the game improvements we have made so far. In addition, we discuss an experiment conducted using the improved version Satoyama management game and present its results.

Paper Nr: 110
Title:

Virtual Online Teams: The Development of Cross-cutting Skills for Business Students

Authors:

Maureen S. Andrade and Ronald M. Miller

Abstract: Extensive research of employers across sectors over the past decade indicates the importance of teamwork and other transversal skills such as communication, critical thinking, problem-solving, ethical reasoning, and the ability to work with diverse others. In spite of its value to employers, teamwork is decreasingly emphasized by schools of business in terms of the learning outcomes they measure for purposes of accreditation. This qualitative study explores the implementation of teamwork in an online business management course. It examines the student experience based on data derived from formative team reflections measuring team performance and effectiveness. The study sought to gain insights into the performance of virtual teams in a business education context and determine if and how the technology-mediated environment impacted effective teamwork as perceived by the students. Findings indicate that students primarily experienced issues characteristic of all developing teams rather than being specific to virtual teams and that they recognized the value of teamwork. Course design and content supported students in addressing issues. Further recommendations are provided for structuring effective teamwork in online courses.

Paper Nr: 115
Title:

Tinkering in Informatics as Teaching Method

Authors:

Angelika Mader, Ansgar Fehnker and Edwin Dertien

Abstract: Our university offers an IT-based design programme, with an engineering background in Computer Science and Electrical Engineering. Its focus on design and creativity, as well as the diversity of the students, requires an approach in informatics courses different from classical computer science programmes. While tinkering is an increasingly popular approach in STEM stimulation and education outside university, we argue that also in an academic setting a tinkering mindset has a relevant contribution. In this paper, we identify key elements in setting up tinkering sessions and report on their implementation for a course on algorithms. We will present and discuss results and observations of our teaching method, that are promising to continue and extend the tinkering approach in an academic setting.

Paper Nr: 116
Title:

A Framework to Understand, Analyse and Describe Online and Open Education in Higher Education

Authors:

Christine Jacqmot, Françoise Docq and Yves Deville

Abstract: This position paper addresses online and open education. It presents a simple, yet comprehensive framework that can be adopted by any higher education institution in seek of: (1) clarification of terms and concepts related to online and open education, (2) awareness of issues and challenges to set up strategies for online or open learning, (3) informed choices and their impacts on operationalization actions, from an institutional point of view, (4) perspectives on crucial issues, such as mobility, that HEI faces in a context of internationalization, (5) awareness of policymakers and teachers on what open and online education is.

Paper Nr: 119
Title:

Peer-learning and Talents Exchange in Programming: Experiences and Challenges

Authors:

Corinna Kröhn and Barbara Sabitzer

Abstract: “Programming is difficult” society tells us. However, this is only partly due to the subject itself. Very often, the tasks in software development are related to mathematical problems, which themselves are considered as difficult because they have no relation to the student’s world of experience. Programming exams contribute to high drop-out rates and often students choose a different subject or even stop their university education. A possible gap could be closed by supporting beginners with the help of the COOL (cooperative open learning) concept that has already found its way into one course in the Business Informatics bachelor program at our university. In addition to this mandatory class, a peer-teaching course has been establishes. Students meet on a weekly basis to work together on the problems of software development based on the COOL concept. Two PhD candidates supervise the students, although they only act as tutors and do not provide any solutions. The approach described above is now being carried out for the third semester in a row and the drop-out rate has been reduced. Of course, further observation must be done to be able to draw concrete conclusions.

Paper Nr: 133
Title:

Teaching PLC Program Organisation: How to Transfer PLC Best Practice Experience from Industry Experts to University Students

Authors:

Ottar L. Osen

Abstract: The gap between professional industry practices and academia represents a huge challenge in bringing best practices and silent knowledge from the industry to the students. Just as having a word-processor does not make you an author, knowing programming syntax does not make you a good programmer. In this paper I discuss how to transfer expert knowledge about PLC and real-time programming from the industry practitioners to the students. As a special case of interest, I investigate best practices for organising PLC programs.

Paper Nr: 135
Title:

Some Considerations on the Use of Digital Environments in Learning Numerical Sets

Authors:

Maria C. Carrisi

Abstract: Teachers are nowadays encouraged to use technological tools to engage students more and transmit topics in a simpler way. In addition, information science has become part of many curricula as a separate topic or as a part of other subjects like mathematics. This article will discuss how choosing a particular technological environment can reinforce misconceptions or ideas and how important the role of the teacher is in building a learning environment effective and epistemologically relevant. In particular, the focus will be on the impact that some technological environments have on learning numerical sets and arithmetic operations such as division, because these are studied in all school systems and levels, even if with different approaches and degrees of detail. The topic will be contextualized referring to the Italian school system (degree 10), but conclusions are general.

Paper Nr: 160
Title:

EA and BYOD: Threat Model and Comparison to Paper-based Examinations

Authors:

Bastian Küppers, Thomas Eifert, Richard Zameitat and Ulrik Schroeder

Abstract: e-Assessment provides a wide range of opportunities to improve students’ experience and apply innovative examination methods, therefore gaining growing interest from institutes of higher education. Despite the advantages of EA, considering practical use raises concerns, one of which are security risks, even more when students’ devices should be used instead of a centrally managed hardware pool. Approaching these concerns requires to evaluate and break down potential security implications and appropriate mitigations. This paper fo- cusses in particular on relative security in comparison with paper-based examinations, presuming that EA does not have to be perfect, instead it is sufficient to be on par with traditional approaches. With that assumption in mind and based on work by Sindre and Vegendla, a threat model for electronic examinations is developed, taking own research into account. For each threat included in the threat model, a counter measure is proposed. Afterwards, the level of security for EA and the level of security for paper-based examinations are compared. The results of this comparison are quite promising regarding the level of security that EA can offer.

Paper Nr: 176
Title:

Teaching Business Information Systems in 2020s: Pitfalls, Challenges and Some Methodological Ideas for Testing

Authors:

Matthias Hofstetter, Thomas Gees, Reinhard Riedl and Adamantios Koumpis

Abstract: In the paper we present experiences from the organisation and running of a Business Information Systems course for undergraduate students at the Berner Fachhochschule. Aspects related to the teaching style, the content and the process that have been defined for use are presented and discussed, while the rationale for our decisions is also outlined. An experiential approach is fostered that allows students to capitalise on their individual preferences and learning paths, combined with the idea of supporting the acquisition of digital skills that will allow better use in their current or future working environments.

Paper Nr: 66
Title:

Translating the Concept of Goal Setting into Practice: What ‘else’ Does It Require than a Goal Setting Tool?

Authors:

Gábor Kismihók, Catherine Zhao, Michaéla C. Schippers, Stefan T. Mol, Scott Harrison and Shady Shehata

Abstract: This conceptual paper reviews the current status of goal setting in the area of technology enhanced learning and education. Besides a brief literature review, three current projects on goal setting are discussed. The paper shows that the main barriers for goal setting applications in education are not related to the technology, the available data or analytical methods, but rather the human factor. The most important bottlenecks are the lack of students’ goal setting skills and abilities, and the current curriculum design, which, especially in the observed higher education institutions, provides little support for goal setting interventions.

Paper Nr: 70
Title:

Evaluation of Human Dissection in Anatomy Teaching using an Interactive Simulator

Authors:

William P. Brobouski, Andrei R. Brongel, Fabiano Utiyama, Márcia D. Pascutti, Mozart Gonçalves, João V. de Barros, Carlos J. Gomes and Edson R. Justino

Abstract: The anatomy study is required in Life Science related courses. Nowadays, there are no instruments to replace the real human bodies. Therefore, it was noticed the need of the development of a learning tool to assist the anatomic study in laboratory which was able to dissect the organs for human anatomy study. Thus, the ultrahigh interactive simulator for human dissection (Visible Human Table – VHT) was created as a computational tool for human anatomy study in classrooms. The main characteristic of the simulator is the fact that it is not an anatomic atlas, but a dissection table based on real body models. That is what makes it stand out from most same-purpose anatomic simulators and atlases. This article presents the results of a VHT evaluation assessed by higher education learners in the health sector. The simulator promising potential becomes evident through the answers obtained from the questionnaire, showing the significant contribution in the anatomy teaching-learning process.

Paper Nr: 106
Title:

Introducing Conics in 9th Grade: An Experimental Teaching

Authors:

Borislav Y. Lazarov and Dimitar G. Dimitrov

Abstract: Under consideration is an experimental teaching focused on presenting the conics in a dual manner: as loci and envelopes. A bunch of computer technologies is drawn to explore and investigate this duality of the conics. An example of how it is done for a particular conic is given. The target group includes secondary school students who are advanced in math and information technologies. The theoretical base is an original didactical model for designing individual educational trajectories that is adapted for the team-working mode. The educational goal includes developing synthetic competence of an entire team. The individual characteristics of the team members complement one another for resolving complex problems from the local behavioral environment, which were specifically formed for the purposes of the experimental teaching.

Paper Nr: 150
Title:

Features for an International Learning Environment in Research Education

Authors:

Barbara Class

Abstract: This position paper is written at the very start of a SNF funded project on research education in the social sciences. We present a preliminary model for an international learning and teaching environment for PhD students in education. Based on a conceptual framework drawing on research and open education, virtual and scientific mobility, articulated to the broader concept of the knowledge economy, the model is fivefold. It addresses pedagogical and technological issues, suggests a dual tutoring system to accompany PhD students, promotes virtual scientific mobility and is connected to viable and fair economic and institutional surroundings. The paper interprets SDG 4 widely, suggesting early integration of young researchers into international scientific networks can contribute to address contextual and global educational challenges intelligently.

Paper Nr: 161
Title:

Teacher’s Perspective on e-Assessment: A Case Study from Germany

Authors:

Bastian Küppers and Ulrik Schroeder

Abstract: In order to verify common findings in the literature regarding teacher’s (pre)conception of e-Assessment in general and e-Assessment on students’ devices, we carried out a survey among teachers of two institutes of higher education in Germany. From the achieved results, it can be concluded that teachers seem to be open-minded regarding e-Assessment in general. However, major concerns were mentioned regarding the fairness and security of e-Assessment on students’ devices. These concerns have to be tackled and clearer in order to successfully establish e-Assessment as an integral part of the examination landscape in higher education.

Paper Nr: 186
Title:

Teaching Research Methods for Computer Science Students using Virtual Learning: A Case Study

Authors:

Sarah Alhumoud, Areeb Alowisheq and Nora Altwairesh

Abstract: Research skills are crucial for education, and overall scientific prosperity. In Saudi Arabia, a gap exists in the research skills and knowledge necessary for higher education students. This paper highlights the current state of university curricula in terms of teaching scientific research skills and methods in Saudi Arabia. Also, it presents a low-cost learning model, called ASA research camp, that was applied to bridge the knowledge gap. This exhibits a virtual class that combine qualities of both VLEs and MOOCs. The course spanned three months in two phases: theoretical for listening and discussion, and practical for guided paper writing. Surveys show that the 200 participants had maximum learning value with minimal cost. Moreover, on finishing the course, the members of the practical part, 16 students, were able to publish three papers in Springer Lecture Notes in its Computer Science book series as a result of the guided paper writing phase.

Area 4 - Social Context and Learning Environments

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 174
Title:

A Literature Review on Learner Models for MOOC to Support Lifelong Learning

Authors:

Sergio R. Luelmo, Nour El Mawas and Jean Heutte

Abstract: Nowadays, Learning Analytics is an emerging topic in the Technology Enhanced Learning and the Lifelong Learning fields. Learner Models also have an essential role on the use and exploitation of learner-generated data in a variety of Learning Environments. Many research studies focus on the added value of Learner Models and their importance to facilitate the learner’s follow-up, the course content personalization and the trainers/teachers’ practices in different Learning Environments. Among these environments, we choose Massive Open Online Courses because they represent a reliable and considerable amount of data generated by Lifelong Learners. In this paper we focus on Learner Modelling in Massive Open Online Courses in an Lifelong Learning context. To our knowledge, currently there is no research work that addresses the literature review of existing Learner Models for Massive Open Online Courses in this context in the last five years. This study will allow us to compare and highlight features in existing Learner Models for a Massive Open Online Course from a Lifelong Learning perspective. This work is dedicated to MOOC designers/providers, pedagogical engineers and researchers who meet difficulties to model and evaluate MOOCs’ learners based on Learning Analytics.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 64
Title:

Facets of Mobile Lifelong Learning Services

Authors:

Amir Dirin, Teemu H. Laine and Marko Nieminen

Abstract: In the era of digital services and digital connectivity, a massive amount of knowledge has become available and accessible all the time and for all ages. This mandates significant structural changes in the ways in which knowledge are shared and contents are presented. The ways in which knowledge is shared and learners become engaged with that knowledge are crucial in lifelong learning. In lifelong learning the knowledge and the content must be delivered to learners at the right time, without distractions and noise. The traditional educational offering in classrooms is not anymore feasible and supportive as learning happens in a disengaged manner in lifelong learning. In new lifelong learning services, user experience (UX) plays a key role in delivering content appropriately and supporting transition of learning between different contexts with adaptive learning media. The objective of this study is to illustrate and elaborate on the roles of feelings and emotions in engaging students in lifelong learning applications. We have applied systematic literature review (SLR) to identify emotional factors associated with lifelong mobile learning (m-learning) environments. Based on the findings, we propose an application concept as a case study to demonstrate how emotional factors can manifest themselves in lifelong learning applications. Finally, based on the findings of the literature review and the case study evaluation, we propose a model illustrating the facets in lifelong learning applications.

Paper Nr: 118
Title:

Overcoming Barriers for OER Adoption in Higher Education Application to Computer Science Curricula

Authors:

Rosa Navarrete and Diana Martinez-Mosquera

Abstract: The use of Open Educational Resources (OER) in all contexts of education is increasingly promising. Nevertheless, some barriers discouraging or delaying the adoption of OER in Higher Education (HE). In this work, we propose a strategy to overcome obstacles that hinder the adoption of OER as teaching materials in Computer Science Curricula. This strategy is based on the collaborative work of professors and students within a Community of Practice (CoP) backed up by MERLOT, a renowned repository of OER. To validate the proposed strategy, we applied it in some courses of the Computer Science Engineering Curricula from a Latin American university by two consecutive academic terms. The evaluation obtained from professors and students who participated in this teaching-learning experience was encouraging for the use of OER. It also enabled us to settle issues concerning the discoverability and quality of OER. Furthermore, the results of this proof fostered the institutional willingness to sponsor and spread the OER adoption initiative.

Paper Nr: 144
Title:

Facing the Appeal of Social Networks: Methodologies and Tools to Support Students towards a Critical Use of the Web

Authors:

Elisa Puvia, Vito Monteleone, Giovanni Fulantelli and Davide Taibi

Abstract: In the present contribution, we introduce an integrated approach, grounded both on cognitive and computer science, to strengthen the capacity of adolescent students in discerning information on the Web and on social networks. The proposed approach includes methodologies and tools aimed at promoting critical thinking in students. It has been structured in four main operational phases to facilitate implementation and replication, and it is currently tested with 77 high-school students (14−16 years old). Preliminary insights from this pilot study are also presented in this paper. We argue that the integrated approach can be comprised in a more general framework designed to boost competences of reasoning of students, which are crucial in promoting fake news detection and, consequently, in preventing the spreading of on line false information.

Paper Nr: 81
Title:

Career Choice of Adolescents: Can occupational VR 360-degree Videos Facilitate Job Interest?

Authors:

Pia Spangenberger and Sarah-Christin Freytag

Abstract: The recent increase in accessibility of stand-alone Head-Mounted Displays (HMDs) has been recognised by companies who use them for recruitment purposes. By filming employees on the job site with 360-degree cameras, jumping into an occupational environment via a HMD has become a possibility for young career seekers. However, career choice depends on various influential factors (e.g. socialisation, self-efficacy, norms, experiences or career choice readiness). Thus, the question arises how and if VR 360-degree videos for occupational orientation can play a supporting role in this process. The presented pilot study examines the effects of exposure to occupational VR 360-degree videos on the development of occupational interest. 41 students experienced a variety of occupational VR 360-degree videos in a classroom setting. A significant increase in job interest before and after exposure was found. Our results indicate a positive experience and favourable ratings towards the application as useful for career orientation and for providing occupational information. We conclude that VR 360-degree videos are a promising tool for gaining occupational information and initiate self-reflection. We suggest future research with larger cohorts using the same VR application to further investigate which features are regarded as helpful in career orientation for young adults.

Area 5 - Domain Applications and Case Studies

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 22
Title:

Prior Knowledge as a Predictor for Persistence

Authors:

Shirin Riazy, Katharina Simbeck, Robert Woestenfeld and Marco Traeger

Abstract: Prior knowledge has been known to play a large role in the success of MOOCs. Using the virtual learning environment of “Mathe im Advent” (MiA), we have analyzed possibly influential factors for the persistence of students, specifically prior mathematical and language abilities. Furthermore, we have connected linguistic indicators of text difficulty to fluctuations and differences in participating populations. MiA is a German virtual advent calendar offering 24 daily mathematical tasks with over 100,000 users annually. Survey results of the years 2017 and 2018 with over 8,000 participants were further analyzed. The result of the examination is that persistence, as well as the reparticipation of students strongly depended on prior mathematical knowledge and German abilities. This effect was especially visible when the language of the tasks was difficult and their readability was low.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 14
Title:

Teacher Views on Educational Robotics and Its Introduction to the Compulsory Curricula

Authors:

Despoina Schina, Mireia Usart, Vanessa Esteve-Gonzalez and Mercè Gisbert

Abstract: Students’ engagement with Educational Robotics (ER) has a positive impact on the development of their interdisciplinary knowledge and skills, however ER is not yet integrated into the school curriculum. The present study examines how teachers with prior experience in ER, view their students’ learning through ER and how they perceive the potential integration of ER into the school curriculum. It is a qualitative study and the sample consists of teachers participating as coaches in the regional FIRST LEGO League Competition (FLL) of Tarragona-Reus, in the region of Catalonia in Spain. The results show that teachers in this specific context positively perceive their students’ learning through ER as their students develop various 21st century skills and acquire programming knowledge. Teachers are also in favour of the ER integration into school curricula even at early educational levels. Our research results, although they cannot be generalized, are of use for educational institutions considering the integration of ER into the curriculum.

Paper Nr: 46
Title:

Usability and Sense of Presence in Virtual Worlds for Distance Education: A Case Study with Virtual Reality Experts

Authors:

Aliane L. Krassmann, Alex R. Mazzuco, Miguel Melo, Maximino Bessa and Magda Bercht

Abstract: This case study presents a virtual reality experts’ evaluation of a desktop-based virtual world developed towards distance education, under the perspectives of usability and sense of presence, which are considered factors that can potentially influence learning outcomes. Among the results, data from usability and sense of presence were positively correlated. The sense of presence was achieved, with participants losing track of time while performing the activity. Experts agreed that the virtual world is easy to use and can prepare students for the real-world task. The findings outline positive and negative points that must be addressed in order to optimize the experience of distance education students.

Paper Nr: 61
Title:

An Affective-computing Approach to Provide Enhanced Learning Analytics

Authors:

Javier D. Chaparro, Rubén C. Navarro, Ana R. Ruiz, Jesús F. Ruiz, Xavier T. García, María S. Romero, Félix V. Molina and Juan L. López

Abstract: Detecting emotions in a learning environment can make the student-learning process more efficient, avoiding stressful situations that might eventually lead to failure, frustation and demotivation. The work presented here describes a perceptive desktop devised to capture the sensations of any person facing learning activities. To this end, we propose a perceptive environment enhanced with capabilities to perform an analysis of electroencephalography, facial expression, eye tracking and particularly a very distinctive indicator of stress as it is the galvanic response of the skin. This work focuses on the galvanic response of the skin, comparing the performance of two devices in the context of the perceptive desktop. One of the devices was very attractive to our environment as it was a mouse that fit very well to our computer-based desktop, equipped with low-cost sensors to detect the galvanic response. The other device is more tedious to place and more expensive but we use it as a reference to know if the mouse is accurate. Four people were exposed to an experiment with the two devices connected, and observing the results it can be concluded that there is no correlation between the captures of both devices. Therefore, we could not select the mouse for our environment even though at first it looks like a very promising device.

Paper Nr: 105
Title:

Enhancing the Digital Learning Experience: The Case of the Digital Lab of the Berner Fachhochschule

Authors:

Philipp Matter, Thomas Gees, Marie B. Peskova, Benjamin Adriaensen, Reinhard Riedl and Adamantios Koumpis

Abstract: We present experiences from the establishment of the Digital Lab in our school as a means to help our students build the digital skills and capacities to conceptualize, design, implement and lead digital transformation projects. We conceived the Digital Lab as an internal soft-infrastructures building project at the Business Department of the Berner Fachhochschule. In this respect we envisioned it as a place where interesting things would take place and where people would bring their own ideas and have the opportunity to communicate or share them with others. The application area relates to the acquisition of basic skills by the students to understand the rules and the limits in sharing and trading data, acquire some sufficient level of familiarization regarding how data privacy issues affect the partnership between companies, and how existing or newly appearing business constellations can create value for data-based solutions.

Paper Nr: 147
Title:

Analysing the Integration of Models of Technology Diffusion and Acceptance in Nigerian Higher Education

Authors:

Muhammad S. Adamu and Philip Benachour

Abstract: The use of technology in learning environments has produced a series of different theories and models about how technology is adopted, accepted and used. This paper attempts to show the relevance of combining the diffusion of innovation model (DIM) and a context-specific model of technology acceptance (TAM) to understanding the acceptance or rejection of educational technologies in Nigerian universities. Using empirical evidence, the analysis attempts to determine the extent to which the adoption, acceptance, and use of educational tools support or contradicts the components of the two models, emphasising how a range of technological, pedagogical, institutional, socio-cultural, and design-related factors informed, facilitated, and discouraged the diffusion, adoption, acceptance and use of blended eLearning systems in three Nigerian universities. The analysis suggests the ‘relevance’ and ‘limit’ of the determining components and identifiers of both models, arguing instead for a critical examination of the relationship between different models as to understanding the factors that might lead to the acceptance or rejection of technological innovation.

Paper Nr: 155
Title:

Blended eLearning Systems in Nigerian Universities: A Context Specific Pedagogical Approach

Authors:

Muhammad S. Adamu and Philip Benachour

Abstract: With the surge in information technology globally, recent efforts in sub-Saharan Africa have sought to decolonise and revitalise the process and practice of using technology for/in education, and specifically the development of context-specific pedagogies. This paper presents an analysis of the perspectives of students, lecturers and education managers regarding the blended approach to the use of technology for teaching, learning and management of educational processes. Using a range of interviews, focus group discussions, and rapid ethnography, we report on conflicting ideas and issues that point to the motive for blending, the sort of tools available and adopted, the teaching processes and learning activities the tools support, and where improvement is needed to drive acceptance and use. Findings indicate the relevance of understanding the complexities of the mundane practices of using technology in postcolonial education.

Area 6 - Ubiquitous Learning

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 99
Title:

NatureCollections: Can a Mobile Application Trigger Children’s Interest in Nature?

Authors:

Saba Kawas, Jordan Sherry-Wagner, Nicole S. Kuhn, Sarah K. Chase, Brittany Bentley, Joshua J. Lawler and Katie Davis

Abstract: In this study, we investigate whether and how a mobile application called NatureCollections supports chil-dren’s triggered situational interest in nature. Developed from an interest-centered design framework, Na-tureCollections allows children to build and curate their own customized photo collections of nature. We con-ducted a comparison study at an urban community garden with 57 sixth graders across 4 science classrooms. Students in two classrooms (n = 15 and 16) used the NatureCollections app, and students in another two classrooms (n = 13 and 13) used a basic Camera app. We found that NatureCollections succeeded in focusing students’ attention–an important aspect of interest development– through sensory engagement with the natural characteristics in their surroundings. Students who used NatureCollections moved slower in space while scanning their surroundings for specific elements (e.g., flowers, birds) to photograph. In contrast, students who used the basic Camera app were more drawn to aesthetic aspects (e.g., color, shape) and tended to ex-plore their surroundings through the device screen. NatureCollections supported other dimensions of interest development, including personal relevance, social interactions, and positive experiences for continued en-gagement. Our findings further showed that the NatureCollections app facilitated students’ scientific discourse with their peers.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 72
Title:

Communication Support for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing using Head Mounted Display: Toward Its Use in Museums

Authors:

Nobuko Kato and Yuto Shinozaki

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to clarify the issues of using Optical See-Through Head Mounted Displays (HMD) to provide communication support for the disabled in museums. The study also examined how to present closed captions in the HMD that would be suitable for the deaf and hard of hearing. The presentation of closed captions for the deaf and hard of hearing person adopts different methods, depending on the situation, such as presenting a few lines (akin to closed captions used in television programs and movies) or presenting several dozen lines in an entire screen, as seen in university classes and lectures. There are many items that need to be examined in order to use HMD in museums, including the ideal HMD presentation method for the deaf and hard of hearing person and the comprehension levels and safety when closed captions are presented. This paper detailed the results of a simulation experiment of presenting closed captions using HMD for the deaf and hard of hearing.

Paper Nr: 109
Title:

XRLabs: Extended Reality Interactive Laboratories

Authors:

Chairi Kiourt, Dimitris Kalles, Aris Lalos, Nikolaos Papastamatiou, Panayotis Silitziris, Evgenia Paxinou, Helena Theodoropoulou, Vasilis Zafeiropoulos, Alexandros Papadopoulos and George Pavlidis

Abstract: One of the most challenging tasks in Extended Reality based environments is the creation of realistic, interactive and attractive simulation with personalised content, without overlooking the main purpose of the system, which, in our case, is education. This paper introduces the XRLabs platform, which is an Extended Reality platform to assist in the training of students in all educational levels, focusing on the use of simulation for wet laboratories. Within this framework, the proposed systems are based on cutting-edge Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality (Extended Reality) technologies. We adopted gamification methods and simulation to enhance the conventional educational practices in laboratories. The highly interactive platform will allow students to enjoy sustainable edutainment experiences, especially in distance/online learning contexts for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics.